Waves of Refugees, Part 2 of 2

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Waves of Refugees, Part 2 of 2)
Continued from: Waves of Refugees, Part 1 of 2

E.   Four Waves of Food and Shelter Seekers
23 Aug 2012, Code Green Prep, by David Spero
Pasted from: http://codegreenprep.com/2012/08/four-waves-of-food-and-shelter-seekers/

refugee2 crowd1

Shortly after some type of disaster that disrupts the normal flow of food and energy into your nearby towns, people will be forced to leave their residences and fan out into the countryside, foraging for food (and subsequently shelter too). That is obvious – if there is no food in the town/city, people can either stay where they are and die of thirst or starvation, or they can pro-actively start looking for food.

People will initially look for food on one of two different levels.
The first level is ‘looking for food nearby and returning back to one’s normal home to eat it and continue living’.
The second level is ‘abandoning one’s former residence and moving, as a refugee, towards wherever the possibility of ongoing survival may be greatest’.
A third and fourth type of food seeking will develop later into a crisis.

It is helpful to understand the differing types of contacts you’ll have, because each poses different challenges, problems, threats, and even opportunities, calling for different responses on your part.

And while we consider our four different waves to be more or less chronologically sequential, there will be some overlaps, with some people representing some waves either earlier than most others, or later than most others.

The First Wave

refugee2 hoarde march[The waves of refugees after TEOTWAWKI will be both heart-rending and dangerous.]

The first wave will start shortly after the social disruption occurs, initially as a trickle, and then successively greater and greater as more and more people run out of food and come to realize that the government won’t magically solve the problem that occurred.

It will only take a week or two before the first type of food-seeking necessarily ends, due to people running out of gas for their vehicles, and being reduced instead to only traveling and foraging as far as they can walk or bicycle (although, on flat terrain, fitter people could fairly easily cycle up to 50 miles out and then 50 miles back home again).

We predict that people in this ‘first wave’ won’t be very threatening, because they will be more in a hurry to cover as much ground as possible to find as much easy food as possible, rather than becoming fixated on specific potential targets. Plus, the ‘kill or be killed’ reality of tough survival won’t yet have fully penetrated, and the region will have patches of remaining lawfulness alongside areas of growing anarchy.

Furthermore, these people are primarily seeking food only, not shelter. They’ve not yet accepted that their city residences have become unviable and need to be abandoned.

Your tactic to resist problems from the first wave of food/shelter seekers will be to maintain a low profile, so most of such people pass you by, and to positively respond to people who do come visiting, encouraging them to go find easier targets/food sources elsewhere.

Of course, the further you are from the nearby towns and cities, the fewer the number of people who might stumble upon you. But you’ll never be 100% guaranteed to be safely far from such itinerant scavengers. Fortunately the danger they pose to your retreat at this early stage is low, so while your location choice will ideally not be right next to a freeway exit, a mere 10 miles from the city center, you don’t need to keep yourself hundreds of miles away from any and all population concentrations.

The Second Wave
As the first wave ends and is replaced by the second wave, people’s attitudes will be hardening, because their ability to travel far and wide is massively reduced. They have probably used up most of their emergency food stores, and now, limited primarily by their ability to walk, any source of food becomes one they must take full advantage of. They can no longer afford the luxury of leaving empty-handed, and their lack of mobility now reduces the number of places they can travel to in search of food. They have to make the best of every possible opportunity.

The grim reality of the ‘eat or be eaten’ concept will also be one which the survivors can no longer ignore.

refugee2 crowd2
If these people come across your retreat, they are likely to be a stronger and more determined adversary than people in the first wave (and people in the second wave could well be the same people who visited more peaceably in the first wave, too).

Fortunately, most of these people in the second wave will still be nomadic and itinerant. They’ll be traveling in the hope of finding a Shangri-La somewhere that is full of food, energy, and welcoming people keen to help them, and probably won’t yet be in the ‘looking for anywhere to settle’ mode that will come later. They might hope for overnight shelter, but they’re not yet looking for a place to settle – or, if they are, they’re probably not yet realistic enough to appreciate the value of your retreat.

People will start abandoning their homes anytime after only a very few days of the crisis commencing and once they start to accept that no magic solutions are forthcoming. This won’t only be due to the lack of food and lack of any future food supply, but may also be due to lack of water, lack of plumbing, and lack of energy in general. A high-rise apartment with no water, no working elevators, and no lights or heating/cooling will quickly become uninhabitable, food or not.

The second wave will probably diminish after three or so weeks, because by that point, people will have either left the city, or died, or created some sort of semi-stable ongoing basis of existence in the city.

Your strategy during this exodus stage is to be located somewhere reasonably far from the main routes people are likely to travel along. It is as important that you are off the likely refugee routes, whether you are 1 mile or 100 miles from the major population centers, because people will potentially be traveling long distances in their search for somewhere better to live.

People may fan out slightly from the main routes as they search for food en route, but they will generally follow the major arterial routes.

Major routes will tend to be well maintained highways, and generally we expect people will move to the coasts and south, rather than inland and to the north. People will, either by reason or instinct, seek out warm climates and water/ocean. The warm climate reduces their dependency on shelter and energy, and the ocean has the appeal of ‘free fish’ and also some type of instinctive deep-seated lure.

The Third Wave
The third wave will be refugees, the same as the second wave, but this time it will be people looking for somewhere to settle.

These will be people who are becoming more realistic in their expectations, and now rather than mindlessly going anywhere in the hope of finding (nonexistent) salvation, they are now looking for somewhere they can settle and survive for the medium or longer term.

refugee2 hoarde camp

Your appeal to these people is not just the food you have stored, but also your retreat as a whole, the under-way food cultivation, the energy creating resources you have, and everything else you have done to prepare yourselves for this future.

1) Some of these people will be seeking short-term easy solutions. They’ll want to rob you of your food, your shelter, and everything else you have. They have no concern for sustainability, they want to live for the moment, and when they’ve exhausted everything you have, they’ll move on to somewhere else.
2) Others of these people will be more realistic, but they’ll still want to displace you from your property and take it over.
3) There will also be a very few people who will be fair and honest and decent, and who will offer to work their way for and with you. They’ll offer their labor and their skills, in return for your shelter and assistance – probably as a ‘package deal’ for themselves and their other family members.
It would be good if you had a way of responding positively to such people, because they may prove to be valuable additions to your small community.

The Fourth Wave
The fourth wave is very different from the other three. It is longer lasting and more potentially impactful on your retreat and community.
Due to the importance of this fourth wave, we have devoted a separate article to it – below.


F.  Preparing for the Fourth – and Deadliest – Wave of Refugees, Bandits, and other Problem Groups
Code Green Prep, by David Spero
Pasted from: http://codegreenprep.com/2012/08/preparing-for-the-fourth-and-deadliest-wave-of-refugees-bandits-and-other-problem-groups/

refugee2 horseman

A 13th century depiction of the red – second – horse and rider of the Apocalypse.
The biblical prophecy of the four horsemen is eerily similar to how we see the four waves of refugees after TEOTWAWKI.

No-one really knows what to expect after TSHTF in an extended Level 2 or 3 situation, but it seems universally agreed that the starving masses will be forced to flee their city dwellings and do whatever it takes to survive, wherever they can find the opportunity and ability to do so.

It is helpful to look at the types of people who will come out from the cities as a series of different waves, each with different characteristics. We’ve discussed the first three waves of refugees in this other article, and the good news is they will be relatively brief in duration and not necessarily ultimately threatening to the wellbeing of your own retreat community – indeed some people in the third wave could well become positive additions to your community.

In this part we wish to instead look at the last of these waves – the fourth wave. And rather like the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, this is the most threatening and dangerous wave – not only by its nature, but also because it will be the longest lived of the four waves. (Christians will be impressed at how closely all four waves can be viewed as having characteristics similar to the four horsemen described in Revelations.)

The first two waves were fairly simple and easily understood. In the third wave, we saw how some members were threats but others could be valuable allies. There is a similar dichotomy to the fourth wave, but in a very different sense, and their duality is part of their danger.

Both will be organized groups, and both will probably already have their own shelter and possibly even other food sources. They probably don’t need your shelter, and they may not even need your food and other resources. But, taking advantage of a collapse of law and order, they want to take it simply because they can, and because all around them, other people and groups are acting similarly, just like the looter who takes items from stores in a city riot, even if they are things of no value – they just take them for nihilistic reasons.

Organized Lawless Gangs
The first of these groups will be organized lawless gangs, seeking to dominate and rule their new expanded territory. The might possibly seek ongoing tribute and ‘taxes’ from you in exchange for their ‘protection’.

refugee2 brigand training
Or maybe they’ll be less formal, and will simply be roaming around as an organized and maybe nomadic gang, taking and destroying as they go.

Gangs that seek to impose their own structure and what passes for their version of order may be groups you can negotiate with. But groups who are little more than anarchistic looters will not be people you can negotiate or create win-win outcomes with.

When encountering the former, you need to shift their perception of you from being a one-way source of goodies they can seize from you, to instead being a two-way trading source and resource they can benefit from. Maybe you can help them maintain some of their equipment. Maybe you have medical resources. Maybe you can trade with them – exchanging items they’ve plundered elsewhere and have no use for, and giving them in return food or other things they do need.

When encountering the latter, you are best advised to indicate to them that you are not an easy target, and any attempt to attack you would seriously weaken or destroy their own force, while leaving you relatively unharmed. With most of the rest of the entire continent lying helpless at their feet, encourage them to go after easier targets.

This encouragement is best done in a ‘face saving’ manner. If you challenge the gang leader’s authority, and the overall ‘machismo’ of the gang itself, they may have no social choice but to fight it out with you – and from their perspective, the lives of their junior gang members probably has much less value to the gang leaders than do the lives of your family and fellow community members to you.

We’re From the ‘Government’ and We’re Here to ‘Help’ You
The second of these groups may be more dangerous. They will claim to be semi-official government groups, seeking to impose their definition of emergency martial law on the region they have assumed control of.

Sometimes their intentions may be honorable and well-meaning (even if dysfunctional and dangerous to you in the process), other times they may be as corrupt and despotic as the outlaw gangs, but cleverly seeking to wrap up their dictatorial actions with an ill deserved veneer of assumed legality.

Unfortunately, whether honorable or not, it is almost a certainty that these self-appointed groups of enforcers will be primarily tasked with taking stuff from you – either to keep for themselves, or to give to the unprepared other people in the region who have empowered these people to act for their benefit.

refugee2 militia

They may attempt to claim special emergency powers that suspend all your normal legal protections and constitutionally guaranteed rights, and if they have been sufficiently clever and sophisticated, they’ll have compliant judges ready to issue court orders authorizing things that should never be authorized.

If you don’t like it, they’ll say, you can go appeal, all the way to the US Supreme Court if you wish – this being in a scenario where the Supreme Court may have ceased to exist, and even if it did, it would be close to impossible for you to go there, and may take years for you to get a case heard and resolved. Meantime, you will be told you must comply with what they tell you is a lawful order to surrender your food, to take in refugees, or in many other ways to destroy the viability of the retreat that you built, for yourself.

Some of the people in this fourth wave will be people you might choose to reluctantly ‘do business’ with. If they are realistic and don’t seek to ‘kill the goose that lays the golden eggs’ and understand that only if your are prosperous can they take a levy or share of your prosperity, then all you’ve done is substituted one form of previous law, order, and taxation for another. And whether the people imposing it on you are bona fide government officials, lawless gangsters, or ‘pretend’ government officials, the net result is the same, and you simply have to matter-of-factly strike the best win-win deal you can.

But if they ask too much, and leave you with too little, you have some real problems to face.

Even a True Democratic Elected Government May Abrogate Your Rights
In particular, you know that even in the ‘best’ of our 50 states, the massive majority of the population is not nearly as well prepared as you are. In the normal world, they might be wealthier than you and have more possessions, a fancier house, and who knows what else, but in the post-crisis world of a Level 2 or 3 event, their wealth and possessions become meaningless while yours become invaluable.

Any sort of democratic majority based government, especially one raised on the notion that the ‘wealthy’ are obliged to support the ‘poor’, and doubly especially where the lawmakers themselves are not prepared and are faced with their own pressing life or death challenges, won’t hesitate to urgently pass any needed laws to compel you to give everything you have to them.

This may well be unconstitutional and unlawful and illegal. But who are you going to complain to, when the local mayor, the local sheriff, and the local judge all turn up on your doorstep together, themselves all starving, and demanding by their joint powers that you give them all your food?

We don’t have easy answers to offer you about these ‘fourth wave’ attackers. But we can tell you that the fourth wave will be an ongoing thorn in your side, and you may find it increasingly difficult to tell between the ‘lawless gang’ fourth wave members and the ‘lawful posse’ fourth wave members.

Hiding from Fourth Wave Threats
A continuation of the article from above: http://codegreenprep.com/2012/08/preparing-for-the-fourth-and-deadliest-wave-of-refugees-bandits-and-other-problem-groups/

Many preppers feel that an important part of their overall defensive strategy is to keep as low a profile as possible; to obscure the existence of their retreat, so as to avoid being noticed – both before and after the onset of some type of societal collapse.

Obscuring yourself prior to social collapse is getting harder and harder with every passing year. The ‘information society’ is finding out more and more about us, and with the increasing tendency of government drones, spotting planes, and even satellites to survey vast areas of countryside, and to create extremely detailed ‘GIS’ databases of all the land and structures in a region, your retreat structure will surely be noticed and if not officially registered, sooner or later will cause the authorities to respond.

If you have an unauthorized structure that has not been permitted and which is not compliant with applicable zoning and health and other regulations and restrictions, you risk having it seized and destroyed. You also risk civil and possibly criminal penalties, and being labeled as another crazy group of survivalist/supremacists. You can imagine the headlines now – ‘Anti-government supremacists arrested, large weapons cache found on site’ and so on and so forth. Remember that what we consider prudent, and what is indeed truly lawful, can – and will – be portrayed as evidence of crazy extremism by the news media and the authorities.

refugee2 family prep

Because one of the fourth wave groups you may encounter will be some form of revived local government, it is inevitable that the ‘footprints’ you have created in developing your retreat will be uncovered. Local health department approvals for your septic system. Utility records for electricity or internet or cable services. And so on and so on. Indeed, one of the weaknesses of the generally sensible strategy of locating in an area with low population density is that you become more obvious by your presence than you would in a denser region.

You may delay your discovery, but you will not prevent it. You need to have a more viable plan to ensure the safety and security of your retreat – fortunately, we have some suggestions on this point to share.

Becoming Part of the Solution, Not Part of the Problem
Your key strategy is to position yourself, your retreat, and your community, so it can create ‘win-win’ relationships with organized ‘fourth wave’ groups.
One of the key things about this fourth wave threat is that it is longer term. Earlier waves of threats can be repulsed or ignored or in some other way worked around, but the fourth wave will be a longer term issue that must be resolved.

A confrontational approach risks failure on your part. And any type of exchange of hostilities can be much more damaging to you than to your opponents. Your opponents probably have either greater manpower to start with, and/or greater ability to recruit new members into their forces. They are willing to accept some risk to their rank and file ‘foot soldiers’.
But you have a finite community of friends, family, and colleagues. You can not dispassionately risk their lives in an encounter. Remember also that with a loss of the sophisticated healthcare facilities we enjoy at present, even minor wounds become life threatening, and even if the wounds can be treated and resolved, they risk depleting your precious limited supplies of antibiotics and other medical resources.

There may be times when you must respond to force with force yourself; where the potential outcome associated with giving in to a fourth wave group is worse than the potential outcome of repulsing their attack, and in such cases you must be resolute in your defense of your retreat and its community.
But in general, you want to position yourselves so that you can find ways to co-exist on a win-win basis with these fourth wave groups.
How would you do that? Please see our article on becoming part of the solution, rather than part of the problem, for a discussion on strategies to create win-win situations for you and the community you are close to.

After an initial period of grave social disruption, during which the first, second and third waves of refugees will occur, the rate of change will slow and some periods of semi-stable social arrangements will probably follow.
Invariably, regional leadership organizations will appear, and whether they are ostensibly benevolent or despotic, you need to position yourselves and your community so that it can co-exist on a win-win basis with these other (and possibly stronger) forces around it

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Filed under Prepper articles, Survival Manual

Waves of Refugees, Part 1 of 2

 (Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Waves of Refugees, Part 1 of 2)

 A. Who Are The Zombie Hordes?
September 2, 2013, ModernSurvivalBlog.com by Ken Jorgustin
Pasted from: http://modernsurvivalblog.com/security/who-are-the-zombie-hordes/

refuge1 zombie

Some preparedness websites will sometimes refer to ‘Zombies’, ‘Hordes’, or ‘Zombie Hordes’. A question is, what are they talking about? What’s their definition of a Zombie?

Zombies became particularly popular following the hit AMC TV series, “The Walking Dead”, in which the $hit had hit the fan, the country had collapsed and some sort of virus/plague/? would turn those who died into flesh eating mind-numbed Zombies. It became a battle of survival for the living – versus the Zombie hordes.

Due to the subsequent popularity of the term Zombie, many have been using the word in varying context, including the preparedness sites.

When we happen to use it here, it is to represent some wide generalizations…

  • Zombies represent those who have not prepared, and have reached a point of desperation.
  • There will also be those in the same category who have not prepared, but will not become Zombies because they will find a way to adapt and manage to survive. However they will certainly not be a majority of the unprepared.
  • To become a Zombie, it will be the unprepared who will have not had the ability to adapt and survive in a SHTF world. They will reach a point of desperation which will cause one of several things to happen…
  • Some Zombies will wither away, unable to help themselves.
  • Some Zombies will be given some help by the goodwill of others, and will remain reliant on them for their continued survival. Some in this category will be able to provide some services in return, while others will not be so able.
  • Some Zombies will venture out in a non-threatening way, in search of solutions for their survival. Some of them will succeed, and many will not.
  • Some Zombies will venture out in a threatening way, and ‘take’ what they need by force. Some will succeed, and many will not.

So… when we happen to reference the word, Zombie, it could mean any of the above. It is a generalization of those who have not prepared for a SHTF scenario, and what many will become afterwards.

By referencing Zombies or a Zombie horde, it does not mean that we would not help a Zombie. That would depend upon many things… Not all Zombies will be ‘bad’. Some even useful. However, many will be ‘bad’.

The Zombie hordes reference those Zombies who are branching out from their origins, in search of survival. Some of them will be organized, some not. There will be varying sized groups. Some will be essentially harmless, but many will not be. A desperate Zombie could be a very dangerous Zombie.

If TSHTF, there will be many hard choices to be made with regards to Zombies. Some easier than others.
Don’t be a Zombie. Get prepared now, so you won’t turn into one…

B.  How to Find Your Way out Of the City on Foot during a Crisis
5 June, by Preparing For SHTF
Pasted from:  http://prepforshtf.com/find-city-foot-crisis/#.UjV_KzEo6zY

refuge1 unprepared populace

You may have seen some of the reality shows where people are practicing their bug-out-techniques. Typically, they are bugging out from large urban areas. Why would you need to know how to escape your own city though?

Large metropolitan areas or areas where there are symbolic structures or events happening are targets. There are certain organizations or even governments that are plotting at this very moment on how to create chaos and havoc in American cities.

Urban areas are heavily populated and creating injuries and fatalities is the objective of these organizations. They do not blow up trees and release chemicals and biological agents to harm the wildlife in rural areas, they will attack where the people are, in heavily populated cities.

You May Have To Escape To Save Your Life
Being ready to evacuate is important, you cannot wake up one morning and hear the sirens and simply flee. You need supplies and a plan, and you can neither plan nor gather supplies once disaster strikes.

Humans have the unique ability to plan for tomorrow by gathering information today and then to make a reasonable assumption about what may happen in the future. Start doing threat assessments for your area to give you some idea of what to expect.

You know that large cities are a target and it is just a matter of time. Just a matter of time before one of the hundreds or even thousands of cyber attacks that occur daily against the United Sates is successful. The power grid can go down, planes would be grounded and trains sidelined.

At anytime, canisters of Sarin gas can be carried away from a rogue nation that has it stockpiled. One drop of the gas the size of a pinhead is deadly to humans, so imagine the destruction if just one canister is left on a subway platform somewhere. You will have to flee and you will need to know how to do it to survive the crisis.

Getting Prepared
You know what a bug-out-bag is but just a quick reminder about priorities. To survive you will need shelter, water, fire and food. In addition, you will need the means to collect and purify water and have the knowledge and skills to forage, fish, hunt or trap for food once you have a base camp set up. You have to assume you will not be able to resupply within a 72-hour period so it is important you have the skills and knowledge needed to obtain what you need from your environment.

Travel Routes
Use Internet mapping software that shows terrain features and landmarks, usually this means satellite imagery and there are free programs that provide this. Have at least three routes mapped out, and ensure none of the routes requires that you travel across bridges, through tunnels or use elevated highways. These are ambush points and they may very well be heavily congested to the point of being impassable even on foot.

If walking alone on level terrain, the average adult can expect to walk at about three miles per hour. With a heavy pack and having to backtrack a few times, you will not be able to maintain this pace. It will take time to clear the urban area.

When to Leave
Avoid leaving at night unless your life is in immediate danger. You will stand out more at night and will be a target for looters and other criminal elements. If Martial Law has been enacted, then troops will be out patrolling at night especially if there are quarantined areas. Mingle with the panicked citizens to make your escape in the early morning hours.

Avoid traveling with others unless they are family or trusted friends and in particular avoid anyone that claims to be fleeing but does not have any supplies with them. They may very well be waiting for the right moment to relive you of your supplies.

Move as efficiently as possible to get clear of the urban sprawl, before sheltering. If you must shelter in the city, do not set up any tents or shelters that you can be trapped in if your camp is overrun. Wrap up in a thermal blanket and sleep with your back to a wall with a clear view of the surrounding area.

Carry all personal protection devices on your belt. Do not pack firearms in your pack you should always carry them on your belt. Use bear spray canisters to repel animals and humans not because it is more potent, but because the canisters can spray farther, up to 25 feet in some cases.

Stun guns are another option but they require physical contact, which is something you want to avoid. An alternative is a stun baton that can extend up to 48 inches, this will prevent anyone from getting close enough to grab on to you or your pack.

C.   What happens after the SHTF, dealing with being a refugee
14 May 2013, IWillGetReady.com, by admin
Pasted from: http://www.iwillgetready.com/what-happens-after-the-shtf-dealing-with-being-a-refugee/

As good preppers we usually think that we will be the lucky ones and we will not be stuck in an urban area when the SHTF. As we all know that is the ideal situation where we will have all of our bug out bags and survival kits to weather any storm, but what happens if you are visiting family or friends that are not preppers? Or if you are on vacation where you flew into the area? Would you have your emergency supplies with you, most likely not as most of that stuff is no longer allowed on an airplane.

So enter into an urban survivalist mode. This is something that is not widely discussed, and should be. Let’s pretend that you are in a major city (like Boston) and something happens and you are no longer able to get out of the area the way you can into it. Using this scenario you just found yourself a refugee, meaning you are pretty much homeless with little cash on hand, what do you do to protect your loved ones and make sure that you stay safe?

For the sake of this blog, cell phones are up and down because so many people are overloading the lines, the local law enforcement are now too busy to be of much assistance to you or anyone else that was not involved directly when the SHTF.

Do you have your everyday carry items on you? This right here will determine how you act. If you do have it then you are moving in the right direction. If you do not have your everyday carry items, you are at a disadvantage as you will have to require those items or try to make do without.

Ask yourself these basic questions:
> Do you have a place to go?
> Would you enter a shelter?
> Would you find a shelter that is off the beaten path?

We all know what happens when we enter a shelter; that is why we say to never go to a shelter if at all possible. Just remember Katrina shelters and what went on in them. In most situations upon entering a shelter they will search your bags and confiscate most of your survival tools, food, and other useful supplies. So what do you do? Do you hid your kit somewhere and hope it survives the night and has not grown legs and walked away by the time you go back to get it?

If you seek out shelter that is secluded and off the beaten path, can anyone see, or find you? You might not want others to be able to find you as they could be gang members, criminals, and your pissed off refugee who has no survival skills and gear.

Mass people will be trying to leave the area so crowd control is something to watch out for. With all the people trying to go the same way people will become heated, angry, tried, scared, and can lash out at others. So do you follow the mob or do you look for another way? Just remember that natural disasters have taught us many things if you paid attention, just look at news footage of the highways where all the cars are stopped and you can’t move your car for hours. Would you leave your car like half of the others, and start walking?

We all know that the basic items like water and food will be the first things to go when something goes down. Or you get the military trying to round everyone up and move them to an area they set up (shelter).

A thing not to forget is that is you end up in one of these scenarios, you will become sleep deprived. This is something that is often overlooked and needs to be reminded, without sleep your ability to process your situation and your decision making ability will become diminished leading to you making bad choices for your family’s survival.

refuge1 bug outD.  The Top 4 Reasons Why You’re Not Going to Survive Bugging Out to the Woods
Pasted from: http://ready4itall.org/the-top-4-reasons-why-youre-not-going-to-survive-bugging-out-to-the-woods/

In today’s post we’re going to go over a very common and highly flawed bugout plan that many preppers have apparently chosen as their first response for most SHTF scenarios. We’re going to dissect the fundamental flaws with this plan and give some viable alternatives to bugging out to the woods.

There are many reasons why bugging out just in general is probably the worst idea you can have in a real-life SHTF scenario. We went into detail about this topic in THIS article. However, it seems that not only are a lot of preppers insisting on bugging out for practically any disaster scenario, but that many of them are planning on grouping up like some para-military pack of wannabe Rambos and “living off the land” and shooting anything and anyone that moves.

The other day on Facebook there was a heated discussion in one of the larger prepper groups about the best way to train “firing teams” to be ready for the eventual wilderness bugout that apparently is right around the corner.

Guys….that’s not prepping. That’s schizophrenia, or at best, extremism. Honestly, if you spend all day arguing on Facebook about the best way to place “troops” around your “bugout base camp” to “stalk and take out the sheeple coming in to YOUR woods” you have problems. Please go talk to a professional.

What I found more interesting about this conversation wasn’t the whole para-military thing. I don’t think we’re ever going to get rid of the unstable, wannabe Rambos from the prepper community, but what was really interesting was that practically everyone commenting on this debate apparently had the same plan to bug out to the woods during a SHTF scenario.

So today, we’re going to go over 4 reasons as to why bugging out to the woods is a REALLY bad idea, why you’re probably not going to survive out there if that’s what you’re planning to do and some alternatives to think about when planning a bug out.

_1. Whose land do you think you’re going to bug out to?
Although there are a lot of public and state-owned forests, nature preserves and other non-private lands out there you could theoretically bug out to, it’s not like these areas are just around the corner for everyone. For most people, it’s going to take some time to get out there, and since you’re not the only one with this plan. It’s very likely you won’t be the first ones out there. Now, you’ve got to hope that everyone else that got there first is either going to welcome you with open arms, not see you, or not shoot you on sight and take your supplies. Remember, there are people on Facebook literally right now that are not only planning on doing exactly that, but DEBATING THE BEST WAY TO DO IT.

Planning on bugging out to that nice patch of woods in the farmlands outside of town? Well, those farmers have been keeping people off their property a lot longer than you’ve been trespassing. They’re more self-reliant that you are, they know the land better than you do and they’re probably a lot better armed. Just because the S has hit the fan, doesn’t mean they’re not going to defend their land.

_ 2. There are VERY few people who have the skills to survive in the wild
This isn’t an attack on anyone that’s spent time working on their bushcraft and wilderness survival skills. These are 2 very important skills that all preppers should learn and practice. That being said, there’s a big difference between surviving in the woods, and surviving in the woods during a SHTF scenario. In a real SHTF scenario, rule of law is likely to be gone. We’ve already shown there are people who have no qualms with shooting people on site, just for their resources and to keep them out of “their” A.O.

If you’ve got a family, and for whatever bonehead reason you’ve drug them out into the middle of the woods to bug out after the S has hit the fan, you’re going to have some real problems. Are you going to be teaching little 4 year-old Jimmy advanced military evasion and survival techniques? How are you going to make sure little 2 year old Sally is going to stay silent for the next couple weeks to avoid the hundreds of confused, hungry, angry and hostile people out there? We could give a hundred examples like this, but in the end the answer is “you’re not”. Even if you’re by yourself, surviving in an area without immediate survival resources AND evading hostiles isn’t something that is usually taught on Man vs. Wild or in your average bushcraft course.

_3. It seems like EVERYONE is planning heading to the hills when SHTF. What makes you so special?
As we mentioned earlier, there are a great many preppers whose SHTF bugout plans involved heading out to the woods to survive. If a real SHTF scenario were to happen, not only will these people be headed out there, but after a day or two without food, even non-preppers are going to start thinking about hunting, fishing and gathering in the woods. Before long, you’re going to see a massive population shift from the cities to the country and forests.

This will mean a few things will happen:

  • The roads leading to the rural and wooded areas are going to be come congested, and probably impassable.
  • The roads leading to the rural and wooded areas are going to be a prime spot for anyone that’s thinking about taking supplies from others by force.
  • There will be intense competition for the limited amount of resources in these areas, likely causing more violence there than in the cities everyone is fleeing from in the first place.
  • Local land owners will very likely be shooting trespassers on sight.

_4. You’re not giving animals nearly enough credit …and humans are greedy.
Despite what a lot of people may believe, animals aren’t stupid. They’ve been surviving without guns, MREs or solar panels a lot longer than we have. Their main instincts revolve around protection and food procurement. They don’t just stand out in the woods waiting for humans to come kill them despite what Elmer Fudd might think.

If you don’t have a lot of experience hunting then you probably don’t know this, but towards the end of the hunting seasons, it becomes a lot harder to find game on public hunting grounds. The reason is simple. Animals have been hearing gunshots, seeing and smelling humans and generally fleeing for their lives for a couple months or more. There is a cycle among game animals. Towards the tail end of the season, the animals are leaving these areas to go to less populated areas where there are fewer humans. Several months after the hunting season is over, they start coming back because the humans have left. In a SHTF scenario, the same thing is going to happen. The animals will leave when more humans enter the forests and start hunting them. In fact, if everyone flees the cities, that’s exactly where the animals are likely to go!

Additionally, humans are greedy. There’s a reason why conservation agencies exist. It’s to keep us from destroying entire populations of animals. If you stick 100+ “hunters” in an area with only enough game to support 10 of them, all the game will disappear, either by the animals fleeing or they’ve all been taken. The same is true with fishing. If a pond gets over-fished, there are no more fish to mate and restock it naturally.

What about water? Sure, there’s lots of natural ways to procure water in the wild. There’s plenty of water out there for a few people… but not hundreds. Again, if there’s only a handful of streams or rivers to get water from, and EVERYONE wants water from there, 2 things are likely to happen. The water will be gone, or someone’s going to start thinking about defending “their” water source by force. Don’t think it will happen? Read some history books… WARS have been started over water rights.

In a nutshell, all those resources you thought were going to be in abundance out in the woods are going to dry up extremely quickly, likely before you even get there. At that point, you’re going to be hungry, without a source of food or water, living without a real shelter, exposed to the elements and dealing with a lot of angry and armed people.

Sounds fun huh?
Ok, so now, let’s talk about some alternatives to this highly dangerous and extremely illogical plan. First and foremost, please read THIS article. The term “bugging out” has gotten so much hype in what I’m going to start calling the “vanity-prepper” crowd, (I blame that stupid Doomsday Preppers show) that every new prepper I talk to immediately thinks that having a bugout bag for the BIG SHTF scenario and being able to live off the land is the most important thing they need to worry about right now. They spend hundreds or thousands of dollars on weapons and gear and then within a couple months they get burned out of prepping altogether and sell stuff to me for cheap on craigslist. J

Having a bugout plan IS important. That is a given. If a hurricane is coming that is a definite bugout situation. If your house is in the path of a wildfire, that is a bugout situation. Tornados, flooding… I think you see the pattern here. These are REAL bugout scenarios, and yes you should have a bugout bag for every family member ready to go just for these types of situations. However, more importantly, you need to have a bugout PLAN. We will be going more into detail about preparing a detailed bugout plan and bugout bag in a future article, but for now, you NEED to have somewhere you can go if your residence becomes unsafe like a family members home or even a hotel.

Now, I know what some people are thinking “…but what about SHTF?….when the SHTF hits…when the looters come…when the pandemic hits…when the mutant biker gangs take over…..blah blah blah”

You’re arguing a situation that has a 0.00000001% chance of ever actually happening. Yes, there is a chance that someday we may face one of the Hollywood disasters, but why is THAT what you’re so worried about right now? Do you have contingency plans for all the natural disasters that could hit your area? What would you do if you lost your job right now? How much food and water do you have stockpiled? What are you planning on doing about hyper-inflation? Heck, do you even have jumper cables in your car?!

You see, these (and many others) are REAL disasters that you WILL face in the coming days. So, with that being said, maybe instead of arguing with someone on Facebook about “the best way to set up firing teams”, … make a real bug out plan, practice it, document it, prepare for it… and most importantly, try to keep some perspective and reality in your preps and your plans. The rest of the world already thinks we’re nut-jobs; we don’t need to prove them right.

refuge1 rapid mass evacuationPeople fleeing Houston preceding Hurricane Rita


Continued on Thursday, 27 March 2014, in: Waves of Refugees, Part 2 of 2.
E.   Four Waves of Food and Shelter Seekers
F.  Preparing for the Fourth – and Deadliest – Wave of Refugees, Bandits, and other Problem Groups
G. Taking over: The governments proactive attempt to remain in control:


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Old World: The Normans

(My Family in History > Old World: The Normans)

Living in Norway, Sweden and Denmark were people of two different cultures. To the west were the Getic pheasants who were enterprising, independent and diverse, living in timber houses on sheltered fjords. To the east and on the open coast lived the Scythian chieftains, in stone houses. Their cult of Odin believed that honor was awarded for bravery alone—the Scythians ruled the tenant and thrale of the Scandinavian population.
[Image at left, samples of the Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

At the time there was occurring an improvement in the northern climate.

The fusion of these divergent cultures under an improved climate were conditions for hybrid enterprise and rapid technical evolution. During the first eight centuries of the Christian era, Scandinavia began to receive immigrants; Roman iron workers came in, Roman ship builders and seamen arrived. Iron axes removed forests and agriculture spread deep inland. Fighting men went to serve in the Byzantine forces. Returning, they brought not only gold and silver, but other free and slave craftsmen, who made tools, weapons and jewelry. The Scandinavians planned their homes and camps with precision using Roman foot measure. They learned how to build ships for sail on the open sea. These ships, which reached up to fifty tons, were keeled, masted and carried square sails. The new ships opened up the unknown ocean for exploration, trade, piracy and colonization.

Without doctrinal guidance, the Vikings soon followed the same path on the watery fringes of the Roman Empire, which the Muslim Arabs were pursuing on the desert fringe. It was a path of enslavement, polygamy and hybridization. The Viking saga was to continue for four centuries, from around 700 to 1100 AD.

By 700 AD, the Vikings had set up settlements in Ireland. In the 800s they turned to attacking England, an equitable tradition which continued for two hundred years. By the 900s, they began to switch from attacking the poorer, more primitive northern areas of Europe to the richer lands of France.

In the Ninth Century, scarcely 150 years before the birth of William I (The Conqueror), the Vikings were over running England and France.

In France, 30,000 to 40,000 Norse soldiers, led by Rollo had taken over the Lower Seine and besieged Paris. A great battle ensued in which 7,000 of the invaders died at the hands of the  United Forces of France. However, not long after this, Rollo dictated the terms of peace to the weak Frankish king, Charles the Simple, and subsequently took possession of a great part of the province of Neustria—which became Normandy.

Rollo was recognized at the court of Rouen, a legitimacy that introduced him to the developing feudal system that was emerging from the decay of Charlemagne’s empire. His heirs expanded his holdings, won the title of Duke, they rebuilt abbeys destroyed by their ancestors. By taking French wives, the invaders learned to speak French, to write Latin and embrace the Carolinian concepts of law. Yet, they retained their Viking vigor and independence of spirit. By the time the Norman conquest of England, the Normans would number about one million, about half of England’s population, but they would be pent up on a strip of land one forth the size of England.

Without losing their knowledge of the sea, they acquired an understanding of the horse, with its harness and stirrups. It was this hybridization of a heavily armed man on horseback that would later win the Battle of Hastings for the Normans.

The uniting of the barbaric Scandinavia with the civilized Frank was to produce in the Norman nobility a notable capacity to govern. The Norman nobles weredistinguished by their graceful bearing and insinuating address, by their skill in negotiation and a neutral eloquence, but their chief fame was derived from their military exploits from the prodigies of their discipline and valor.

Being entirely new to the business of government, they were completely dedicated to exploiting the abilities of others; they were calculating, single minded, aggressive and ruthless. Without any ideas of their own they used, without prejudice, all races and classes of men to serve them; which countered the established civilized way and religious education of the time.

The greater Norman barons, including William I (the Conqueror) were of Norwegian blood, representatives of the dispossessed royal families of the twenty two ancient kingdoms of Norway, who had been deprive of their domains by the conquests of Harold Harfager. The descendants of the early kings of the North and the Merovian barons of France are found at present among the Norman people of England and North America.[1]
[Image below right, Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

Here then are but a few hardy branches on a very large genealogical tree.

Line of Norman Descent [2]:

Hrolf, Duke of the Normans
William Longsword
Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy
Richand the Good, Duke of Normandy
Robert the Magnificent, 6th Duke of Normandy
William I, 7th Duke of Normandy

William I –The Conqueror

William I was born about 1027 AD in Normandy, France to Robert I and the “lovely Arlette”. His father, Robert I, surnamed, “The Devil” was 6th Duke of Normandy, died 1035. It was written of William that ”…he was begotten of Arlette, a Mediterranean furriers daughter, of Falise, to whom his father was attracted by her beauty as he observed her washing clothes in a stream” It was also written that Arlette was the daughter of Fulbert of Falise, a chamberlain in the Castle Falise, which was home of Robert I.

[Image, Left William I coin, Right William I portrait]

As the years passed, William was made a chamberlain in his fathers court. It was the hybridizing union between the Scandinavian noble and the working class French which developed in him a combination of military, literary and artistic talent. In time, William succeeded his father and became 7th Duke of Normandy.
Around 1051 and about 24 years old William married his fifth cousin, the 4 foot 2 inch tall, Matilda.
Matilda was daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, a descendant of Alfred the Great (849-901AD,England) and Charlemagne (747-814 AD). They produced four sons and six daughters, among which was Henry I.
[Photo at right, Falise castle, Normandy]

During these times, the Norman cities were flourishing in building, religion, philosophy and armaments. But in the countryside, there was unemployment, the people were reduced to subsistence, large families gathered around the hearth, for whose keep the father could not provide.
The land was cut up into small quillets or ‘feeding farms’ that were too small to feed a family…unease prevailed. The spirit of adventure was turning pilgrims into crusaders, while the Norman feat of arms made them conquerors of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily. During this period, the growing Duke William had influence from England to Anselm.
Meanwhile, England stagnated and her king, Edward the Confessor, died without heir on January 5, 1066.

[Image below left: Wood carving from the middle ages thought to be Mathilda, wife of William I.]

On April 24, 1066 a “star with hair” appeared in the skies and shown with exceeding brightness. To many of the time, this (Halley’s Comet) portended a great change in some kingdom.

The English crowned Harold Dgodwinson, their king, but William contested, claiming that King Edward had named him his successor. At age 39, William recruited his feudal levies; mercenaries from all parts of France,Flanders and the Norman territories in Italy. With his army, William sailed across the English Channel on September 27 to confront the English.

In the early morning hours on Saturday, 14 October 1066, William rode out to meet King Harold on the low rolling hills of Hastings. The English stood watching as there approached a great Norman van, with bowmen in front, followed by infantry in armor and finally the mounted knights, As the Normans looked, there across the field stood a wall of shields 600 yards long and 10-12 men deep. With the terrible sound of trumpets, the armies came together…by four o’clock in the afternoon the battle was over, Kind Harold was dead and the Normans had won.

William was crowned King of England on Christmas day 1066 at the Church of St. Peter-Westminister Abby.
Defeating various internal rebellions two years later earned William I the name—The Conqueror.

William introduced the feudal system of land tenure based on military service, so that every acre of land was registered and held by someone for some form of service. The country was divided into 700 Baronies or great Fiefs, which were controlled by the noblemen or barons. These baronies were further subdivided into  a total of 60,000 Knights Fees. Each Knights Fee consisted of three to five small farms. On the average then, each military commander of baron controlled about 86 Knights Fees or around 342 small farms. Each of the fighting men who provided all their own military equipment, the knights, were awarded three to five farms.

In his latter years, William’s success was disturbed. During 1079, at age 52, his eldest son Robert II wounded him during a quarrel. This prompted William to write in his Will: “I grant unto my son, Robert, for that  he is my first begotten and hath already received homage of all  the barons of his country, that honour given cannot be again undone, but yet without rule of his government, for he is a foolish proud knave and to be punished with cruel misfortune.” 

This proved prophetic, for in 1096, Robert II pawned Normandy for 10,000 marks to his brother Rufus, in order to raise money for the First Crusade. In 1106 when returning to England, Robert II was captured by his brother Henry I at Tinchebra. He was then imprisoned for the rest of his life at the castles Bristol and Cardif, where he died.

During 1987, at age 60 and heavy with fat, William attacked and burned Mantes, Francein a campaign against the French. As William rode down the steep streets of Mantes, his horse slipped, stumbled and fell among the debris. William was thrown against the saddle and suffered a fatal rupture. He died near Poen on September 9, 1087 an hour after sunrise and was buried at Caen.

An account of William I from William of Malmesbury, “Historian Anglorum”.
“He was of just stature. Ordinary corpulence, fierce countenance; his forhead was bare of hair; of such strength of arm, that it was often a matter of surprise, that no one was  able to draw his bow, which himself could bend when his horse was on a full gallop; he was majestic whether sitting or standing, although the protuberance of his belly deformed his royal person; of excellent health so that he was never confined with any dangerous disorders, except at last; so given to the pleasures of the chase, that as I have said before, ejecting the inhabitants when at liberty from other vocations, he might there pursue his pleasures.
Other written descriptions of his appearance which describe him as, burly and robust with a guttural voice.

His anxiety for money is the only thing of which he can deservedly be blamed. This he sought all opportunities of scraping together, he cared not how; he would say and do some things and indeed almost anything, unbecomming to such a great majesty, where the hope of money allured him. I have here no excuse to offer, unless it be, as one has said that ’of necessity he must fear money, whom many fear’.”

Henry I

Descended from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
Robert I    +    Arlette Baldwin, Earl ofFlanders
          William  I                               + Matilda of Flanders
                                                    Henry I

Henry was born in Selby,Yorkshirein 1068, two years after the Battle of Hastings to William I and Matilda.

During this time, Englandwas coming out of a period of stagnation. The literate and educated class was being rapidly expanded by immigration. These people were intellectually employed to restoring England with the Roman world, which resulted in rapid technological development. With a national premium on education, Henry was educated and earned the surname, “Beauclerk,” for his scholarship.

Henry’s eldest brother, Robert II, assumed the throne upon William’s death in France. As you may recall, Robert had wounded his father during a quarrel, and pawned Normandy to help finance the First Crusade. During Robert’s absence in the holy Land, Henry was crowned king at Westminster Abbey on 5 August 1106. When Robert II returned from the Crusade to redeemNormandy, he was defeated by Henry at the Battle of Tinchebrai and subsequently imprisoned.

[Image at right. Statues of Henry 1 and Matilda fo Scott from the fron of Rochester Cathedral]

Henry’s court became the center of law making as he created the beginnings of a civil administration. Chroniclers wrote of him, “Good man he was and there was a great awe of him. In his days no man dared harm another.”, to wit he further earned the title, “Lion of Justice”.

Henry consolidated his relations with the Saxons on 11 November 1100, by marrying Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotts.
Matilda of the Scotts, was born in 1082, married Henry at age 21 and died 1 May 1118 at age 39 years. Matilda was a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne.

You may recall that Henry’s mother, Matilda, daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders was also a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne, so certain literary and other predisposition’s toward strategic planning were again bred back into the line, as had been the general social custom amongst Getic nobility since Classical times. These predisposition’s were to show up in their daughter Matilda (Maude) and later in their grandson, Henry II.
[Image at left, Matilda of the Scotts.]

Although his father’s martial fidelity was unique in Norman annals, Henry, by his marriage united the Norman, Saxon and Scottish royal houses. And by his liaisons, he attached himself to every race, Norman, Saxon and Welch and every social class in his kingdom.

His illegitimate children included nine sons and eleven daughters

On one hand the offspring spread through the Norman baronage, on the other they influenced the growth of learning of the Learned Class.

On 25 November 1120, calamity struck as William, Richard and Mary, three of his legitimate heirs drowned in the Whiteship.

Henry I was intelligent, educated and amorous, but he was also brutal and calculating. He is thought to have murdered one brother, blinded another and to have blinded two granddaughters.
Henry died 1 December 1135 at St. Denis,Normandy at age 67 years and was buried at Reading.

Account of Henry I from William of Malmesbury’s , Historia Anglorum
“He was of middle stature: His hair was black, but scanty near the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy; he was facetious in proper season, nor did multiplicity of business cause him to be less pleasant when he mixed in society. Not prone to personal combat, he verified the saying of Scopio Africamus, ‘My mother bore me to a commander, not a soldier’., wherefore he was inferior to no king of modern time; and as I may almost say, he clearly surpassed all his predecessors in England and preferred contending by counsel, rather than by the sword. If he could, he conquered without bloodshed; if it was unavoidable, with as little as possible. He was free, during his whole life, from impure desires; for, as we have learned from those who were well informed, he was led by female blandishments, not for the gratification of incontinency, but for the sake of issue; nor condescended to casual intercourse, unless where it might produce that effect; in this respect the master of his natural inclinations, not the passive slave of lust. He was plain in his diet, rather satisfying the calls of hunger, than surfeiting himself by variety of delicacies. He never drank but to allay thirst; execrating the least departure from temperance, both in himself and in those about him. He was heavy to sleep, which was interrupted by frequent snoring; His eloquence was rather unpremeditated than labored; not rapid, but deliberate.”

Matilda the Empress

Descended   from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
William I     +    Matilda ofFlanders Malcolm III
              Henry   I                                  + Matilda ofScotland
                                                      Matilda (the Empress)

Matilda was born to Henry I and Matilda of Scotland in the year 1102. On 3 April 1127, at age 25, she was given in marriage by her father to Jeffrey Plantagenet, who was Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and son of Fulk V, the Crusade king of Jerusalem.
Geoffrey was born on 24 August 1113 and was fifteen years old at the time of his marriage, ten years younger than Matilda.

Geoffrey (the Fair) was reputed to be handsome, clever and eccentric. He had a tradition of wearing a sprig of broom (plana genista) in his cap. This plant was used on occasion as a badge and became the nickname for the family line—the Plantagenet’s.
[Image at right, Empress Matilda.]

Matilda was in Normandy with Geoffrey when her father, Henry I dies. His cousin Stephen, who was also in France, hurried back to England and claimed the throne. Matilda was ambitious and as unamiable as her father and was not going to give up the throne without a fight. In 1139, she and her half brother, Robert, Earl of Glouchester, raised an army and invaded England. Stephan was captured and was proclaimed “Lady of the English” on the battlefield. However, as she entered London, the prosperous citizens therein drove her out, subsequently her half brother was captured by Bishop Henry of Winchester. After exchanging prisoners, she returned to Normandy.

Several years later, another campaign was launched that ended in total disaster. Matilda retired to Normandy never to return.

During their twenty three years together, Matilda and Geoffrey produced three sons, of which we are descended from Henry II.

When their son, Henry II was seventeen years old, Geoffrey began transferring his power and influence to the boy. One responsibility was to pay homage to King Louis VII of France, so Geoffrey  and Henry rode to Paris. While in the royal French court, Henry met Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine (Louis VIII’s wife) who would later become his wife.

After paying homage to the king for the great fief of Normandy, Geoffrey and young Henry rode homeward in the scorching days of late summer. On the way, Geoffrey decided to take a swim in a cold river, that evening he was sweating and shivering. A few days later, on 7 September 1151, Geoffrey died at age 39 years.

[Image at left, Geoffey of Anjou, founder of the House of Plantagenet]

Matilda died sixteen years later on 10 September 1169 at age 65 years, during the thirteenth year of the reign of her son Henry II, king of England.

The Crusades
The intrusion of the Vikings and their descendants into all parts of Europe by the end of the 11th Century had done little to soften the war like temper of the military governing class. They were constantly employed in raids, wars and insurrection. Western Europe was beginning to bristle with fortifications and their territories were under attack by pagan and infidel armies.

Under Pope Urban II, a Council of the Church was convened on 27 November 1095. Pope Urban II exhorted his Christian brothers to give up fighting one another and take up arms against the Arabs and Turks.

Large bodies of warriors of all ranks from the feudal hierarchy set forth with the cross as their emblem, to set free the Holy Places for the worship of Christian pilgrims.

In 1128, Baldwin II, a veteran of the First Crusade and king of Jerusalem, sent his constable to Louis VI of Franceto choose a baron who could succeed him as king. Louis VI advised Baldwin to offer his daughter and crown to Fulk V.

Fulk V was great baron in France, being Count of Anjou and Maine, he was as powerful as the king himself. Fulk had recently married his son Geoffrey Plantagenet to Matilda the heiress of England. (Matilda was daughter of Henry I and Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III ofScotland). Fulk V had also been to the Holy Landto a pilgrimage in 1120.

Fulk V accepted the proposal and on 2 June 1129 the short coarse red haired man of forty married the young and lovely Melisende, daughter of Baldwin II. Fulk became King of Jerusalem and ruled from 1131 to 1142. He realized that he was king of a country which only existed by means of its army, an army numerically too weak even for a country which enjoyed peace on all its frontiers.

Peace is a temporal thing, the wars grew and the European invaders were slowly pushed back and out of theMideast. In the early 1300s, the Crusades were all but exhausted. The last remnant of this activity was terminated in 1348 when the Bubonic Plague, carries by Black Ship Rats were brought from China, taken from Mecca by pilgrims to Palestine and from there to the Italian trading fleet and on to Europe.

Henry II

Henry I     +     Matilda ofScotland Fulk V
      Matilda (the Empress)                 + Geoffrey of Anjou- Plantagenet
                                                    Henry   II

Henry II was born 5 March 1132 AD to Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet at LeMans, Normandy. It should be pointed out that as we refer to Henry as Henry II, that this was his official titled name, he was personally known as Kurt Mantel.

Henry II had bright reddish gold hair, gray eyes, freckles, a muscular build and a majesty of presence. He inherited his father’s violent temper and intellectual vivacity, but not his striking good looks; superficially, he was less attractive, but he could charm both men and women if he chose. His neck was somewhat thrust forward from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square. His frame was stocky with a pronounced tendency toward corpulence, due to nature rather than overindulgence. He taxed his body with excessive hardship, seldom at rest, always standing so he often wore out the whole court. He enjoyed hunting, horseback riding, traversing wastelands, penetrating forests and climbing mountains.

[At right: Tomb effigy of Henry II, Plantagenet]

During Medieval times, the marriage of great persons were arranged to provide political alliances and unite kingdoms of fiefs, indeed marrying for love was contrary to the customs of the age. With this in mind, recall that during late August, Henry and his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet had been to the French royal palace to pay homage for the great fief of Normandy. While staying at the royal court, Henry met Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen and wife to Louis VII, King of France. In early September, Geoffrey died, leaving Henry II a powerful baron in France and contender to the English throne. Eleanor did not like her husband, Louis VII and was granted a divorce by him.

On18 May 1153, Henry II married Eleanor.

Eleanor, born in 1123 was heiress of Aquitaine, Pointers and Toulouse. The consolidation of Henry’s domains in France-by marriage-was considered the boldest political stroke of the age.

Meanwhile, King Stephan’s son, Eustace was heir apparent, but soon after ravaging Archbishop Theobald’s estates, he suddenly fell sick and died.

Henry pressed King Stephan to be named his successor, Stephan accepted his nephew on the condition that he would be allowed to remain King of England for the rest of his life.

One year later, on25 October 1154, Stephan died.

[At left: Tomb effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine.]

Immediately, Henry, his wife Eleanor, Henry’s brothers and many Lords set sail across the storm tossed English Channel. On 19 December 1154, Archbishop Teobald placed the English crown on Henry II head in a ceremony at Westminster Abby.

During Henry’s reign, he ruled an empire that stretched from the Arcticto the Pyrenees, though he was a Frenchman, with foreign speech. He introduced a legal reform which replaced the old method of “Trial by ordeal”, by a “trial by jury”. He also forbade the issue of coinage by any other than the royal mints.

Henry and Eleanor produced eight children among whom were  the three sons: 1) Henry, who died rather young, 2) Richard, who became known as “Richard the Lionhearted” of the Third Crusade and 3) John, (our ancestor) against whom the fabled Robin Hood fought.

Henry’s personal life was full of tragedy.
1)  His sons were rebellious and waited for his death.
2)  When he was around forty years old, he had Eleanor imprisoned in Woodstock Castle (she was over fifty at the time), where upon he pursued his unquenchable lust for his inseparable concubine, the beauteous, Rosemund Cifford.
3)  Then too, there was a man, Thomas Becket, a clerk of humble birth who rose to be Henry’s great friend and minister. Desiring more control of the church, Henry appointed Thomas Becket to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. Having been given this great position, Thomas regarded his first duty to the Church and resisted the Kings proposals. It is not known whether Becket’s subsequent assassination on 29 December 1170was planned or was the result of hasty words spoken by the Henry, while in anger.

After losing a battle against the King of France, who was allied with his sons, Richard and John, Henry was utterly numbed by his misfortune. His physical condition rapidly deteriorated. On 5 July, Henry was obviously dying when he received word that his son John had disappeared to join his fortunes with brother Richard and the French King. On 6 July, Henry died at Chinon, France. Some of his servants stripped his corpse after it had been ceremoniously laid in the Chapel of Chinon. One of Henry’s bastard sons covered the naked corpse with a riding cloak, found a crown, scepter and ring ( possibly from a religious stature) then carried the body to Fonteurault for burial.

Eleanor outlived Henry II by fifteen years, dying on3 March 1204; she was also buried at the Abby of Fonteurault.
An account of Henry II from Sir Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was somewhat red of face, and broad breasted; short of body and therewithal fat, which made him use much exercise, and with little meat. He was commonly called Henry Shortmantle, because he was the first that brought the use of short cloaks out of Anjou into England. Concerning endowments of mind, he was of a spirit in the highest degree generous; which made him often say, that all the world suffice not to a courageous heart. His custom was to be always in action; for which cause, if he had no real wars, he would have feigned; and would transform forces either into Normandy or Brittany, and go with them himself, where by he was always prepared of an army; and make it a schooling to his soldiers, and to himself an exercise. To his children he was both indulgent and hard; for out of indulgence he caused his son Henry to be crowned King in his own time; and out of hardness his younger sons to rebell against him. He was rather superstitious than not religious; while he showed more by his carriage toward Becket being dead than while he lived. His inconstancy was not so much that he used other women besides his wife, but that he used the affianced wife of his own son. He married Eleanor, daughter of William Duke ofGuienne, late wife of Lewis the  Seventh of France. Some say King Lewis carried her onto the Holy land, where  she carried herself not very holy, but led a licentious life; and; which is the worst kind of licentiousness, in carnal familiarity with a Turk.”

John (Lackland)

Matilda (The Empress) + Geoffrey Plantagenet William  Duke ofGuienne
                            Henry II                    + Eleanor of Aquitaine

John was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166 at Oxford, England.

He grew to a height of five foot five inches, which was not short by the standards of his century; he was a stout man and his stockiness increased with age. His effigy, thought to be a genuine likeness, shows a face in which cunning, humor and strength of will are forcefully represented. He possessed the same diabolical temper as other previous members of his family and was given to violent affections and violent hates. What John lacked in majesty, he put on good display, he spent vast sums on rich clothes and loaded himself with jewels. John replaced his brother, Richard (the Lionhearted) on the  throne, where he was crowned king on Assention Day, 27 May 1199 in Westminster Abby.
[Image at right: Tomb effigy of John Lackland]

In 1200 AD John had his childless marriage to Havisa of Gloucester annulled. He then married the young Isabelle of Angouleme on 30 August 1200. This marriage broke a political alliance that was forming between the powerful house of Angouleme and Lusignan.
Isabelle was born in 1188 making her 12-13 years old at the time of her marriage. Henry III was their first of six children.

In 1207 AD, Pop Innocent III intervened in the election of a new Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to recognize the Papal appointment, because he objected to the Popes interference. The Pope then placed England under an Interdict in which; 1) the dying were refused Last Rights, 2) the dead had to be buried in unhallowed ground, 3) church marriages ceased, and 4) sermons were preached outdoors. This state of affairs continued for six years. Then John confiscated the property of the clergy who refused to celebrate the Mass.In 1209, the Pope excommunicated King John. The  king held out for two more years, but fearing a Pope backed French invasion,  he surrendered his kingdom in 1213.

A few days later, he received the kingdom back on the condition that he and his successors hold England and Ireland as a “feudatory” of the See of Rome for 1000 marks of silver.

[Image at left: Tomb effigy of Isabelle of Angouleme]

It was not unusual for kings to issue written declarations that they intended to keep the customs and laws as handed down by their ancestors. The Magna Charta was in such a tradition, it defined a number of feudal liberties and set limits to the use of royal power. It was not a document forced upon a reluctant monarch, by aunited kingdom. It was only after ages, when liberty had a fuller meaning, that the  Magna Charta came to symbolize, as an acceptable precedent, the spirit of the  United States Constitution.

John had a weakness for pretty women, which he treated with generosity and kindness. In his dealings with people he could be genial and generous, or he could be suspicious and sadistic. He had a knack of endowing the most solemn occasions with an element of farce.

John died at Newark-on-Trenton 19 October 1216, at the age of 49. He had been traveling up to 50 miles a day in a campaign against rebel nobles, and then attending to government business at night. After a meal of peaches and new cider, he came down with dysentery. His fever was aggravated by the loss of his personal belongings. The men in charge of transporting his belongings had taken a short cut over the sands of the Wash and were subsequently overwhelmed by the tide.

After John’s death, Isabelle remarried. Later still, she took vows in the monastery at Fontervault, where she died in 1246 at age 58 years.

An account of John, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
He was of stature indifferent, and something fat, of a sour and angry continence, and concerning his conditions, it may be said, that his nature and fortune did not well agree; for naturally he loved his ease, yet his fortune was to ever be in action. He won more of his enemies by surprise than by battle, which shows he had more of lightning in him than thunder. He was never so true of his word as when he threatened, because he meant always as cruelly as he spoke, not always as graciously; and he that would have known whet it was he never meant to perform, must have looked upon his promises. He was neither fit for prosperity nor adversity; for prosperity made him insolent, and adversity dejected; a mean fortune would have suited best with him. He was all that he was by fits; sometimes doing nothing without deliberation, and sometimes doing all upon a sudden; sometimes very religious, and sometimes scare a Christian.
His insatiableness of money was not so much that no man knew what he did with it, gotten with much noise, but spent in silence. He was but intemperate in his best temper, but when distempered with sickness, most of all, as appeared at his last when being in fever he would needs be eating of raw peaches, and drinking of sweet ale. If we look upon his words we must needs think him a worthy prince, but if  upon his actions, nothing less; for his words of piety were very many, as hath been shown before, but as for his actions, he neither came to the crown by justice, nor held it with honor, nor left it in peace. Yet having many good parts in him, and especially having his royal posterity continued to this day, we can do no less than honor his memory.”

Henry III

Henry   II     +     Eleanor ofAquitaine
                 John                         + Isabelle of Angouleme
                                             Henry   III

Henry III was born to John and Isabelle on 10 October 1207 at Winchester.
He succeeded to the throne at age 9 years, when his father John, died. He was crowned King of England on 28 October 1216.

With the death of John, those barons who had rallied to Louis of France instantly returned their allegiance to the English crown. A sense of nationality was becoming strong; remember, the English nobility were of Norman and French extraction and they had strong ties with their families on the continent.

Henry III was precociously clever and handsome, apart from a drooping eyelid (which his son Edward I inherited). He never lost a simple boyish delight in friendship, in beautiful things and grand occasions. He was also unable to keep his word, would not take advice and would to concentrate on one subject at a time. After 1232, Henry acted as his own chief secretary, chief justice and treasurer, as a result the  business of government became hopelessly disorganized.

[Image at right: Tomb effigy of Henry III]

On 14 January 1236at age 28 years, Henry married Eleanor of Provence. Eleanor was born in 1217 and was 20 at the time of their marriage. They produced ten children, amongst which was Edward I.

Provence was historically a region in S.E. France bordering the Mediterranean Sea. After the marriage, Henry further upset the barons by surrounding himself with Eleanor’s uncles and employing these foreigners as counselors and ministers. He was a spendthrift, especially where his wife’s many relations were concerned.

Henry stood for absolutism in a time when the essential forces in the country were trying to impose checks in royal power. In 1265, all the elements of future Parliament were brought together: Lords, county members (2 knights from each county) and borough members (2 citizens from each city). And so the first Parliament was summoned.

[Image at left: Sculpture of Eleanor of Provence]

Henry III confirmed the Greater Charter which heralded the transformation of feudal usage into national law respected by the king.

During his reign, Henry III rebuilt Westminster Abby with soaring arches and graceful windows, all in honor of Edward the Confessor.
Henry died 16 November 1272 and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Eleanor died nineteen years later on 24 January 1291.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was of stature but mean, yet of a well compacted body, and very strong; one of his eyelids hanging down and almost covering the blacks of his eye. For his inward endowments, it may be said, he was wiser for a man, than for a prince; for he knew better how to govern his life than his subjects. He was rather pious than devout, as taking more pleasure in hearing masses than sermons, as he said to the King of France, he had rather see his friend once than hear from him often. His mind seemed not to stand firm upon its basis, for every sudden accident put him into passion. He was neither constant in his love, not in his hate; for he never had so great a favorite whom he cast not into disgrace, nor so great and enemy whom he received not into favor. An example of both which qualities was seen in his carriage toward Hubert de Burgh, who was for a time his great favorite, yet cast out afterward in miserable disgrace, and though no man held in greater hatred, yet received afterward into grace again.
He was more desirous of money than honor, for else he never would have sold his right to the two great dukedoms of Normandy and Anjou to the king of Francefor a sum of money. Yet he was more desirous of honor than quietness, for else he would never have contended so long with his barons about their charter of  liberty, which was upon the matter, but a point of honor. His most eminent virtue, and that which made him more eminent, as being rare for princes, was his continency.”

Edward I

John     +      Isabelle ofAngouleme
     Henry   III                         + Eleanor of Provence
                                      Edward   I

Edward I was born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence on 17 June 1239 AD atWestminster.
Edward I had reddish hair, a long hooked nose, flashing eyes and muscular limbs, because of his tall, 6 foot 2 inch height, he was nicknamed “Long shanks”. His personality stands out by the variety of his achievements, his wise choice of counsels, his mastery of law, his skills in war and his passionate interest in castle building and town planning. He had a supple, but conservative mind. He also inherited the choleric temper and vindictive cruelty so prevalent in his family.
During October 1254, at age 15, he married Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Leon. This marriage bore thirteen children; however, only five daughters and one son (Edward II) survived Eleanor.

[Image at left: Statues of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile]

When his father, Henry III died, Edward was away in the Holy lands on the Seventh Crusade. Returning toEngland, he was crowned King on 19 August 1272 at Westminster Abby. Coming to the throne at age 33 years., he brought a wide education in the art of ruling.

Edward I regulated the amount of land that could be held by the Church, for as landowners, clerics had not been paying their proportion of the kingdoms taxes. He further agreed that no tax should be raised without the consent of Parliament. Note, that the first Parliament was held in 1265 and only a generation later, this organization had the power of consent over taxation!

Edward was serious about the work of administration and believed that the king should live according to, and not above the law.

In 1275, the English Jews were forbidden by law to lend money at interest, by 1278 a number of these people we accused of debasing the currency and were hanged. In 1290, there was a total expulsion of the Jewish population—they did not return to England in any number until 1655.

In 1278, an ancestor from another line of our family, John DeWarrene, had dealings with Edward I. “John DeWarrene, Earl of Surrey stood before a panel of commissioners of Edward I, they asked, “By what right do you hold these lands?” and thrust forward a bundle of documents describing his vast estates. John glowered at the panel, and then, from behind his back produced a rusty old sword and threw it on the table. “Here are my title deeds!”, he cried, ”My ancestors came over with the Conqueror and won their land with this, and with it will keep them from anyone who tries to take them from me”. He turned and stalked out of the room.”
In 1290 AD, after the age of forty, Eleanor of Castile died.
During 1296, King Edward sent John DeWarrene to Scotland as his governor.

In 1299, Edward remarried and was wed to Margaret, sister to King Philip IV of France. At the same time, Edward I son, Edward II, married King Philips daughter, Isabella.

Edward led four military expeditions against the Scots, which earned him the nickname, “Hammer of the Scots”. While on yet another expedition to Scotland, Edward as an old man was being carried on a litter when he died. Edward died on 7 July 1307 at Burgh-on-the Sands near Carlisle. He was buried in Westminster Abby with others in the family line.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was tall of stature, higher than ordinary men by head and shoulders, and there of  called Longshanks; of a swarthy complexion, strong of body but lean; of a comely favor; his eyes in his anger, sparkling like fire; the hair of his head black and curled. Concerning his conditions, as he was in war peaceful; so in peace he was warlike, delighting especially in that kind of hunting, which is to kill stags or other wild beasts with spears. In continency of life, he was equal to his father; in acts of valor,  far beyond him. He had in himself two wisdoms, not often found in any single; both together, seldom or never: an ability of judgment in himself, and a readiness to hear judgment of others. He was not easily provoked into passion, but once in passion, not easily appeased, as was seen by his dealing with the Scotts, toward whom he showed at first patience, and at last severity. If he be censured for his many taxations, he may be justified by his well bestowing them: for never a prince laid out his money to more honor of himself, or good of his kingdom. His great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing; for of four sons which he had by his wife Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have out lived him; and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born.

Edward II

Henry III    +    Eleanor ofProvence Ferdinand  III
           Edward I                       + Isabel of Castile
                                         Edward II

Edward II was born to Edward I (Longshanks) and Queen Eleanor of Castile on 25 April 1284 AD at Caernarvon,Wales.

Edward grew to be a strange man, a mixture of vigor and effeminacy. He took no interest in the affairs of the kingdom and surrounded himself with unworthy friends. His character was in complete contrast to that of his father, he was feckless, lazy, and extravagant; passionately interested in the breeding of horses and dogs and happy in the company of grooms. He loved music and stage plays, but was quite unfit to be a monarch.

In 1299, at the age of 15, Edward II married Isabel, daughter of Louis IV, King of France. Their union produced two sons and two daughters. One son became Edward III.
[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward II.]

The twenty three year old Edward II was with his father on a military campaign against Scotland when the elder Edward died. As Edward lay dying, he asked the younger Edward to continue on with the army and defeat the Scots, before they became stronger. Young Edward II promised to see the battle through, but after his father died he returned to London and disbanded the army.

Edward II was crowned King of England in 1307 at Westminster Abby.

Years later, after the Scots had retaken nearly every English castle in their country, Edward gathered an army of 100,000 men.
Even though the English outnumbered the Scots 2 to 1, the English were slaughtered. You see, Edward spent his heavily armored troops in an attack across a bog. Just beyond the bog, the Scots had dug trenches and covered these with brush so as to stop cavalry. His heavily armored men were then caught in a bog and in the trenches as a hail of Scottish arrows and spears cut them down. Then a wave of Scots descended from their hill position with swords and battle axes to decimate their tattered ranks. So terrible was the defeat that Edward II panicked, broke his camp and fled from the field, leaving the army to its fate.

In 1324 Edward failed to pay homage for his territories in France where upon they were declared forfeit and subject to French rule.

During these times: The population of the English kingdom had risen from about 2 million in 1066 to around 4 million. The population was scattered in villages across a wild and wooded land. Among these villages were the stone manor houses of the well to do, which were some 200 years old and of course the castles of the very rich. Salt was precious and its possession marked the line between persons of high and low degree. In the early 1300s the invention of gunpowder reached England from China. By 1326, the earliest recorded gun, a  vase shaped metal mortar was drawn in a manuscript.
[Image at right, statue of Isabella of France, wife of Edward II]

By 1327, Queen Isabel was openly living with Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Edward II chief enemy. Together, Isabel and Mortimer overwhelmed Edward’s forces and persuaded Parliament to depose Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III. Parliament approved and Edward II was imprisoned at Berkley Castle, where he was half starved and horribly murdered on 22 September 1327 at age 43. Edward II was buried at Gloucester Cathedral.
For the next three years, Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabela were political “guardians” of England, ruling through Edward III.

An account of Edward II, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“Thus was King Edward murdered, in the year 1327, on 22 of September. He was known to be of good and courteous nature, though not of the most pregnant wit. And albeit in his youth he fell into certain light crimes, and after by the company and counsel of evil men, was induced into more heinous vices, yet it was thought that he purged the same by repentance. He had surely good cause to repent his former trade of living, for by his indiscreet and wanton misgovernance, there were headed and put to death during his reign (by judgment of law) to the number of 28 barons and knights.

All these mischief’s and many more happened not only to him, but also to the whole state of the realm, in that he wanted judgment and prudent discretion to make choice and sage and discreet counselors, receiving those in favor, that abused the same to their private gain and advantage, for which they only sought, in so much that by their covetous rapine, spoil, and immoderate ambition, the hearts of the common people and nobility were quite estranged from the dutiful love and obedience which they ought to have showed to their sovereign.

But now to make an end of the life as well as the reign of King Edward the Second, I find that after he was deposed his kingly honor and title, at length the brought him back again in a secret manner unto the castle of Berkeley, where whilst he remained the Queen would send unto him courteous and loving letters with apparel and other such things, but she would not once come near to visit him, bearing him in hand that she durst not, for fear of the people’s displeasure, who hated him so extremely. How beit, she with the rest of her confederates had laid a plot of their device for his dispatch, though by painted words she pretended a kind remorse to him in his distress.

Where upon when they saw that such practices would not serve their turn, they came suddenly one night into the chamber where he lay in bed fast asleep. And with heavy featherbeds or a table being cast upon him, they kept him down and withal out into his fundament an horn, and through the same they thrust up into his body a hot spit through the pipe of a trumpet a plumber’s instrument of iron made very hot, the which passing up into his entrails, and being rolled to and fro, burnt the same, but so as no appearance of any wound or hurt outwardly might be once perceived. His cry did move many within the castle and town of Berkeley to compassion, plainly hearing him utter a wailful noise, as the tormentors were about to murder him, so that diverse being awakened there with prayed heartedly to God to receive his soul, when they understood by his cry what the matter meant.”

Edward III

Edward I     +     Isabel ofCastile Louis IV King ofFrance
              Edward II                         + Isabel, French Princess
                                              Edward III

Edward III was born to Isabel, the French princess and Edward II in 1312 at Windsor Castle.

In 1327, when Edward III was 15, his father was forced to abdicate the throne by  Queen Isabel, her lover Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and a consenting Parliament. Later that year, Edward II was murdered and the young Edward III crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.

For the nest three years Edward III was a figurehead, while the power of the throne was wielded by Mortimer and Isabel. The young Edward had a very different nature than his father; he rebelled against the tyranny of Mortimer. In 1330 while staying at Nottingham Castle, the 18 year old King gathered his trusted followers. They crept up to the room of his mother and her lover, Mortimer, entered and arrested them at sword point.

[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward III]

Roger Mortimer was tried, found guilty of organizing the murder of Edward II and was immediately hanged. Isabel was honorably confined at Rising Castle for the rest of her life, where she died.

Edward was tall and handsome, with bright golden red hair and penetrating eyes. He had charming manners, a ready wit, extraordinary energy and determination.

Edward married his second cousin, Philippa of Hainault, on 24 January 1328 at York.
Philippa was described as, “tall and upright, wise, gay, humble and pious, liberal and courteous, adorned in her time with all noble virtues, beloved of God and mankind.” Their marriage produced twelve children, consisting of seven sons and five daughters. We are descended from their seventh son, Thomas Plantagenet,  who was also known as, Thomas of Woodstock.

Edward III set about reviving the glories of his grandfather Edward I (Longshanks). He renewed the rift with Scotland and defeated the Scots in 1333.
He was a realist sovereign and a good administrator; taxes came in freely, especially when waging popular war.
He made the  use of the longbow compulsory on all small landowners, at the same time making it illegal to play tennis, bowl, skittles and other games. Learning archery became the only national pastime. In 1346, with prosperity at home, Edward III landed in France with 1000 ships, 4000 knights and 10,000 English and Welsh bowmen. And thus began “The Hundred Years War”.

[Image at right, tomb effigy of Philippa of Hainault.]

At the onset of the war, the English and French viewed each other differently. The English hated the French, due to ancestral memories which dated back to the “Conquest”; however, the French did not hate the English. Because of the attitude of his countrymen, the French king could not muster taxes from his indifferent villagers.

The English won battle after battle with their well trained archers which used the long bow. The long bow, a relatively new weapon, stood over seven feet tall and had a range over 300 yards. It’s arrows could penetrate chain mail or sheet armor and the archers could shoot six arrows per minute, making it more efficient than the crossbow. And so by using his men, “encased in steel” as shock troops and a large compliment of long bow archers, Edward beat the French.

In one of the earliest battles, at Ciecy, the French outnumbered the English 3 to 1. When the French knights and infantry assaulted the English archers, they were simply slaughtered.

In 1346, Edward’s eldest son, The Black Prince, stood with eight thousand troops against a French army of eighty thousand soldiers. At the end of the battle, eight thousand French troops were killed and Poitiers had fallen to the English—such was the power of the long bow.
[Drawing at left, Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III and  Philippa of Hainault, from which my family line descends]

Later, in 1358 the English captured the important coastal city of Calais, which remained under English control for 200 years.

Before long, the French army refused to fight the superior English longbow in the open and so retired to their strongholds. Since the English were not equipped for siege warfare, they wandered around the countryside and campaigns became long drawn out affairs.

In 1347, Bubonic Plague broke out inEurope. During 1349, plague reduced the English population from 4 million to 2.6 million. Labor became scare, workers demanded higher wages, prices went up…
During 1348, Edward founded “The Order of the Garter”, which consisted of two groups of twelve knights. This was the most famous order of Chivalry.
On 15 August 1369, Philippa died of dropsy. After her death, a terrible decline took place in the character of the king.

In his old age, Edward III became senile. He died 21 June 1377, at age 65 in Richmond. He died deserted by his friends and despised by his people, who had forgotten his former greatness. Edward III was buried at Westminster Abbey.

An account of Edward III, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“This king, besides his other gifts of nature, was aided greatly by his seemly personage. He had  a provident wit, sharp to conceive and understand: he was courteous and gentle, a man of great temperance and sobriety, of body well made, of a convenient stature, as neither of the height nor lowest sort: of face fair and manlike, eyes bright and shinning and in age bald, but so it was rather a seemingliness to those his ancient years than and disfiguring to his visage; in knowledge of martial affairs very skillful, as the enterprise and worthy acts by him achieved do sufficiently witness.

Examples of bounteous liberality, and great clemency he shewed many; so that in manner he alone amongst all other kings was found to be one, subject to none, or at least to very light and small faults. But yet he was not void of evil haps: for whereas, during the term of forty years space he reigned in high felicity, and as one happy in all doings; so in the rest of his time that followed, he felt a wonderful change in fortune. For such is the state of this world, seldom doth prosperity continue, and guide the stern of our worldly doings. For in the first years of his reign, after he once began to govern of himself, he recovered that which had been lost in Scotland, buy great victories obtained against his adversaries, subduing the country on each hand, so that he placed governors, bestowed offices, lands and livings in that realm at his pleasure.

But finally the thing that most grieved him, was the loss of that most noble gentleman, his dear son Prince Edward (The Black Prince),in whom was found all parts that might be wished in a worthy governor.  By this and other mishaps that caused to him now, in his old years, might seem to come to pass for a revenge of his disobedience showed to his father in usurping against him, although it might be said, that he did it by constraint, and through the advice of others. But whether remorse here of, or of his other offenses moved him, it may seem that the consideration of this world’s mutability, which he tried in full, caused him to have in mind the life in the world to come, and therefore of a  pure devotion founded in the church and college of Saint Stephan at Westminster, and another at Cambridge called ‘King’s Hall’.”

An account of Philippa of Hainault: report made by Bishop Stapleton on the prospective bride of Edward III, 1319. From the book, Every One A Witness-The Plantagenet Age.
“Inspection and Description of the Daughter of the Count of Hainault, Philippa by name.
The Lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, bewix blue-black and brown. Her head is clean shaped; her forehead high and broad, and standing somewhat forward. Her face narrows between the eyes, and the lower part of her face is still more narrow and slender than the forehead. Her eyes are blackish brown and deep. Her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and also flattened, and yet it is no snub nose. Her nostrils are also broad, her mouth fairly wide. Her lips somewhat full, and especially the lower lip. Her teeth which have fallen and grown again are white enough, but the rest are not so white. Her lower teeth project a little beyond the upper; yet this is but little seen. Her ears and chin are comely enough. Her neck, shoulder, and all her body are well set and unmaimed; and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover, she is brown of skin all over, and much like her father; and in all things she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us. And the damsel will be of age nine years [3] on St. Johns day next to come, as her mother saith. She is neither too tall nor too short for such an age; she is of fair carriage, and well taught in all that becometh her rank, and highly esteemed and well beloved of her father and mother and all her meinie, in so far as we could inquire and learn the truth.”

[1] The Norman People, Originally published 1874, London, England, reprinted by The Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD 1975.
[2]  Reference sources for the generations William I, “The Conqueror”, through Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III.
•   The Royal Heraldry of England by J.H. and R. V. Pinches, © 1974, Charles E. Tuttle Co., Rutland, VT.
•   The Age of Chivalry, by The National Geographic Society, © 1969
•   The Crowned Lions-The Early Plantagenet Kings by Caroline Bingham, © 1978, David and Charles London,England
•   The Crusades by Zoe Oldenborg, © 1966, Random House Inc.
•   The Hollow Crown by John Barton and Joy Law, © 1971, Hamish Hamilton, Ltd.,England.
•   Americans of Royal Descent by Charles H. Browning, J. B, Lippincott Co.,Philadelphia,PA.
[3] Philippa of Hainault married Edward III nine years after the ‘Inspection and Description’ was made, when she reached approximately 18 years of age.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Normans

Old World: The Saxons

(My family in history/Old world: The Saxons)

More than a thousand years before the birth of Christ, Phoenician seamen were enduring a four month, coast hugging voyage, in return to their lands with valued tin ingots, from the remote Cassiteridees Islands—islands which were located somewhere near Spain.
Over the centuries, commerce continued and increased between southern Europe and these islands, as navigators returned with tin, lead, slaves, skins, a superior bred of hunting dog, some gold and silver and an inferior grade of pearls.
To the Greeks, this distant land and its metals became an object of scientific inquiry. Aristotle, the first Greek historian to mention the British Isle by name, said they consisted of Albion and Ierne (Ireland).

The people of the ancient British Isle belonged to the same great national family as those found in Gaul and Belgium, all were Celts. The Franks and Britons were tied together intellectually by the common religion of Druidism.

On 26 August 55 BC, as part of an expansion of the Roman Empire, Caius Julius Caesar landed in Britain with infantry of the 7th and 10th Legions. After several close battles and the subsequent submission of the British tribes, the Roman Legions withdrew.
A hundred years passed during which time British imports and exports passing through Gaul, had a small tax levied on them by Rome; however, the islands were not occupied by the Roman military.
In 43 AD, the Roman Emperor, Claudia sent four legions to Britain which thoroughly subdued the tribes and began a military occupation that was to last nearly four centuries.
Just prior to 406 AD, the Roman legions withdrew from Britain to reinforce garrisons in Gaul. With the occupying force gone, Britain suffered increased invasions from Picts (Scotland) and (Scots) Ireland.
[At left: Concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 400AD]

The beleaguered Britons appealed to the Consul commanding the Roman forces in Gaul, for protection, but none was forthcoming; whereupon, the Britons defended themselves and drove the invaders from their territory. After their victory, the Britons fell upon one another in a civil war.

The civil war was followed by a pestilence and yet another series of barbarian raids. Pict and German raiding was occurring all along the east coast and Saxon piracy was spreading into the English Channel.
Before the end of the 4th Century, irregular units of German soldiers and probably their communities were being given licensed settlements along the east coast as protection against northern invaders.
[At left: Archaeological concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 4th-5th Century AD]
Between 446 and 454, a British tyrant extended an invitation to the Saxons to settle in the south of the country and form a coastal defense of the land. Three ships companies of Saxons came and were soon followed by a larger force. Eventually a dispute over their relations developed and the Saxons revolted, their militia ravaged the island to the western sea. Towns of the provinces they raided, were destroyed, and life in southern Britain became utterly unbearable, finally the mercenaries returned to their own country.
East of Britain, across the North Sea was Jutland (now known as Denmark). The northern portion of Jutland was occupied by a people known as the Jutes, while in the southern portion of the peninsula lived the Angles.

Below the Angles, along the neck of the peninsula lived the Saxons. By the 3rd Century AD the expanding Saxon territory in Europe extended southwest to the Weser River. Further south, extending from the Ems River to as far down the coast as the Rhine, were a people known as the Frisians.
The Frisians and Saxons shared a common form of language, so that when either appeared in Britain, they were commonly described under the wider and vaguer name—Saxon.
The Saxon, Angles and Jutes were a confederation of people collectively caller Suevi. The Suevi were associated with six other small nations in a cult that worshipped the Mother Earth Goddess Nerthus, whose sanctuary was on an island neighboring Jutland.
During the early part of the 6th Century, the Suevi began a migration to Britain where they encountered other people from their confederation and religion, people who had previously been invited to settle in Britain to form a coastal defense. Among those who came was a Saxon earldorman (Chieftain) named Serdic. Cerdic is an ancestor on the Saxon line of this family tree and a key figure in bringing Anglo-Saxon rule to the British Isle.
What follows then is part of our family heritage. [1]

Traditional forefathers of the Gewissae Race  And Saxon Ancestry of the Kings of Wessex, England
Woden Whose son was
Baeldaeg  “
Elesa Whose son was
Cerdic, The Saxon

Cerdic, The Saxon
In the year 495 AD, the Saxon ealdorman Cerdic and his son Cynric, landed with five ships on the southern coast of Hampshire, England. Reaching land, Cerdic posted his Saxons in a close order of battle before the ships, where they maintained their ground against repeated attacks by the islanders, until the approach of night. Having secured a position on land, Cerdic founded a settlement and went on to fight the Britons at Sharford.
It is most probable that through war or negotiation, Cerdic made himself Lord of the West Saxon settlements and distributed his followers among the existing settlers.
In 508 Cerdic and Cynric killed the British King Natauleod along with 5000 of his soldiers.
In 519 Cerdic became the first recorded King of the West Saxons and ancestor to the royal English line. Cerdic ruled for fifteen years until his death in 534 AD.

Cynric, son of Cerdic ascended to the throne upon his father’s death in 534. During the year 552 AD, Cynric fought the Britons at Old Sarum and put them to flight. Thus began the westward expansion of the kingdom of Wessex.
Cynric had four known children, of which this branch of the family tree descended from Ceawlin.
Having ruled for twenty six years, Cynric died in the year 560 AD – sixty five years after landing in Britain with his father.

Ceawlin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 560. Ceawlin had one known son, Cuthwine.
In 577, Ceawlin and son Cuthwine captured the cities of Gloucester, Cireucester and Bath which brought West Saxon rule to the western sea.
The center of the powerful West Saxon kingdom of the late 6th Century laid in a region immediately south and west of the Middle Thames River.
In his day, the Holy Pope Gregory sent them baptism and Columba the Mass Priest came to them”.
In 591 the Saxons slaughtered a great number of Britons at Wanborough. Soon afterwards, Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom where he died in 593 AD.

Continued pedigree by generation:

Cuthwine Father of Cutha. “AD 577. This year Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought with the Britons, and slew three kings…and took from them three cities, Gloucester,   Cireucester, and Bath.”  Cuthwine did not rule and was killed in battle during the year 584.
Cutha Cutha did not rule,he was the father of Ceowald.
Ceowald Father of Cenred. His brother King Cynegis was baptized in 635 by Bishop Birinus at Dorchester. Ceowald visited Romein 688. He did not rule.
Cenred Father of King Ina and Ingild. Was Under King of Sussexin 692.
Ingild Father of Eoppa and brother of King Ina of the West Saxons. Ingild died during the year 718AD.
Eoppa Eoppa   did not rule, he was father of Eafa.
Eafa Eafa   did not rule, he was father of Eahlmund.
Eahlmund “AD 784. At this time reigned Elmund,   King of Kent,   the father of Egbert…” Eahlmund   granted land inKent   to the Abbot of Reculver.
Egbert Egbert   was the representative of an ancient dynasty whose line had passed through a couple centuries of relative obscurity. The story of Egbert and his   descendants follow, below.

Egbert was born in the year 775AD.
King Offa of Mercia, with the approval of Charlemagne, exiled Egbert for three years (beginning in 789) in Frankish territory.
Egbert married Lady Raedburga. Their union produced two children. Of which we are descended from Aethelwulf. The male line of kings, from Egbert to Edward the Confessor and the female line has persisted to present time.
Egbert united the Seven English kingdoms by annexing Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Essex and Merciato the already expanded Wessex. He also formed the basis of English resistance to further Danish invasion. Egbert was king of Wessex from 802-827 and the first king of all ofEngland from 827-836. He died after19 November 839.
[Image at left. King Egert grandfather of Alfred the great.]



                                          Eahlmund Oslac,  Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf
                                                Egbert           + Lady Raedburga

Aethelwulf [2]  married Lady Osburh, their son and heir was Alfred (The Great). Lady Osburh was described as a “most pious woman, noble in mind and noble in race”. She was daughter of Oslac, a great nobleman of Jute descent, and Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf. Lady Osburh’s line of descent reached back to Cerdic The Saxon’s nephews.
Aethelwulf reigned as Under King of Kent for several years prior to his father’s death in 839, then ascended to the kingship of the chief kingdom. He seemed to have been a religious and unambitious man for whom politics were an unwelcome consequence of his rank. In 855, after reigning for 16 years, he undertook a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent 12 months. On the return trip to England, he stayed at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks, from early summer to autumn 856. Aethelwulf died 13 January 858. [Image standing at right, Aethelwulf)

Alfred The Great

Egbert   +    Lady Raedburh Oslac,   Royal Cup Bearer
Aethelwulf                                 + Lady Osburh
                                      Alfred The Great

Alfred was born at Wantage, Berkshirein 849 AD.
He had a natural intellectual curiosity stimulated by the experience of two journeys to Rome before he was seven years old. He was surrounded in his youth by the influences of a cultivated home where he learnt to know and value the national treasure of folk song. This developed in him the appreciation, love and taste for beauty, but he was never satisfied with the life of a  young West Saxon noble.
In 868 at age 19, he married Lady Ealhswith (Alswitha), daughter of Earl Aethelred. Their marriage produced five children, of which my family descended from both Edward and daughter Aelfthryth. Son, Edward, became the next King of England in this line.
Daughter, Aelfthryth, married Baldwin II, Count of Flanders. Aelfthryth and Baldwin were ancestors of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William The Conqueror.
Alfred’s son-in-law, Baldwin II, was a descendant of Charles, Duke of Ingelheim, a son of Charlemagne and his wife, Lady Juliana. Alfred ascended to the throne ”after Easter in 871” and was crowned in Winchesterat age 23 years.
Much of Alfred’s reign was spent fighting the invading Norsemen or Danes. Out of necessity, he built a small number of large, 60 oar ships with high sides. There vessels, which were twice the size as the enemies, were used to engage and defeat the Danes while they were still at sea.
He was a scholar- and kept a notebook “in his bosom” in which he jotted down prayers, genealogy and other information ‘he may need for future use’. He invented the lantern for his personal use to offset the problem of candles blowing out while he was trying to read.

Alfred wrote or compiled the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which was the first written history in any modern language. During his reign, he founded the British navy, organized the militia, compiled a code of laws, built schools and monasteries and invited scholars to live at his court. He was a good scholar and translated many books.

No other king of the Dark Ages explored the literature of Christian antiquity to explain;
•  The problem of fate and free will.
•  The ordering of the world.
•  The ways in which a man comes to knowledge
He was an ambitious man and for all his idealism he was determined to leave some material traces of his passage through the world. Alfred wrote, “It has ever been my will to live worthily while I lived, and after my death to leave them that should come after me my memory in good works.”
His mind seems to have been more constructive than creative. His scientific spirit and intense desire for knowledge, combined with the instinct, for applying knowledge to practical ends.

Alfred wrote, “No man can prove his full powers, his ‘craft’, nor ‘direct and steer’ authority without tools and materials…These are a king’s materials and the tool with which he governs: he must have a well peopled land; he must have men of prayer, “bedesmen” and men of war and men of work…without these tools no king can prove his full powers (craft). For his materials also, he must have sustenance for the three orders, his tools…land to dwell in, and gifts, and weapons, and meat, and ale, and clothes and what ever else the three orders need. Without these he cannot keep the tools, and without these tools he cannot do any of those things which he has been bidden to do.”

All to him was symbolical—the sea and the shipping, the starry sky at night. The common incidents of rural life and the routine at court. His imagination was quick and vivid, but his intellectual powers were, probably richer and fuller than his emotional capacity. He speaks much of friendship, but little of earthly love. He touches highly on passion only when he faced and contemplated the mysteries of the spiritual world.

He believed that a life without knowledge and reflection was unworthy of respect.
After thirty years of rule, Alfred died on 28 October 901, his wife Ealhswith died about 905AD.

Edward The Elder

Aethelwulf   +   Lady Osburh Earl   Aethelred
                         Alfred   (The Great)       + Lady   Ealhswith
                                                Edward   (The Elder)

Edward was born in 875 [3]. He was married three times producing fifteen children. In 919, he was married to (3) Lady Eadyifu (Elgiva), daughter of Sigehelm, Earl of Kent. We are descended from their son, Edmund I and their daughter, Egiva, who married Charles III of France.

Edward conquered and annexed Danish colonies on the island, thereby enlarging the English kingdom to twice the size it had been under his father, Alfred.
He died at Fardon on Dee,17 July 924, after putting down an uprising of Meracins and Welsh. Lady Eadgifu died many years later in 961. [Image at right Edward the 1st, The Elder]

Edmund The Magnificent

Alfred   + Lady Ealhswith Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                                 Edward   (The Elder)      + Lady   Eadgifu
                                                     Edmund (The Magnificent)

Edmund was born during the year 920 AD. He married Lady St. Alfgifu, a union which produced two children of which we are descended from their son Edgar.
Edmund succeeded his brother to the throne in the autumn of 939, at age 18. During his short reign he proved to be both warlike and politically effective.
Edmund was killed in May 946 at age 26, having been on the throne only seven years. His death occurred while he was defending his steward against a criminal who had returned from banishment. [Black and white image at right, Edmund the Magnificent]

Edgar  The Peaceful

Edward   +   Lady Eadgifu Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                       Edmund (The Magnificent)      + Lady   St. Alfgifu
                                                   Edgar (The Peaceful)

Edgar was born in the year 943. He was married three times and produced four children. His second marriage in 965 was to Lady Ealfthyth (Elfrida) who was born in 945, daughter of Ordgar, Earl of Devon. Their union produced a son named Aethelred, whom we are descended from.
Edgar did not rule until 959. During his reign he maintained a state of peace which had been established in England by earlier kings.
He ruled that the kingdoms coinage bear the name of the moneyer responsible for its quality and the name of the place it was struck.
Edgar gave unreserved support to the men that were creating the environment of a new English culture, by transformation of English monastic life.
He deferred coronation until 873, when he was thirty years old in order to reach the full maturity of mind and conduct. He used prominent churchmen in the Coronation ceremony and for the solemn anointing, thus began the continuous history of the English Coronation. The coronation and anointing by religious leaders created in the kingship a corporate body with certain rights and privileges, which were to have continuity throughout the monarchy.
After Coronation, Edgar sailed to Chester where six kings promised to serve him by sea and land. As a symbol of their fealty, the six kings and five princes rowed him on the DeeRiver from his palace to the Church of St. Johns and back again while he held the rudder.
Edgar-The Peaceful died two years later on 8 July 975, His second wife Ealfthryth survived him and died in 1000 AD.

Aethelred II – The Redeless

Edmund   I   +   Lady St. Alfgifu Ordgar, Earl ofDevon
                            Edgar   (The Peaceful     + Lady   Ealfthryth
                                            Aethelred II-The Redeless

Beginning with Aethelred’s generation, this old West Saxon royal line was to experience problems, which would continue until the male line expired.
King Edgar had two sons. His eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward was born to his first wife, Aethelflaed, in 962. His next surviving son, Aethelred II, my ancient ancestor, was born to his second wife Ealfthryth in 968. When King Edgar died on 8 July 975, his eldest son Edward, then thirteen years old, ascended to the throne.
Almost three years later, on 16 march 978, at age 16, the young King Edward rode to his younger brother’s home for a visit. The household servants came into the courtyard to greet him, but as he dismounted they fell upon him and stabbed him to death. Aethelred II was only ten years old at the time of his brothers murder and it is not believed that he had any knowledge of, or a hand in the conspiracy.
Aethelred II ascended to the throne, was crowned a month later and began his reign in an atmosphere of suspicion which destroyed the prestige of the crown for his entire life.
In 985 he married Lady Alflaed, daughter of Thored. We are descended from their son Edmund Ironside  as well as from Aethelred’s daughter Elgiva.
Aethelred II behaved like a man who was never quite sure of himself, he was ineffective in war, his acts of spasmodic violence and air of mistrust from his nobles suggest a weak king.

On one St. Brice Day (November 13), he ordered all the Danish men in England to be killed. This was clearly an impossible order to carry out because in over a third of England, most of the towns were primarily peopled by Danes, there were also many Danes living throughout the rest of the country. However, in some towns the slaughter was carried out, this fratricide was not to be soon forgotten by the English Danes. During the purge, Gunwhild, the sister of King Swein of Denmark, and a hostage in England, was put to death.
King Swein launched an attack against England to revenge his sister’s death. The English Danes backed King Swein and the English nobles would not rally to Aethelred II because of mistrust.
In 992, the English land and sea forces were assembled in hopes of engaging the Danish invasion. However, the English earldorman to whom the militia was entrusted, sent word to the Danes then absconded from the army the night before the battle should have been fought.
King Swein kept attacking without pause.
By 1010AD, there was not an English leader who was willing to assemble an army, but each fled as best he could.
The rein of Aethelred II—The Redeless (Redelss meaning, the Unwisely Counseled) was an age of degeneracy marked by feebleness and treachery among its leaders.
Aethelred II died 23 April 1016 in London as the Danish army and navy closed in on the city.

Edmund Ironside

Edgar   +    Lady Ealfthryth Thored
                        Aethelred   II                 + Lady   Alfflaed
                                                Edmund Ironside

Edmund was born during the year 989.
He married Ealdyth, widow of Sigeferth of Denmark. They produced two sons, we are descended from their son Edward.
Edmund was in London with his father when the harried King died. Edmund succeeded to the English throne at age 27, on 23 April 1016. As the Danish army and navy put London to siege. After a time, the Danes began to run out of the necessary supplies required for a siege, where with they began to withdraw from London. With the Danes ranks broken, Edmund swept out of the city and defeated the siege army.
A short while later, in another battle, not far from London his army was defeated and Edmund became a fugitive. Unlike his father, Edmund was a popular person, the people backed him and he was able to put together another army.
After a successful campaign against nobles who were giving allegiance to the Danes, he was given the subkingdom of Wessex, while the rest of the country was to be under Danish control.
On St. Andrews Day (30 November), Edmund was murdered by an assassin.

Edward – the Exile

Aethelred   II    +    Lady Alfflaed Thored
                     Edmund Ironside             + Lady Sigeferth
                                              Edward the Exile

Edward was born during the year 1016, the same year that his grandfather died and his father was assassinated. Upon Edmund’s death, Cnut the Dane began eliminating the royal family. Baby Edward and his brother were whisked away to hide in Hungary where Cnut’s agents could not reach them.

Edward-The Exile, Prince of England lived essentially his entire life in favor at the Royal Court of Hungary, where he married Agatha daughter of Henry II, King of Hungary. They produced three children, 1) Edgar the Aetheling, 2) Margaret (my ancestor) and 3) Christia, who became a nun.

In 1054 King Edward the Confessor sat on the throne of England, he was old and his life of asceticism had left him no children as heirs to the throne. During this same year Edward the Exile was cleared for his return to England to assume the throne. Prince Edward remained in Hungary for two more years with his life long friends and relatives before returning in 1056. Soon after returning, in 1057, but before he had come to the royal court, Edward the Exile died. His son Edgar- The Aetheling, was too young to be considered as a possible successor to King Edward the Confessor.
Meanwhile, when King Edward the Confessors health failed, Harold Hardrada, who conceived himself heir to Cnut’s Kingdom became governor of England.
On 5 January 1066, Edward the Confessor died. The next day, Harold was crowned King of England. Harold ruled England from 6 January until his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, when the English army was defeated by the Norman’s—led by William I – The Conqueror.


Edgar, King of England  ↓ Richard I- Duke of Normandy, whose children were Emma and Richard II ↓
1) Lady Afflead + Aethelred II-The Redeless +↙                               ↘ 2)   Emma Richard II, Duke of Normandy  ↓
Edmund Ironside Edward the Confessor Robert I- The Magnificent ↓
Edward the Exile (no heirs) William I- The Conqueror   ↓ + Matilda of Flanders
        Margaret   + ↓   Malcolm III-King of Scotts ↙          Henry   I-King of England  (age 32)
          Matilda of Scotland (age 21) +  Henry I

* Matilda of Scotland married Henry I- King of England–this pedigree descends through the Norman line as follows below.

Margaret was born in 1045 AD.
In 1068-69, at about age 23, Margaret married Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scotts. Malcolm was born in 1031 and was King for 35 years, from 1058 to 1093. Their union produced a daughter, Matilda of Scotland .
Malcolm III was killed 13 November 1093. His wife Margaret, a very religious woman dies three days later on 16 November 1093.
[Color image at right, St. Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile and wife of Malcom III King of Scotts.

Matilda of Scotland
Matilda of Scotland, grew and married Henry I- Beauclerk, King of England and son of William I-The Conqueror. Their marriage tied the Norman and English lines together and from this we are descended.
[At left, Matilda daughter of Margaret and Malcolm III, wife of Henry I.] This genealogy is continued in (My family in history/Old World: The Normans)

[1] References:
•  A History of England Under the Anglo Saxon Kings, first pub. 1845 by J. M. Lappenburg, Kennikat Press, NY. In two volumes.
•  Anglo-Saxon England by F. M. Stenton, 3rd Edition, © 1971, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
•  An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England by Peter Hunt Blair © 1959, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
•  Alfred the Great: Maker of England by B. A. Lees © 1915, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, NY
[2] Ancient English names prefixed with “Ethel”, signified the honorary title of “noble.”
[3] The fashion of keeping birthdays does not appear to have been observed in the 9th Century. It mattered little when or where a ruler was born, on the other hand it mattered a great deal who his father was and if he came from royal stock.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Saxons

Old World: Irish & Scottish

(My family in history/Old world: Irish & Scottish)

During the Old Stone age, a land bridge extended between Denmark and Britain, and between Britain and Ireland. Many Pleistocene animals passed over this terrain bridge from the continent to Ireland, among which were the mammoth, hippopotamus, grizzly bear, brown bear, reindeer, the great Irish deer, red deer, wild boar, horse, fox and badger; not found in this ancient landscape were hyena, saber tooth tiger or Man.

Over the eons, the land bridge sank…

During the late Neolithic period, two peoples came by boat to settle inErin, these were;

•  The long headed, light eyed and fair skinned, Northern Europeans, and
•  The long headed, dark eyed and dark skinned, Southern Europeans.

From these two races was derived the bulk of the population of Erin, prior to the coming of the Gael.

The Gael or Milesians were a tall people, with long skulls and red, yellow gold or flaxen colored hair, straight noses and rosy white skin. They originally came from theNetherlands, the Elbeand Holstein and from recesses in the Baltic coast.

But the direct ancestors of the Gael, who first fought to settle in Erin, migrated from northwestern Europe to Spain, where they flourished—until the latter years in the life of a chieftain named, Breogan. And it is through Breogan that we follow the Irish and Scottish pedigree to Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I, King of England and toward the present [2].

[The interlacing lines of the Celtic Knot stands for “no beginning, no ending, the continuity of everlasting love and binding together or intertwining of two souls or spirits.”  The Celts did not record the meanings behind the designs they recreated  but scholarly speculation is that the symbols represented basic tenants of life, mankind and spirituality. The continual looping of the designs suggests themes of eternity and interconnectedness. Interwoven figures of people and animals may have represented the interdependent nature of life.  Two of more knots laced together symbolized lovers, God and man, and so on. Some ancient Celtic symbols have changed in meaning over time, having been influenced by the introduction of Christianity and the influence of other cultures. Circle knot represent eternity or the eternal cycle of life, death and rebirth. Triangles represent the threefold dominion of earth, sea, and sky or God, Son, and Holy Spirit. Square knots are shield knots, symbols of protection. Interlaced animals and men represent relationship, or emphasize the interdependence of mankind and nature. <http://www.celticcolours.com/celtic-symbols-and-meanings.aspx>]

In ancient times Ireland was known to her residents as Erin.[1]

Of Spain, had two sons, Bile and Ith.

Of Spain, had a son, named,

Golamh-The Soldier, was later in life known as Milesius.

When Golamh had grown, he wandered to Scythia and married Sreng, daughter of the king. Later he went toEgypt where he married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh (Necro II ?). Princess Scota returned to Spain with Milesius and brought with her the Stone of Scone, the pillow rock used by Jacob when he had his famous dream. This rock still remains with her descendants-the kings of Great Britain and Ireland.

The descendants of Breogan had prospered in Spain, but hard times came with a drought and famine which lasted 25 years. During this time, the families strength was being wasted against other tribes over sovereignty of Spain. The clan held council and decided to invade Erin. Golamh’s uncle, Ith, was sent to reconnoiter the island. While in Erin, the local kings became suspicious and men were sent to intercept and kill Ith before he returned to his clan inSpain.

Ith was mortally wounded just before his boat sailed, where upon he died at sea.

To avenge his death, the sons of Golamh mustered 30 ships and 900 men and sailed for Erin. Among the crew were Golamh’s Egyptian wife, Scota and their sons Eber and Heremon.

Eber landed with his ships in Kerry, in southwest Erin, fought a battle near Tralee and routed the enemy. During this battle, Scota was slain.

Genealogical Relationship of Erin’s  Early Gaelic Settlers

Breogan of Spain
S: Ith             ↲(murdered in Erin) ↳   S: Bile ofSpain Necro II, Pharaoh ofEgypt  610-595 BC
↳ S: Golamh (Milesius)  + D: Princess Scota v  ↲ Zedekiah,  King of Judah 619-587  BC
S: Eber  ↲  (slain in battle) ↳ S:   Heremon Eochaid  + D: Tea Tephi  ↲
                        ↳  S: Irial Faidh, King ofErin
                ↳  Eithriall

[S: =son, D: =daughter]

Heremon Eochaid
After several more battles, Heremon and his brother assumed a joint sovereignty over the island; Heremon taking the northern half and Eber taking the southern half. A year later, the brothers quarreled and fought a battle, during which Eber was defeated and slain.

From this time on the House of Eber and the House of Heremon have been warring over kingship of the island.[3]

Heremon became the sole king and reigned for 15 years.

Heremon Eochaid, grandson of the Egyptian Pharoah, married Tea Tepi, who is recorded as being alive in 580 BC. Tea Tepi was daughter of Zedekiah (619-587), King of Judah.

The Gael, like the Germans of the time, did not apply themselves to agriculture. Their principle wealth consisted of flocks and herds of cows, pigs, sheep and horses.

The various grades of society were bound together by ‘stock taking.’ At each level, the inferior social class paid food rents from their livestock to the higher.

And so the with the passing generations, the people known as the Gael became part of the island population of Erin.

Irial Faidh Of Munster, King of Erin, reigned 11 years, his son,
Eithriall King of Erin, reigned 20 years and was slain at the Battle of Raeire.
Prince Follam Whose son was,
Tighernmas Was a very active monarch and continually at war. During his 50 year reign, he   began smelting gold and Irish clothing was first dyed purple, blue and green.  He died on Hallows Eve.
Prince Eanbotha Did not rule, his son was,
Prince Smiorguil Did not rule, his son was,
Fiachafn Labhruine King of Erin, reigned 24 years and was slain in battle.
Aongus Oilbhuagach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain in the Battle of Bealgadan by   Eochaidh Mumho of Munster.[4]
Prince Maoin Did not rule, his son was,
Rotheachta King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain at Cruachain.
Prince Dein Did not rule, his son was,
Siorna Saoghalach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain at Aillinn.
Prince Oliolla Olchaoin Did not rule, his son was,
Giallchadh King of Erin, reigned 9 years and was slain by Art Imleach.
Nuada Fionn Fail King of Erin, reigned 28 years and was slain by Breas, a son of Art Imleach.
Simon Breac King of Erin, reigned 6 years and was slain by Sedna Innaraigh.
Muriadhach Bolgrach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and was slain   by Enda Dearg.
Fiachadh Tolgrach King of Ewrin, reigned 7 years and was felled by Oilioll.
Duach Laighrack King  of Erin, reigned 10 years and was slain by Lughaidh.
Prince   Eochaidh Buillaig  Known as Echu the Victorious and father of Ugaine. He was said to have resided atTara; however, this is uncertain, because his name does not appear in any known series of the kings ofTara.
Ugaine   More King of Erin. Married Ceasir Chruthan, daughterof the King of the French. He reigned 30 years and was slain by his brother.
Cobhthach   Caolbreag King of Ewrin, reigned 4 years and was slain at Dinnrih.
Prince   Meilage Was  felled at the Battle of Claire.
Jaram   Gleofath King of Erin, reigned 7 years and was slain.
Conla   Cruaich Cealgach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and died atTara.
Oiloilla   Caisfhaichlach King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain.
Eochaidh   Foltleatham King of Erin, reigned 11 years and was slain. He had two sons (at least), one was Aongus Tuirimbeach, who became king of Erin, reigned 30 years and died at Tara during the year 324 BC. The other son, our ancestor was           ♥ Prince Labchore. (See below)


Tara—The Royal Home
Tara was the fortified royal home of the Ard Ri (High King) of Erin, the ceremonial and administrative seat of ancient Gaelic royal power. The remains of Tara stand on the summit and down the sides of a gently sloping, round, grassy hill, 500 feet above sea level and 200 feet from the surrounding plains. The ruins are located 26 miles northwest of Dublin and 5-1/2 miles southeast of Navah, in Meath County, Ireland.

Tara is perhaps the most famous of Irish sites, with a history going back to the Second Millennium BC to the Bronze age, then forward to its abandonment in the 6th Century AD.

Under the Gael,Tara essentially the first national Irish capital. It was here that during the inauguration of the Ard Ri that a great feast was held, through the symbolism of the feast, the king was united with his land in a ritual marriage.

The structures which can still be seen are the ramparts or defenses that surrounded and protected the royal homes and civic structures; the wooden houses have long since disappeared.

Description of Tara
The principle fortification was Rath Righ, the oval shaped structure occupying the top of the hill. Being some 853 feet in diameter on the longest axis, it consisted of two walls, one of stone and one of earth, with a ditch in between.

Inside Rath Righ, are two side by side mounds, which were the Forrad and Tech Cormac. The Forrad having two ramparts and two ditches was a place of public meeting and a judgment seat.

A visitor to the Forrad during the time of Tara’s occupation wrote, “And in what was considered the highest point of the city the king had a fair and well built castle, and in that castle he had a hall, fair and spacious, and in that hall he was wont to sit in judgment”.

Also within the ramparts of Rath Righ, is Tech Cormac (Cormac’s house), home of the king that reigned 254-277 AD; this circular rath has an extreme diameter of 244 feet.

Near the northern periphery of Rath Righ is the 66 foot in diameter and 13 foot high “Mound of the Hostages”. In ancient times there was a timber house on the 25 foot diameter flat top of this mound, in which the hostages lived. In very early times, before it took the name Mound of Hostages, it had been a prehistoric “passage grave”.

Also on the periphery of Rath Righ is a worn down 40 foot in diameter and 6 foot high “mound of the cow”, which history tells us was the grave of a celebrated, legendary cow.

To the north of Rath Righ as the Rath of Synods. Three great Christian synods are recorded as having occurred here; 1) When St. Patrick preached at this location in 433 AD, 2) When St. Ruadan pronounced the curse which caused Tara to be abandoned and 3) in 697 when Adamnan procured acceptance for the law exempting women from taking part in battles.

Outside of Rath Righ, on the north slope of the hill are the remains of the Banqueting Hall. This consists of two parallel mounds, the remnants of the side walls of the old hall, which was over 759 feet long and 46 feet wide. This banquet and convention hall was a great timber building standing 45 or more feet high and having 12 doors, it was ornamented, had carvings and was painted in a variety of colors. The interior was subdivided, with compartments partitioned off to accommodate guests according to rank and dignity. At banquets, the great company of guests were seated in exact order of dignity and priority.

The great conventions at Tarawere intended to be held every third year, but are thought to have been held less frequently. When a convention was held, provincial kings, minor kings and chiefs and the most distinguished representatives of the learned professions of law, history, poetry, medicine, etc. attended. The conventions, which also included feasts and games started about October 28 and lasted for two to four weeks and occasionally as long as six weeks. During the convention, the Provincial kings had separate houses for themselves and their retinue; there was one house with separate compartments for queens and attendant ladies. There was another house for the poets and professionals, in which they held their “sittings”.

Every day the Ard Ri feasted with his company in the great banqueting hall. The hall was also used for transactions of important business, such as making new regulations for the whole country and examining and checking the kingdoms historical records. These functions were performed by experts.

West of the Banqueting Hall is Rath Caelchon, named after a chief ofMunster, a contemporary of Corme MacArt. Caelchon died at Tara and the rath was built in commemoration of him.

The 258 foot in diameter, Rath Graine received it’s name from Princess Grainne who, according to legend, eloped with a lieutenant in her fathers army. In the location where Rat Grainne was built, there was a marsh whose water derived from Tober Well. The marsh was drained and dried prior to construction of Rath Grainne and the Fothad of Rath Grainne. South of Rath Righ is Rath Laegaire (Rath Laery), being some 300 feet in diameter, it is surrounded by two great ramparts.

West of Rath Righ is Laegh well, which signifies “calf” (calf well) the well is now dried up.

The houses of the general body of the people who lived near Tara were scattered on the slope and over the plains east of the hill.

Tara was home to many of our Gaelic ancestors. Now, over 2,000 years later, we view this home and ancient town site through photographs taken several thousand feet above where they once walked loved, slept and transacted the important business of the day. They could not have conceived of a technology which produced the cameras and aircraft that made the photographs possible. Did Conla Cruaich Cealgach ever look up through the space that would one day be the flight path of an aircraft taking photographs of his Tara? Did he feel a nebulous swirl of his descendants as they began to dimly see back through time, into his world?

Continuing the Genealogical Line of Descent
The following list compares the names of our ancestors between Ugaine More and Eochaidh Foltleatham (from the above pedigree) both in their Ango-Gaelic and Latinized versions.[5]

Anglo-Gaelic Version Latinized Version
Ugaine More Ugaine Mor
Cobhthach Caolbreag Cobthaig Coelbreg
Milage Moalgi
Jaram  Gleofath Erero
Conla Cruaich Cealgach Conlaich
Oiloilla Caisfhaichlach Elela Casiaclaig
Eochaidh Foltleatham (name version in preceeding list) Echachaltlechin (name version found in the following list)

This genealogical table continues the pedigree with Latinized spellings from a 14th Century Codex known as, The Poppleton Manuscript.[6]

Echachaltlechin Father   of Rothir Father   of Luigdig Father   of
Labchore Their Mogalanda
Firaibrig Rosiu Conore
Firanroid Siu Echdachrida
Ferroid Dedaid Fiacracheathmail
Fircechairroid Iair Achachantoit
Oengusaturuug Elela Achircir
Firmara Eogami Find Fece
Fiachra Etersceuil Cruithinde
Elela Armi Conarremoir Senchormaic
Feradaig Admoir Uamnaich
Forgo Eorbre Fedilinther
Manine Dare Dornmoir Dengusabuiding
Arandil Corpe Crumpchimi Fedilinthe Aislingig
Rom Ellatig Oengusaphir
Echach Muinremuir (see   below)

In the Third Century AD, a great famine developed in the province of Munster, Erin. During this time, a man named Cairbre Riada, son of Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, led a party of is tribe to the north of Antrim (located in NE Erin) and another across the sea to Alba (Scotland).

The party landing in Alba used force of arms to obtain a settlement amongst the Pics. The people of this new settlement retained the name of their founding father and were called the Dal Riata of Alban, those which remained in North Antrim were known as the Dal Riata of Erin.

The Dal Riata of Erin lived in a territory roughly 15 miles by 30 miles in size. This territory was located on the NE seaboard of Erin, bordered by the sea on the north and east, by the Bush River on the west and the territory of Lathatna on the south.

And the decades passed…

Pedigree continued from previous list

Eochaid Munremor Son of Oengusahir of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, Erin. His son was Erc.
Erc Of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, had three sons: Fergus, Loarn and Oengus. These sons and their extended families sailed  across theNorth Channel to Alban and reinforced the settlement of the Dal Riata in a territory which had become known as Argyll.
Fergus Mar Tradition says that Fergus and his 11 brothers were visited in their Irish home and blessed by St. Patrick. Fergus is the first of the royal line of Dal Riata to settle in Alban (Scotland) and is thought to be the first to adopt the Christian faith. He became chieftain of Argyll. His son was Domngart, see below.
The territory of the Dal Riata in Alban seems to have lain in Kintyre and the southern part of Argyll, and in Cowal on the other side of Lock Fyne. This area is about 50 to 75 miles NNE of the northeast coast ofErin. The “chief place” of the Dal Riata in Alban was the fortress of Dunadd, which was located on a rocky height in marshy ground and which commanded the narrow neck of land that is (in 1985) approximately the location of the Crinan Canal.
Domngart Sonof Fergus Mar. Was known to have flourished in the year 506 AD. Was chieftain of the Dal Riata in Argyll. Later in life he withdrew from the chieftainship and died in religion.
Gabran Is remembered for his military expedition far to the east of Argyll, deep into   Pict territory. He died about 558 AD, during the same year that his army   withdrew from the land of the Picts. Having secured a position in Alban, the   descendants of the Gael then reinforced and strengthened this position and   finally began to expand. This was a similar multi generation, unplanned  ‘strategy’ followed by the Saxons entering Briton (500AD+), the Vikings  (700AD +) gaining Normandy from France, the English colonists (more Norman descendants) on the North American seaboard (1600AD +).
Aedan Aedan was the first ruler of Argyll who manifested real ability and character. In 575 AD, he and St. Columba attended a convention in Drumnceat, during which the King of Erin agreed to recognize the independence of the Scottish Dal Riata and its princes. This friendly settlement and the peace which it   secured resulted in an annual celebration and public procession of   thanksgiving which was held every year at Drumncest down to 1646 [7]. Aedan was ordained king by St. Columba, where upon the family line rose to become independent sovereigns. He reigned 31 years, withdrew from office about 607 and retired to religion. He died at the monastery in Kintyre during the year 608.
Eochaid Bunde (Eugene III) Although he was one of Aedans younger sons, he succeeded his father to the throne. He reigned as king of Argyll for 21 years, from 607-628 AD.
Domnall Brecc (Donald) Was king of Argyll from 636-642. He was apparently trying to attack a British hill site at Strathc, south of the Forth, when he was defeated and killed in   battle during or about 642AD.
Domangart (Dongard) Was the sole King of Argyll from 659-672. He was killed in 672, possibly in an incident during the long drawn out warfare between Aedans descendants and the family of Gartnait of Skye Isl. During the later part of the 7th   Century, a military census was taken in Argyll which showed the expansion of  the descendants of Erin (of those who hadmigrated to the Alban settlement of the Dal Riata inScotland. See   below.)

Military Census of Erc’s descendants in Alban during the late 7th Century

Family   of: Houses Men
Oengus 430 645
Fergus -> Gabran 560 1490
Loarn 420 1120
Pedigree continued from above
Eochaid (Eugene IV) Domangart’s son, Eochaid seems to have become king in about 695, but lost his life a year later.
Eochaid (Eugene V) Upon death of Eugene IV, a man named Ferchar Foda ascended to the throne and ruled a few months. He was followed by Selbah, who ruled until 723 AD. Selback’s son Dungal became king and ruled  3 years before being outsted. In about 726, Eugene V, who was over 30 years old began to rule. With his   ascension to the kingship, the Dal Riata returned to rule by the old family   line. In 727, the ex king, Selback came out of retirement and fought Eugene V in an inconclusive battle. Eugene V died in the year 733 AD.
Aed Find (Ethafind) Is thought to have been very young when his father died, since he is not heard of until 768. He died in 778 AD and was credited with a reign of 33 years, which means if true, that he ascended to the throne in 748. Aed Find was  famous for the Dal Riata assemblies held during his reign, which possibly instituted legal reforms.
Prince Eochaid Son of Aed Find and father of Alpin.
Alpin -The Scott Was involved in aggressive warfare inGalloway where he died fighting the Picts. His son was, Kenneth Macalpin.

Kenneth Macalpin
Kenneth was regarded as having been a brave and able prince. His pedigree derived him from the Dal Riata of NE Ireland, through a line of kings in the west of Scotland for more than 300 years. He succeeded his father to the throne in 839 and was king of Argyll for two years. Also in 839, the Norsemen invaded and defeated the Picts. This afforded Kenneth the opportunity to obtain the Pictish throne, which he held in conjunction with the  crown of Argyll for another  14 years. His kingdom then included the districts of Argyll and counties of Perth, Fife, parts of Forgar, Dumbaryon and Stirling, with Sconeas the chief seat of royalty.

Before about 1100 AD, the kingship was referred to as “King of the Albans”, after about 1100 AD the kingdom began to be referred to as Scotland.

Kenneth had two sons and three daughters; we are descended from his son, Constantin.

Kenneth is remembered as the destroyer of the Picts and founder of the Scottish dynasty. He died in his dun at Fortevoit on the Earn River in he year 860 AD.

Constantin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 860. He soon found himself face to face with the Norsemen. The Norse invasion of northern Alban had increased in intensity. The invaders were entering the inland areas by the multitude of coastal inlets, as they moved they ransacked everything looking for treasure, they killed the inhabitants and carried off others as slaves. Their invasions, which inflicted much suffering and confusion on the Picts, now fell on the Dal Riata.

In 877 the Norsemen invaded the country in force, entered Fife. Defeated the Dal Riata and pursued them through the country. At Inverdovet, in parish Forgan, the Dal Riata made a stand, but were completely defeated. Constatnin along with many of his followers were slain.

Donald II
Donald ascend to the kingship in 889 AD. He too was forced to contend with the invasions and brigandry of the Norse, who had by this time gained possession ofCaithness, Sutherland and Ross. Donald was killed in battle in 900 AD while fighting the Norse at Dunnotter in Kincardineshire.

A few years later, in 904, King Constantin II (not our line) lead an army in an attack against the Norse at Strathern, where the Norse were defeated and their leader killed.

Malcolm I
Upon retirement of Constantin II in 943 AD, Malcolm I, the 43+ year old son of Donald II ascended to the throne. He was a bold man and attempted to extend his power beyond the SpeyRiver, but failed. He gained territory in the region south of the Forth River, which was at the time in a state approaching disintegration. Malcolm I reigned 11 years before being slain at Fetteresso, in Kincardeshire about 954.

Kenneth II
After Malcolm I death, a man named Indulf, son of Constantin II (not in our line) ascended to the throne where he reigned for 8 years before dying. After the death of Indulf, a contest for the crown broke out. On one side was Duff, son of Malcolm I, on the other side was Colin, son of Indulf. In a battle for the throne, Duff defeated Colin, but two years later Colin expelled Duff. Duff died shortly thereafter and Colin ended up being slain by the Britons in 971.

During the same year (971), Kenneth II, another son of Malcolm I (from which this pedigree continues) ascended to the throne.

Kenneth II immediately proceeded to throw up entrenchment’s at fordable points along the Forth River to defend against invasions from the south. He attacked the Britons at Strathclyde, then turned and launched two invasions into Northumberland.

Under his monarchy, the kingdom was slowly extended south in every direction. Meanwhile under the influence of the Church and due to other attracting affinities, the northern tribes were silently becoming a nation.

After reigning 24 years, Kenneth II was slain at Fettercairn in Kincardinshire in 995 AD.

Malcolm II
Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II ascended to the Kingship in 1005. He began his reign by invading Northumberland but was defeated and many of his followers were slain.

Years later, in 1018, he again attacked Northumberland, and defeated their army at Tweed. Through this victory he gained Lothian and all of the territory north of Tweed River for the kingdom. Also during his reign and without serious conflict, he incorporated the kingdom of Strathclyde into the realm.

In 1031 the great Dane, Cnut, having conquered England[8], turned northward and met Malcolm on the boarder of their domains. Malcolm submitted to Cnut, but after Cnut’s army withdrew, Malcolms oath of allegiance dissolved. Malcolm II reigned 29 years before being assassinated on25 November 1034.

Princess Bethoc
Bethoc, also known as Beatrix, was the daughter of Malcolm II and his third wife Aelguifu. Bethoc marries Crinan the Thane, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld and Lord of the Isle. Their children were Maldred and Duncan I. Son Maldred married Edith, daughter of Ughtred, Earl of Northumberland and his wife Elgiva, daughter of Aethelred II, King of England.  Bethoc’s husband Crinan was slain in battle with King Macbeth in 1045, a tale which will come to light in the preceding life story of Duncan I.

Duncan I
Duncan ascended to the throne of Alban in 1034. He married Maud, daughter of Siward, Earl of Northunberland, who was in turn related  across the generations to the Saxon line to Alfred the Great..

Duncan and Maud had four children, of whom we are descended from Malcolm III Canmore. Duncanwas a very able man, but when he ventured beyond the Spey River, his cousins, the Earl of Thorfinn and Macbeth, joined forces against him. (Macbeth was descended from Ferchar Foda), an earlier king of the Dal Riata, and thus related to the royal line. The combined forces of Duncan’s cousins were too great for his army and after a severe struggle, Duncan was slain by Macbeth near Elginin 1040 AD.

With the death of Duncan I, Macbeth claimed the throne. In 1045, Crinan, father of the late Duncan, mustered all of his followers and the opponents of Macbeth and attempted to drive him from the throne. A great battle ensued during which time Crinan was killed. To Macbeth, the crown must have  now seemed more secure. However, the late King Duncan had left a wife and two sons. Duncan’s wife Maud, had the support of her father, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Siward, in an attempt to put his grandsons on the throne, mustered a large army and naval force. King Macbeth was driven north to the hill fort Dunsinnane where there occurred a severe, but inconclusive battle. Earl Siward returned home with his army.

Malcolm III
Malcolm III Canmore (Ceann Mor=Big Head) was heir apparent and son of Duncan I.

Because of his grandfathers (Siward) campaign against King Macbeth, Prince Malcolm III gained possession of the territory between the Forth and Tweed Rivers. After gaining the support of his people, Malcolm rallied an army and met Macbeth beyond the River Dee on 15 August 1057, where Macbeth was defeated and slain.

The apparently very capable Macbeth was weakened by the effects of time and the single-minded attacks made against him. Although he was victorious in battles #1 and #2 against Duncan and Crinan, in preparing for battle #3, he was forced to flee to a fortified position and fight a defensive, inconclusive battle. With the forces that provided his continued strength weakened over time, he was then defeated and slain in the forth battle. Check…check…check…checkmate.

In 1058, Malcolm III ascended to the kinship of the Scots. At this time, Malcolm ruled bands of marauding warriors and a brutish peasantry. The people lived by barter and booty; their homes were of earth and timber behind defensive palisades.

Earlier in his life, during Macbeth’s rule, Malcolm III lived in the Anglo-Saxon royal court in Britain. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he returned the hospitality by giving sanctuary to the previously exiled royal family of the late Prince Edward the Exile, whose children were Edgar the Aetheling, Margaret and Christine.

In 1069, Malcolm married the exiled, Princess Margaret.

Malcolm was a brutal opportunist, ruthless, powerful and an intelligent warrior. He established a dynasty that forged a feudal state along the western European lines out of a northern Celtic tribal kingdom. He introduced the Motte-and-Baily Castle into Scotland from the Anglo- Saxon lands and adopted the efficient Norman military tactics.

Margaret was an excellent wife and had a large family by the King. Her influence over her husband and the people of Scotlandwere great. She softened and polished Malcolm’’ manners and taught him many important things. She was an accomplished Princess and a very religious woman. Dunfermline was her favorite place of residence and it was here that she had a hand in establishing a Benedictine monastery. She was devoted to St. Andrews, patron saint of Scotland and, established the Queensferry for pilgrims to cross the ForthRiver. She and Malcolm built St. Columbas monastery and church on the Isle of Iona.

In November 1093, Malcolm died while fighting at Alnwich Castle in Northumberland.

Margaret is reported to have died three days later, after hearing of the death of her husband and eldest son, on 16 November 1093. In her last words, she was thanking God for sending such tragedies to strengthen her soul.

Margaret’s saintliness was recognized and she was canonized in 1251 AD, she is now remembered as St. Margaret of Scotland.

With the children of Malcolm III and Margaret, the pedigree splits taking different family names only to rejoin generations later.

Matilda was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret in the year 1082. After the death of her parents, she  and her young brothers and sisters fled Scotland to the English court. Meanwhile, back in Scotland, Matilda’s Uncle Donald and her half brother Duncan struggled for control of the   kingdom. On 11 November 1100, at about age 18, Matilda, Princess of Scotland married Henry I, King of England, son of William I-The   Conqueror. Matilda second married William de Albini, Earl of Arundell and  Buckingham, which led to her becoming an ancestor to the Fitz-Alans, Earls of   Arundell.

St. David:
David was born to Malcolm III and Margaret in the year 1080. He, like his younger sister, Matilda, fled to the English court upon the death of their parents. His elder brother became  King of Scots and thereupon made David the Earl of Strathclyde- a holding in southernScotland.  David greatly added to his properties by narrying Matilda de Huntington,   daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland. She was also grandniece of William the Conqueror and the wealthiest woman in England. Their son was Henry, Prince of Scotland. David inherited the Scottish crown in 1124 and continued to develop an Anglo-Norman feudal system. He granted small estates to his knights and large tracts of land (fiefs) to his powerful friends who swore allegiance to him. He established the See of Glasgow and revived eight Bishoprics. Continuing his patronage of the Church   of Rome, he founded monasteries and abbots.His wife Matilda de Huntington died in 1131 and David died inCarlisle in 1153.

Henry, Prince of  Scotland
In 1139 Prince Henry married Ada de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, who was a grandson of William the Conqueror, and Elizabeth de Vermandois, who was granddaughter of Henry I, King of France and his wife, Anne of Russia. Their daughter was Margaret.

Daughter of Prince Henry and Ada de Warenne, married 1) Conan IV, Duke of Britany and 2) Humphrey de Bohun IV,  Earl of Hereford. Margaret and Hunphrey’’ son was Henry de Bohun, a Surety for the Magna Charta of King John. Several generations later this line produced Humphrey de Bohun VIII, who married Princess Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England. Humphrey VIII and Isabella’ great-grand daughter was Alinore de Bohun, who married Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III, king of England.

Richard the Fearless, Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm   I   ↓ Alfred the Great      +
Lady   Ealhswith
Richard   the Good II ↓ Kenneth  II   ↓ Edward the    Elder  +   ↓ (3) Lady Eadgifu
Robert  I, 6th Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm II +
Aelgifu (generations  later)
 (also, gens later)
William the Conqueror ↓ Henry   I, King of France  + Anne   ofRussia Bethoc    ↲   + Crinan the Thane Siward      ↲
(to   grandson) ↓ (to granddaughter)       ↓ ↳ Duncan I + Maude ↳ Edward the Exile   ↓
William de  Warenne  +   ↓ Elizabeth   de Vermandois ↳   Malcolm III + (2) Margaret
Matilda      De   Huntington + St. David  ↙ (son of Malcolm III & Margaret) (2) William de Albini    ↓ +  Matilda        ↓ +of  Scotland (1) Henry I    King ofEngland
(generations   ↓ later) ↳  Ada de   Warenne + Prince   Henry↲ of  Scotland Descendants   ↓ became   Fitz-Albans Matilda   the   ↓ + Empress Geoffrey   Plantagenet
(This line      ↓ descends to Richard Warren, one of my 1620 AD Mayflower ancestors. Margaret    ↲   + (2)   Humphrey de Bohun IV      ↓ Henry II      King of England +
Eleanor of Aquitaine
John             ↓ +King   ofEngland Isabelle   ofAngouleme
↳   Henry de  Bohun (Magna Charte Surety)          Henry III        ↲         King of England + Eleanor   of Provence
(generations   later) ↓ Edward I ↲    King of England + Isabel of Castile
Humphrey de Bohun VIII     + Isabella        ↲
(generations   later) ↓
From this   –> generation on, see post: Royal Grace to frontier colonist
Alinore  De   Bohun + Thomas of Woodstock (son of Edward III, King of England) ↓
(generations   later) ↓
Richard Sears, 1630AD  immigrant to


[1] The name, Erin, comes from the root which signifies fat, fruitful and perhaps with a special reference to the fertility of Irish pastures.
[2] Reference sources for the Irish and Scottish pedigree and historical accounts.

  • The History of Ireland to the Coming of Henry II, by Authur Ua Clerigh, first publ. 1910, reissued 1970, Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY.
  • A Social History of Ancient Ireland, Vol II, by P.W. Joyce, first publ. 1913 and reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, NY.
  • The Hisory of Civilizatioin in Scotland, Vol I, © 1892 by John MacKintosh, Publ. by Alexander Gardner,London,Eng.
  • Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
  • The Scottish World © 1981 by Harry N. Abrams, Inc, NY.

[3] In my time, of the late 20th. Century, there are no Kings in Ireland, but northern and southern Ireland are in a state of guerilla warfare, ostensibly with religious and political differences. England has been trying to suppress the fighting, assassinations and terrorism.
[4] It was the duty of the High Kings of the Gael not only to command their armies in person, but to fight in the forefront of the battle, which explains why so many kings perished by the sword.
[5] Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
[6] Ibid.  Ms. Anderson’s source for the list was the 14th Century Codex known as The Poppleton Manuscript. [Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms Latin 4126]
[7]  1646 AD was the date given by the historian, Colgan, who lived in the 1600s.
[8] For further information regarding the Dane invasion and conquest ofEngland, and it’s effect on our family line, see the Saxon Line, in particular Aethelred II, Edmund Ironside and Edward the Exile.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: Irish & Scottish

The ancient family

A prologue to European genealogy
by Mr. Larry
(Category: My family in history/Old World: The ancient family)

Like paratroopers from a distant age yet to come, the snowflakes fell. Each winter found these icy invaders in new territory, further and further south of their northern homeland. At first the snow quickly melted, and then it stayed– pressing deeper into the Spring, arriving earlier in the Fall.

In the northern regions and on the lower mountain slopes, it had become permanently entrenched. In the valleys and on the plains the summer’s temperatures became perceptibly cooler. Now herds of wildlife were moving south, only to be replaced by reindeer. The old trees were showing stress, many of their limbs barren during the summer; yet around their once sheltered trunks grew the hearty saplings of a different type of tree, ones that thrived in cooler, drier clime.

The sky was gray for much of the Fall and the great snow blitz which was inexorably leading to a Glacial Age, was underway.

Fifty Years Later

It was a cold, dark and uncertain time. Huddled together for security and warmth, The People comfort and console one another as they sit in a rudely constructed shelter against a cliff wall. It is late summer and already there is snow in the southern mountains. The elders recalled from their youth, a time when the snow level remained high on the mountains until mid winter. Game had been plentiful throughout the year, but that had all changed and the change could not be understood. Now, every Spring and Fall they had to move their families to the southern edge of the new hunting territory, a process that carried them farther and farther from their familiar northern mountain plains. Each Spring the game would not come as far north and each summer the herds seemed to move away earlier.

And so The People moved with the seasons, but as they proceeded south, they were unable to escape from the increasing cold.

Inside their bivouac and wrapped in skins, they could feel the cold air that came down from the mountain ice fields. Tomorrow they would abandon this shelter and move south for several more days before looking for a cave and building a winter camp.

As sleep covered their bodies, their minds roamed in dream. Some dreamed of warm bone marrow, others of the juicy summer berries which had been so hard to find this year, but all dreamed of getting away from the cold that seemed to follow them south all their lives.

On the European plains that had previously carried extensive Oak forests, the conversion to Poplar, then too Birch and finally to Tundra occurred within a period of about one hundred years. The change from interglacial warmth to glacial times occurred in less than two hundred years….and the Wűrm Glacial Age began.

20,000 Years Later

During the Ninth Millennium, BC, the environment was rapidly and severely modified by a change in climate. Those areas most profoundly affected were the territories bordering the last major glaciation and northern Africa.

In mid Europe, the periglacial and recently uncovered glacial fields quickly developed mixed Oak forests. This region, now growing richer in flora and fauna, constituted a marked improvement for human settlement.
By 8000 BC, the melting Scandinavian ice cap had uncovered the southern Baltic and this body of water was fresh water lake.

The European climate continued to moderate. By 6500BC the Post Glacial Period is considered to have begun; however, at the time there were still many bulky glaciers in the mountain valleys of the north.

Following the shrinking glacial fields and the Mastodon, as they retreated toward the north and east was a breed of Man whose ancestors had been trapped in Europe for the duration of the Ice Age. The  Neanderthal followed the Mammoth, the European Bison, the Saber tooth Tiger and Cave Bear out of Europe and into Extinction. He was bright, but too few in number, rigid in his diet and ways to adapt to the warmer climate with its changing flora and fauna.

For tens of thousands of years, the northern families of Man had been living on the vast lush, pluvial Saharan plains as their ancestral European homes were subjugated to the onslaught of the Wűrm Glacial Age. But now, the glaciers had receded; the European landscape was becoming extensively covered with forest.

And as the northern climate warmed, the rain belts abruptly shifted away from northern Africa toward Europe.

The greatly curtailed rainfall confronted the North African human population with sharply worse conditions. The land was becoming drier, the grass scantier and the grass eating animals fewer. These conditions could only be met by migration or a dramatic readjustment in Man’s way of life. So, The People moved in search of new hunting grounds; however, most were unsuccessful, perishing from either lack of food or in combat with other tribes of Men for control of diminishing hunting grounds.

Over time, the Saharan populations split into groups, moving south east and north. Of the tribes moving north, our family descended from those which skirted the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, continued north across the Caucus, between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea to settle in the steppes of eastern Europe.

As these men move north, it should be realized they knew nothing of receding glaciers or rain belts. They had no glimmering conception that each was a generation in a family that was successful, migrating or perishing locally.

[15,000 year old cave drawings, Altamira Cave, Altamira, Spain. The paintings depict bison, boars, and horses, leaping and plunging across the cave ceiling; they are perhaps the most beautiful cave paintings anywhere.]

In these distant reaches of time, before recorded history, men were part of historical events on so grand a scale that they can be referred to only as statistical masses, but not as isolated individuals. In reality, relatively few people followed the rain belts north and these moved so slowly between generations, that they were probably unaware they were moving.

And the children of The People settled in the steppes of Eastern Europe.

Hand in hand with the disappearance of the continental ice sheet and the mountain spawned glaciers was a reduction in the large herds of herbivorous animals, which were being replaced with the more scattered, less abundant and more agile deer, wild boar and numbers of smaller animals.

By 8000 BC, Man took a step forward from the nomadic life of hunting and fishing to a life based somewhat on agriculture. He was beginning to domesticate animals, to live in small settlements, in communities and to gather if not cultivate cereal crops.

Arriving in the Caspian Steppes, The People found wild sheep which had a wild distribution ranging from central Asia to southeast Europe.
By 6500 BC, the sheep were domesticated, providing meat, milk and wool, and becoming the main agent for the pastoral expansion of these people. [Above left: Neolithic tools,  ca 8000 BC]

Around 6000 BC, Western Europe was invaded by warm, moist air, Mixed Oak forests became even more extensive as the climate which had kept Europe cool since the glacial retreat, changed. The forests broke up human settlements, creating small isolated bands. The herds of grass eating animals almost disappeared and the successful Paleolithic way of life, in which men were still primarily big game hunters and nomads, was replaced by a way of life where man was a gleaner, fisherman or hunter of small game in wooded terrain.

From roughly 6000 BC to 2500 BC, the climate provided plentiful rainfall for the east European grassland steppes. The herdsmen flourished as the grasslands supported greater numbers of domesticated livestock, which in turn supported larger families.
[Above right: Replica of Neolithic Danubian house, ca 5000BC]

About 4000 BC, when the climate was moister than even now, The People of the northern steppe region had become fairly well settled into a Neolithic culture. They lived in wattle and daub huts often grouped in a circle and occupying a defensive site. Their subsistence was derived from growing cereals, breeding cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, pigs and hunting and fishing.

[Concept painting: Neolithic farming, ca 4000BC]

Just prior to 3000 BC, there were three broad varieties of men living in the West, these were:

the Northern Flatlanders, Highlanders and the Southern Flatlanders. These men had slightly different physical features and broad cultural differences as seen in the following table.

Varieties of Man living in the West just before 3000 BC.

Northern Flatlanders Highlanders Southern Flatlanders
Long heads Round heads Long heads
Long boned Stocky boned Less tall, slight bones (about 5 feet tall)
Lighter: eye, hair and complexion Darker: eye, hair and complexion
Inflected Indo European language Agglutinative language Inflected Semite language
Pastoral Gardeners Pastoral
Patriarchal Matriarchal Patriarchal
Sky worshipers Fertility gods, Earth worshipers Weather gods, storm worshipers
Herders of cattle and sheep Herds of antelope, camel and asses
Wore long hair and beards Closely cropped hair, no beards
Became European and North American Anglo Became Orientals Became Arabs

The geographic region of the Northern Flatlands is bordered on the south by a west to east spine of mountains which extend from the Pyrenees, through the Swiss Alps, the Apennines, the Balkan highlands and on to the  Himalayas. The eastern boarder is 80º East Longitude. The northern boarder lies south of the Netherlands. The heart of the Northern Flatlands lies in a region just north of and extending from the black Sea to the Caspian Sea.

The moist Atlantic climate which entered the continent about 6000 BC, prevailed in Europe and China for over 3000 years, but around 2500 BC it too began to give way. A warmer and drier Sub Boreal period settled across the continent for 1500 years, from 2500 BC til 1000 BC.

As the Steppe dried, the grass became scantier, supporting smaller herds. Nature exerted pressure on The People to either have smaller families, live poor lives or migrate.

Coincident with the drying of the grasslands, there occurred two major inventions which would eventually propel The People out of the Steppe:

1)  Living wild on the plains and having a natural distribution which extended from the tundra, across the Eurasian steppes to the forests, were horses. Horses were first domesticated on the Caspian steppes around 2250 BC. AT first they provided meat, milk and were used for haulage, but soon they were to be ridded in war.

The first traces of nomadic herdsmen began to show up around 2300 BC. These men spoke the Inflected Indo-European language and lived in felt tents supported by a light frame work.

As nomadic pastoral societies began to spread, signs of rank and wealth began to appear.

2)  By 2200 BC, the Copper Age had arrived on the Steppes. The invention of the battle ax and its use by the mounted nomadic herdsman began to establish these Aryan peoples as a local governing class. Small groups with great mobility began attacks against the peasant cultivators and settled peoples to the west.

3) The men that made the new metal, the new tools and the new weapons, in turn created opportunities for yet other kinds of men. The men that adopted these new tools and weapons were highly mobile herdsmen who lived in a land that was becoming drier and drier.

As time passed they became warrior herdsmen.

Around 1800 BC, these Bronze Age invaders now known as the Getic Nations, broke out of the drying Northern Flatlands, from an area north of the Caspian Sea. The first wave of these peoples moved into central Europe and India.

Six hundred years later, around 1200 BC, another wave swept out of the Northern Flatlands.
The Massa-Getae seem to have been the rear guard of the Getic Nations. Having developed and Iron Age technology over the centuries, these invaders exploded out of that area of the northern Balkans into central and Western Europe. As they migrated west toward the Atlantic, various groups spun off to form the nations of Classical History.

During the migration, interbreeding occurred between the Getae and the indigenous populations, but the ruling caste did not at all diverge from their warlike temper.

The invaders were held together by their military strength, which was derived from a combination of warriors and weapons and by a hierarchical priesthood. The royal kinsmen constituted a great family, it was they who held the highest offices and who married into other royal families. In the time of the XVIII Egyptian Dynasty, around 1450 BC, the foundation had been laid for international royal caste which has continued to some degree until the present. [Above: Bronze age swords.]

The Getae moved west. Near the Danube River, the Thracians settled. The migration turned north occupying southern Poland, and then turned west spinning off the Germanic nations. Part of the Germanic branch continued west and settled in northern France (Gaul).
Now, the main body of the Getae advanced north along the Vistula river, giving rise to the Vandals and Lombard’s. Expanding toward the west they left the Saxons and Angli. The migration continued from the shores  of the Baltic Sea into Scandinavia, settling Sweden, Norway and Denmark (Historically known as Jutland). Here the Aryans found themselves in an almost empty world and thus avoided hybridization,  while maintaining the stability and purity of their speech. They may have been the first settlers of this area, as it’s thought that the Lapps and Finns came in afterwards from Asia.

References from prehistory through the ‘Ancient Lines of Familial Descent ‘

  • The Dawn of Civilization, edited by Stuart Piggot, © 1967, McGraw-Hillbook Co.;
  • The Evolution of Man and Society by C,D,Darlington, © 1969, Simon andSchuster,NY;
  • The Evolution of Civilization by Carrol Quigley, © 1961, The Macmillan Co.;
  • The Weather Conspiracy by The Impact Team, © 1977 Ballantine Books, NY;
  • The Face of the Earth by G.H. Dury, © 1959,England.

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City Survival: Evacuate (Part 2 of 2)

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ City Survival: Evacuate (Part 2 of 2)

How to Effectively Evacuate a Big City Without a Car
January 16, 2008, Grandpappy.info, by Robert Wayne Atkins
Pasteed from: http://www.grandpappy.info/hbigcity.htmcity3 neighborhood

If you live in a major metropolitan area then you may not own your own vehicle. The city’s existing mass transit system will take you anywhere you need to go within the city. Therefore everything you could possibly need is within easy reach, such as doctors, hospitals, restaurants, grocery stores, and everything else. Purchasing a vehicle is simply not an option for most of the residents in a big city for the following reasons: (1) the down payment, (2) the monthly car payment, (3) the monthly insurance payment, (4) the monthly parking fees, (5) the cost of gas, and (6) the repairs. When added together these costs far exceed the small amount of money you currently spend riding the city’s mass transportation system. [Photo: Living near the older section of an urban region will lead to social issues, a few days sooner than in other areas.]

However, during a major disaster event some of the problems of living in a big city would be: (1) the mass transit system will probably become unreliable or simply stop, (2) deliveries of food to the restaurants and grocery stores will stop, (3) the electricity may become intermittent or stop, (4) the water and sewer systems may fail, and (5) it would only take one fire to burn the city to the ground. The fire could be started intentionally by a terrorist, or it could be a simple heating or cooking fire that accidentally gets out of control. Think about what happened to the World Trade Center in New York City. On September 11, 2001 the city’s fire fighters were able to limit the damage to a very small part of the city. However, if the fire fighters had not had access to an continuous supply of water at high pressure then the entire city could have gone up in flames. Therefore, during a major disaster event a big city will not be a place where people will die of old age.

If you would like to read James Wesley Rawles observations about the feasibility of attempting to survive in a big city during a disaster, please read my post titled, City Survival: Stay (Part 1 of 2) or paste the following website in your browser:  http://aspedantheod.tripod.com/id178.html

The first question is how could you escape from a big city if the mass transit system isn’t working and you do not own a vehicle? The obvious answer is that you could walk or ride a bicycle out of the city. Although this may seem to be a monumental task, it is a feasible option as long as you don’t have to carry a lot of weight with you. In fact, depending on the disaster event, a person walking or riding a bicycle may have a much better chance of escaping a major city if the disaster results in a traffic grid-lock situation and vehicles are stalled for hours or days on the roads, bridges, tunnels, and highways. In this situation it would not be unusual to see lots of people attempting to walk out of the city. Many of these people will have simple daypacks or school backpacks on their backs, or they will be pulling a luggage carrier behind them containing either a suitcase or a backpack. The only individuals who would be noticed would be the ones with specially designed camping backpacks which display a variety of special survival tools or weapons strapped to the outside of those packs. Those individuals would quickly become obvious targets for the thieves and criminals who are also a part of the exodus crowd.

city2 burn

The next question is where would you go and what would you do when you got there. Traveling to a remote small town with very little money in your pocket and with only the clothes on your back is a very scary thought. However, there is a way to make it a little less scary if you are willing to engage in a little advance planning.

Choosing a Safe Destination
Resist the temptation to pick another large city as a safe evacuation destination. All large cities have the same inherent weaknesses during a disaster as your current city. Almost any small community has a far better chance for long-term survival during a disaster event than any big city.

Therefore, you should begin your search by looking at a map of your state and identifying several small towns that:
•  are between 60 to 75 miles away from your current apartment,
•  are not on a major interstate or freeway, and
•  are where you get to them from at least two different directions during a disaster event without adding a significant number of miles to your journey.

A family could walk or ride bicycles a distance of 75 miles within three to seven days, depending on the family. However, the overwhelming vast majority of the people escaping from a city during a disaster would not consider walking that far. They would stop at the first safe community they came to and wait for the federal or state government to rescue them or for the local community to take care of them. Unfortunately their vast numbers will quickly exhaust that community’s charitable goodwill. On the other hand, families that do not stop at the first opportunity but who keep moving towards a more distance community would have a much better chance for long-term survival.

A person could carry enough food and a portable water filter to easily survive for three to seven days. However, you would not be able to carry a lot of equipment, supplies, water, and food with you. When you reached your safe destination, you would be just another homeless refugee family with limited options, unless you had something waiting for you at your destination.

If you rented a car now, before there is any threat of a disaster event, then you could drive to each of your potential safe rural towns and evaluate each town and select the one that would be best suited to your needs. An ideal small rural town would be one that:
1.  is at least several hundred feet above sea level,
2.  is surrounded by farm land, dairy cows, and other typical farm livestock such as horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and chickens,
3.  has a reasonable supply of trees and forest timber land,
4.  has a few nearby manufacturing facilities of any size, and
5.  its residents still have the right to own firearms to protect themselves.

city9 small townIf the community meets the above minimum criteria then you should verify that you could afford to pay the local rent for a furnished apartment or Extended Stay Motel that meets the minimum needs for your family. You can find the phone numbers of all the local apartments and motels in the yellow pages of the local phone book. Call each apartment and make a simple list of the location and phone numbers of all the furnished apartments in the area along with the rental price and the required deposit for each apartment. Visit the ones that are of interest to you and politely ask to see the inside of an actual apartment. Write down a brief description of what you see along with your opinion about the place. If you have a camera then take a picture of the apartment building and the inside of the apartment after politely asking the manager’s permission. Record the picture number(s) on your master list of apartments so you can match them up later. This information will provide you with advance knowledge of your options if a disaster forces you to relocate to this community. Some of the places that currently have available apartments may rent them before you return, and some places that are now full may have an available apartment in the future. During an actual disaster the first families to arrive with enough cash to pay the rent and the deposit will get the available living quarters.
[Image: Small town, the kind of place you want to be/go to when SHTF.]

You should also ask if the monthly rent includes the basic utilities or if the utilities will be an additional expense. The utilities are normally included in the rent for Extended Stay Motels but not for apartments, although the apartment rent may sometimes include the water and sewer bills. During a disaster event it would be better if the utilities were included in the rent for the apartment or the Extended Stay Motel so the water, power, and heat would already be on when you arrive. During a disaster it might take a long time for the utility crews to get around to activating new accounts. Also ask if the apartment complex has its own washing machines and dryers for the use of its residents. These machines are usually coin operated. In addition, if an apartment has a functional wood-burning fireplace then you might want to give it more serious consideration than an apartment without a fireplace. If the disaster adversely impacts the state’s power grid then having a wood-burning fireplace would give you the option to heat your apartment and cook your food.

If the quality of the furniture inside the locally available furnished apartments is completely unacceptable to you then you should consider the unfurnished apartments. With an unfurnished apartment you would have three basic options:
1.  Sleep on the floor. Eat your meals while sitting on the floor. If someone in your family chooses to complain then you can remind them of your sleeping      accommodations below a bridge on a creek bank during your long walk to your new apartment.
2.  Purchase some high-quality inflatable air mattresses, and a folding table and some folding chairs, and then store them inside your storage unit at the small town.
3.  Set aside enough cash to purchase some new mattresses and some good used furniture after you relocate to your new apartment. The seller might agree to deliver these items to your apartment for free or for a small fee. Or you could rent a small U-haul truck and go get them yourself.

Renting a Small Storage Unit
After you determine which of the potential rural towns best suits your needs then you could rent a small storage unit near that town. A basic 6 foot by 6 foot by 8 foot tall unit rents for about $25 per month, or a 6 by 10 by 8 foot tall unit rents for about $35 per month. If possible you should pay the rent for at least three months in advance (six months would be better). You can locate these storage facilities in the yellow pages of the local phone book under the word “storage.” If you can afford it, one of these small storage units could easily be packed from wall to wall and from floor to ceiling with enough equipment, supplies, and food to last a family of four for one-year or longer. Put the heavier sturdier items, such as food, on the bottom of a stack and the lighter items, such as clothing, on the top of a stack. If possible leave a narrow aisle along one wall or down the middle of the unit so you can access any stack inside your unit at any time.city5 storage1
Climate controlled and 24-hour security storage units usually cost approximately twice as much. These units may be a better choice if you intend to make a substantial monetary investment in the items you will be storing inside your rental unit. Just remember that if the electricity goes off for any extended period of time then the temperature inside these units will slowly adjust to the current outside air temperatures. It is not unusual for rural communities to be without power for a few days each year and this usually happens during their very worst weather. If the facility has an electronic entrance gate then you may not be able to get to your things if there is a wide spread power failure during the disaster event that forces you to evacuate the city.

If you plan to store a lot of equipment and supplies then it might be wise to rent two small storage units in two different storage facilities a few miles apart, instead of renting one large storage unit. This would increase your family’s chances of survival because you would still have the supplies in one of your units if the supplies in the other unit were stolen or damaged by adverse weather conditions such as a tornado. If one of these units was climate controlled then it would greatly expand your options for long-term food storage. If you rent two units then you should strategically divide your food and clothing between the two units so that you would have some of your basic necessities in each unit. And keep a list of what you store in each unit so you can quickly locate it in an emergency.

It would be extremely useful if the rental storage unit was located within walking distance of the small town, or an Extended Stay Motel, or some other type of furnished rental housing or apartments, or near a campground. If the nearby furnished rental apartments are within walking distance of the small town then you might be able find some type of job if a future disaster results in your relocation to this community. However the chance of finding work after a wide spread disaster event are very slim unless you have marketable skills that would be in demand after a disaster.

Stocking Your Storage Unit
Immediately after you pay the rent and get a receipt, you should put your own padlock on the door of your storage unit. Then you should visit the local Walmart, city6 storage2camping supply stores, and grocery stores and purchase the things your family would need to survive. However, you should have made a comprehensive list ahead of time, along with the estimated cost of each item, so you can quickly purchase the most important things you will need without omitting any critical items. You could load your supplies inside your rental car as you buy them and then take them to your rental unit and store them inside your rental unit. If necessary you can drive back and forth to your rental unit several times. To the extent possible you should avoid attracting attention to yourself. This means it would probably be wise to buy your food items from several different grocery stores in the local or surrounding area instead of making one huge purchase at one store. When you have finished shopping and stocking your rental unit, you should once again lower your rental unit door, put your own personal round padlock  on the sliding door latch, and lock up all your stuff. Then you could drive home and return the rental car. This could all be done in one day, such as on a Saturday, if you had a plan and if you carefully worked your plan. Or you could rent a car for two days and complete your activities over the weekend by spending one night in a motel at the rural town of your choice. The advantage of spending the night in a motel is that it would give you a convenient private place to carefully pack your food and other supplies into your tote containers so you would not be attracting any special attention in public. The next morning you could then easily load your supplies into your rental car and transfer them to your rental unit. If necessary, you could make several trips back and forth from your motel room to your rental unit.

(Note: As you drive back to your apartment in the city you should write down all the highway mile marker numbers where bridges cross over streams or creeks because these could be potential camp spots for your family if a future disaster forces your family to evacuate your city. You could sleep under the bridge out of the weather and you could replenish your water from the creek by using your portable water filter. Depending on the size of the creek you may be able to catch a fish or two to supplement your food supplies. However, other families may have this same idea so you should be cautious when you first look under a bridge during an actual disaster event. As you continue to drive back to your apartment in the city you should also stop briefly at each community or major suburb along the way and look in the yellow pages of the local phone book. Make a list of the phone numbers of the local Taxi companies, the major churches, and the vehicle rental companies in that area. This information may be very useful to you if you are forced to quickly evacuate your city apartment during a future emergency.)

There are also a few other things you should consider. Depending on where you live, the temperatures inside a rental storage unit will fluctuate from below freezing to over 100 degrees during the course of one year. Most canned foods will not survive freezing without rupturing or exploding. Water will not survive freezing and it will burst its storage container. Insects and mice will chew through paper, cardboard, and thin plastic and consume any easy to reach food items. Moisture, humidity, and mildew will attack and gradually destroy clothes, supplies, and equipment that are not properly stored and protected.

city7 efoodsThe only food items that are specifically designed to survive temperature extremes are marine lifeboat ration bars and MRE’s (Meals Ready to Eat).  Freeze-dried and dehydrated canned foods would also probably be okay, but they may have reduced shelf lives if your area experiences severe temperature extremes. These emergency food items are not sold everywhere so you would probably need to purchase them in advance, have them delivered to your apartment, and then transport them inside your rental car to your rental storage unit. These items are usually delivered in cardboard boxes that can be conveniently stacked on one another. However it would be a good idea to put each big cardboard box inside a 30-gallon heavy-duty black plastic bag and tape the bag tightly to the box like a birthday present using 2-inch wide clear packing tape. This will add a moisture barrier to the outside of the box and help protect its contents. It will also prevent other people from reading what is preprinted on the box as you load and unload your storage unit. The black bags would not reflect light and they would help to make the inside of your storage unit look dark and uninviting if someone who is passing by casually glances inside your unit while you have the door open. However, you should write what is inside each box in very small print on a thin slip of paper and tape it to the outside of the wrapped box so you can later determine the contents of each box without having to unwrap the box.

Large 5, 10, and 20 pound bags of ordinary white rice are usually easy to find at most rural grocery stores prior to a disaster event. You should probably store at least 100 pounds of white rice per family member inside several plastic tote containers. A few hundred pounds of a variety of different kinds of dry beans would also be a wise investment. Dry beans are widely available at most rural grocery stores in 1, 2, and 4 pound plastic bags. Leave the rice and the beans inside their original plastic bags and put several of them inside one large 30-gallon heavy-duty black plastic storage bag that is inside a plastic storage tote. Secure the top of the black bag with one of the twist-ties provided with the bags. Then snap the lid onto the tote. The bag will provide an additional moisture barrier for your food. It would also prevent anyone from seeing what is actually inside your plastic totes if they are made of clear plastic. This would be extremely important if food in the area becomes extremely expensive or unavailable after a disaster event. You should probably use two or three black plastic bags per medium size tote to keep the food separate and thereby help to prevent a total loss in the event one bag of food goes bad. Other good choices for long-term food storage include dry macaroni and spaghetti noodles, instant potatoes, and instant powdered milk. You should probably purchase at least a dozen boxes (or more) of each of these items and add them to your food reserves inside your storage unit.

For some information about the shelf life of canned and dry foods, see: http://www.grandpappy.info/hshelff.htm
For a variety of simple but tasty recipes for white rice and dry beans, see: http://www.grandpappy.info/indexrec.htm

[Note: Grandpappy’s Recipes for Hard Times, Copyright © 1976, 2010 by Robert Wayne Atkins, is for sale through Amazon.com for $9.95.  116 pages, 8.5″ x 11″ format. Mr. Larry]

You should carefully pack all your emergency food into plastic totes with tight fitting lids to protect it from insect and rodent damage and to help prevent it from emitting odors that might attract flies. You should use several medium size plastic storage containers instead of one or two very large plastic totes. This would keep the total weight of each full container to a reasonable level and permit the container to be moved by manual labor. In addition, if the food in one container goes bad it will only contaminate the food inside that one container and the balance of your food will still be edible. If the temperature inside your storage unit exceeds 85 degrees for long periods of time then you would need to replace your rice and beans and other boxed dry food items with fresh supplies every year, or once every two or three years depending on how hot it gets inside your storage unit during the summer months. You could take the old food back to your apartment each October and gradually consume it while it is still safe and tasty to eat.

You should also consider storing several 5-pound bags of white granulated sugar, and several 4-pound boxes of table salt or canning salt, and about ten pounds of baking soda, and a few large boxes of kitchen matches, and a few butane lighters. All of these items can be safely stored for decades and each one is extremely useful in preparing a variety of tasty recipes. Store the matches and butane lighters in a separate small plastic container. Do not store them inside your food or clothing containers.

It is highly unlikely that food will still be available at a reasonable price in remote rural communities after a major disaster destroys a nearby large city. It is more probable that food will skyrocket in price or be completely unavailable at any price. Therefore you should resist the temptation to wait until you actually evacuate to your rural location to buy your food supplies. This strategy has a very, very small chance of being successful, and if it fails then you and your family will die of slow and painfully agonizing starvation.

If possible stack your equipment, supplies, and food containers on some wood boards or on some wood pallets so they are not in direct contact with the floor. This will protect them from absorbing moisture from the floor and it will also help to protect them from water damage if a few inches of water temporarily gets into the storage unit during an exceptionally heavy rain.

Most rental storage unit contracts prohibit the storage of flammable items, explosive items, and food items inside the storage unit. The food clause is necessary because families sometimes store bread and perishable items from their home refrigerator inside the storage unit and this food quickly begins to spoil and stink and attract ants, insects, flies, and rodents. It also frequently leaks down onto the floor of the rental unit and creates a mess for the rental facility manager to clean up after the family has removed their other belongings from the unit. After reading the contract, it would probably be prudent to simply sign the rental contract without asking for a detailed explanation of each clause in the contract, unless there is something in the contract you can’t agree to. In this case you should simply look for a different storage facility in the same general area.

It might also be a good idea to store a folding heavy-duty two-wheel luggage carrier inside your rental storage unit so you could later transport your things to your new apartment or campsite as you need them. Another useful item would be a bicycle so you could ride to work instead of walking each day. Rural city8 hand cartcommunities do not have mass transit systems. You should also place a single battery L.E.D. (Light Emitting Diode) flashlight and a spare battery within easy reach inside the storage unit door in the event you need to access your supplies at night and the power is off.

When you initially go on your rural town evaluation trip you could also take some things from you current apartment with you in your rental car. For example, you could take some of your old clothing, old shoes, old cookware, old dishes, old bed sheets and pillowcases, old blankets and quilts, old towels, and a variety of other old things you no longer use and store them inside your future rental unit. When I say “old” I am not referring to items that are worn out and falling apart. Those types of things should be discarded. Instead I am referring to used items that still have at least half of their useful life remaining. These old things could make your life much easier during a disaster event if they were already at your rental unit. Since you have already paid for these old items they would not be adding to the current cost to stock your storage unit. If you were already thinking about replacing a few of your old items then now would be a good time to do so. You could take your time and carefully pack your used items inside black plastic bags inside plastic totes at your apartment and then later transfer them to your rental car when you are ready to make your journey to rent a storage unit. It would then be a simple matter to transfer them into your new rental storage unit after you acquire one at your destination.

On the other hand, if money is not an issue, then you should consider purchasing several new blue jeans, shirts, thick wool socks, and underwear for each family member. Also some new high quality waterproof walking shoes that each family member has tried on and verified for a comfortable fit while wearing a pair of heavy socks (or two pair of thin socks). If you have growing children then purchase the next size up in shoes.

If you are currently employed in a trade where you use a variety of hand tools that are your personal property then you may want to store some of your older tools, that you have replaced with newer versions, inside your storage unit. This would permit you to continue practicing your trade in your new community if it should become necessary.

If you also include a high quality camping tent, some low-temperature high quality sleeping bags, and some high quality inflatable air mattresses inside your storage unit then your family would have an emergency temporary place to live in the event no rental properties are available when you reach your destination. The sleeping bags and air mattresses would also be very useful if you had to rent an unfurnished apartment. Store each of these camping items inside a big black plastic bag and secure the bag opening with a twist-tie in order to provide a moisture and humidity barrier and to help prevent mildew. It would probably also be a good idea to store several 24-roll packages of toilet tissue inside your storage unit after you put each 24-roll package inside a black plastic bag and secure it with a twist-tie. This will provide an additional moisture barrier for your toilet tissue. If you store all your stuff inside black plastic bags you will prevent anyone from casually looking into your storage unit while you have the door open and instantly recognizing what you have. You should also consider investing in several bars of hand soap, shampoo, toothbrushes, toothpaste, dental floss, nail clippers, hair brushes and combs, barber hair scissors, and disposable razors. These are relatively inexpensive but very practical items that would help your family more easily make the adjustment to living in their new rural community. It would be a good idea to buy these things now because they could become either unaffordable or unavailable after a major disaster event.

Executing Your Evacuation Plan
If you implement the above plan then you would have equipment, supplies, and some food waiting for you at your destination in the event of a future disaster. And your destination would not be a last minute decision made during a life-threatening event. Instead it would be a carefully calculated destination that would maximize the chances of your family’s long-term survival.

If a disaster event has a serious impact on your city, then all the major banks and credit card companies will probably “immediately temporarily freeze” the accounts of all their customers who addresses match the impacted zip code areas. Therefore, before the disaster hits you should access your checking and savings accounts and withdraw as much cash as you believe you will need to survive for a few months. If possible, get $20 and $50 bills but nothing larger or smaller. This will make it easier to pay for things and it will keep your “roll” of bills to a reasonable size. If necessary, get a cash advance against your VISA, MasterCard, or Discover Card at your existing bank by asking your bank teller to give you a cash advance against your credit card. If you do this before the disaster hits then you will should have enough cash to get you settled into your new small town apartment and to pay for your basic necessities for a short period of time. (Historical Note: After the Hurricane Katrina disaster in New Orleans the local regional banks went bankrupt and the larger national banks froze the accounts of the local residents until they could verify all the last minute transactions by their customers at their branch banks in the disaster area. If a future disaster hits your city, then you would be very upset if you had money in your bank and you were not allowed to access your money because of “temporarily policies” your bank might implement to protect itself. On the other hand, if you already had enough cash to last you for a few months then you could afford to be patient and wait for your bank to release the remainder of your money.)

The only remaining element of your plan would be to safely evacuate with your family at the first warning that a disaster was about to strike, or immediately after the disaster hits if there is no advance warning. Families that evacuate quickly and immediately would have a much better chance of escaping the city.

If you have access to a working telephone then you could call the apartment or Extended Stay Motel you are headed towards and reserve the unit in your name and pay the rent and deposit immediately by phone using one of your credit or debit cards and get a paid confirmation number and the number of the apartment you have rented and the name of the individual that rented you the apartment. If possible, you should verify that they actually charge your credit or debit card and not just simply reserve the room for you using your card number. If you evacuate when you are first notified of the approaching disaster then it might be feasible to use your city’s mass transit system to take you a good distance towards your future rural retreat. When you reach the end of the mass transit system line you may then be able to rent a Taxi to take you the rest of the way. The Taxi could deliver your family to the door of the apartment you rented by phone (after you stop by the main office to get the key), or to one of the apartments you previously identified or to an Extended Stay Motel that is within walking distance of your storage rental unit. Also remember to take your Rental Storage Unit Receipt(s) and your padlock key(s) with you when you evacuate the city. (Note: Although it is unlikely you may be able to take a Taxi from your apartment all the way to your final destination if you evacuate at the first warning of an approaching disaster.)

If your family is forced to walk out of the city then you will need a stroller for each small child or infant. Small children cannot walk very far and carrying small children in your arms will exhaust you in a very short period of time. You should also remember to take your list of phone numbers of the Taxi companies, large churches, and vehicle rental companies that are located in each of the communities you will be passing through. This is the list you made earlier on your return trip home to the city when you first rented your rural storage unit. After you have walked out of the danger area and you have reached one of the communities on your list that is not inside the disaster zone, then you should attempt to find transportation the rest of the way to your new apartment. The obvious choice would be to call each of the local Taxi companies. If you have set aside some emergency cash for this specific purpose then you may be able to rent a Taxi that will come and pick you up and drive you the rest of the way to your destination quickly and safely. Or you could try to rent a vehicle, such as a car or a small U-Haul truck. If you rent a U-Haul type truck then rent it one-way only for drop off at a rental dealer near your new apartment at your destination. A rental car or a rental truck would not only get you to your new apartment but you could also use it to quickly transfer some of your things from your storage unit to your apartment. In the long run this option might be cheaper than a Taxi. If you have very little cash then you should call some of the larger churches in the immediate area. The smaller churches are usually only open on Sundays but most of the larger churches have a full-time staff whose primary job is to assist people in distress. These larger churches have people who will answer the phone on weekdays during the day. Just explain your situation to the individual who answers the phone and politely ask if there is anyone currently in their church office, or perhaps a retired church member, who would volunteer to drive your family to your apartment located in your rural town “x” number of miles away. You may be pleasantly surprised at how friendly most of these people are and how eager they will be to assist you in your hour of need. Regardless of the high moral quality of these individuals you should not tell them about your storage unit full of emergency supplies nor should you try to enlist their aid in helping you to move some of your supplies to your new apartment. This activity should be a private matter that only you and your spouse participate in.

Even if you include the above strategies as part of your tentative evacuation plans, your family should still be prepared to walk the entire distance if it becomes absolutely necessary. Eat well, drink a lot of water, and use the bathroom just before you begin your journey. Lock your apartment door when you leave. If your family must walk out of the city then each one of you should be modestly dressed in loose-fitting faded dark colored clothes so you will not attract any unnecessary attention. Wear your most comfortable walking shoes and wear a pair of nylon hose footies under your normal socks to help prevent walking blisters on your feet. If you don’t have any footies then wear nylon panty hose under your socks. This applies to both males and females. If possible, plan to walk completely out of the downtown area of the city during the first day or night of your journey. None of the females should be wearing any makeup and they should have their hair stuffed under a dark color large baseball type cap. To the extent possible the females should look almost like a male except from a very short distance away. This obviously means no visible purses or handbags. All the males should also wear a dark baseball type hat to minimize sun damage to the face and neck. Everyone should keep their head tilted slightly down with their eyes looking towards the ground and slightly ahead of them. The strongest person should be in the rear and the next strongest person in the front. You should have already planned your primary (and backup) departure routes from the city so the person in front will know exactly which way to lead the family. Do not talk to each other unless it is absolutely necessary and then only speak briefly in a whisper. If you must speak to strangers then let the oldest male do the talking while everyone else keeps their mouth completely shut during the entire conversation exchange. Tell your children to walk quietly and to step over anything in their path.
If you have a fixed-blade hunting knife then you should wear it in its case attached to your belt in plain sight. It would be nice if each teenage or older person had one of these hunting knives attached to their belt in visible sight. This includes both males and females.
If you have a firearm then you should keep it concealed and completely out of sight but it should be where you can reach it quickly if necessary.

If only one or two of you are pulling a two-wheel luggage carrier loaded with a medium size suitcase or backpack then your family will not look like it is worth the trouble to attack. Thieves and criminals prefer an unarmed prosperous looking individual instead of a poorly dressed person wearing a visible hunting knife. However, thieves and criminals are always looking to acquire more firearms and that is the reason you should not have a gun in visible sight. This evacuation strategy should permit your family to travel unnoticed and unmolested through a very dangerous life threatening environment.

Once you are completely out of the danger area you should transfer all your belt knives to your suitcase or backpack, along with any firearms you might have. You do not want to terrorize the residents of the small towns and communities you will be passing through. You also do not want to give the local law enforcement officers a reason to arrest and detain you. If you are stopped and questioned then you should provide the law enforcement officers with the phone number of the apartment you are walking towards along with your paid rent confirmation number and then you will most likely be permitted to continue to your destination. However you should not mention that you have a storage unit full of equipment, supplies and food waiting at your destination. These are some of the reasons why it would be wise to reach your destination as soon as you can without unnecessary delays. These are also some of the reasons why travel by night (10 PM to 5 AM) would be preferred to travel during the day. At night there will be little or no traffic and you can see the headlights of the few approaching cars from both directions and your family could quickly get off the road and lay very still to avoid being seen. This is another reason for wearing dark clothing. Night travel during the hot summer months is less fatiguing and during the cold winter months it helps you to keep warm because you are walking (unless a freezing night wind is blowing).

Your emergency travel suitcase or backpack should contain your basic survival necessities, such as a quality portable water filter, one 24-ounce bottle full of drinking water for each person, all your prescription medications, a first aid kit and 100 extra bandaids, a bar of soap, a hand towel, toothbrushes and toothpaste, a few one-gallon ziplock freezer bags (lots of uses such as water collection), a spare hunting knife, a Leatherman type multi-tool, some matches and a butane lighter, some toilet tissue, a waterproof tarp to construct a simple tent-like shelter, a plastic ground sheet to sleep on, at least 200 feet of strong twine or thin wire, a small fishing tackle kit with some fishing line, a wilderness survival manual, a bible, and a blanket and spare socks for each person. You should also take the original copy of all your legal documents, all your cash, credit cards, check book, jewelry, and other small valuables, your cell phones, and enough high-calorie ready-to-eat food items to sustain your family during the entire trip to your safe destination. Each family member will need at least 3000 calories per day if they are going to walk or ride a bicycle all day. If you still have some unused space then you may include a deck of playing cards and some children’s games to entertain your family at the end of each day’s travel. A small solar powered or battery operated radio with an ear plug would permit you to keep up with the current news each time you stop to camp. Sleep in shifts with one teenager or adult always awake. If you still have room then you may include a small laptop computer with DVD drive, or a purse or handbag inside your travel suitcase after you have removed all the useless items that can be easily replaced when you reach your destination. If you strap a ladies purse to the top of a suitcase then it would be obvious to everyone that a women was traveling with your party. Remember how far you have to travel and how long it is going to take you. Each unnecessary pound you add to your travel suitcase will slow you down and delay your arrival at your safe destination. Each unnecessary pound will cause you to burn more energy and require more food and water during the journey. To minimize fatigue and permit the fastest possible average travel speed, you should strap each of your suitcases or backpacks to its own individual folding heavy-duty two-wheel luggage carrier with extra big wheels that can be easily pulled along behind you.

If you decide to rent and stock a small storage unit then you should not tell anyone except your spouse. Even your children should not know of these arrangements. If your children don’t know then you won’t have to worry about them telling their friends. Neither you nor your spouse should discuss your evacuation plans with anyone, including other family members or close friends. It would be okay to give them the web address of http://www.survivalblog.com and suggest they take a look because you found it to be extremely enlightening and informative. But telling anyone about the emergency supplies you have stored in a distant rental unit would be unwise for a multitude of reasons. If either you or your spouse decide to ignore this suggestion then you will probably regret it when a diaster begins to unfold and everyone who knows about your plans shows up at your apartment because they have decided to evacuate the city with you. Normal people behave entirely differently during a disaster because their survival instincts take over and they will not listen to you when you try to explain that you don’t have enough supplies to share with everyone. You are their only hope of survival and they are not going to let you out of their sight under any circumstances. You can completely avoid this unpleasant and potentially dangerous confrontation by remaining absolutely silent about your evacuation plans.

Having an emergency evacuation plan is similar to making a religious decision about eternal salvation. The vast majority of people will agree that it is a truly excellent idea but they will do absolutely nothing about it while there is still time to take positive action.

In summary, the following steps taken now could maximize the chances of your family’s survival during a future disaster event:
1.  Select several small rural towns that are between 60 to 75 miles from your current apartment but are not on a major Interstate Highway.
2.  Visit each of these rural towns and select the one you believe is best suited for your purposes.
3.  Rent a 6 foot by 6 foot (or larger) storage unit near the rural town and stock it with equipment, supplies, and food.
4.  Do not tell anyone about your disaster evacuation plan for any reason. And never mention the name of the town you have selected.
5.  Later, if a disaster strikes then evacuate your family to your preplanned safe  destination as quickly as you can.
6.  Rent a safe place to live in your new community based on your previous survey of rental properties. (Note: If possible complete this transaction by phone before you start your journey, or during your journey when you get      within reach of a working cell phone tower or a working pay phone.)
7.  Your family should now be able to survive for a few months using your storage unit supplies while you and your spouse look for new jobs in your new community.

On the other hand, if you believe your city has a reasonable chance of surviving the disaster then instead of renting an apartment you and your family could rent a modest motel room in the rural town on a daily (or weekly) basis while you wait for the forecasted disaster to pass. Most of the smaller motels have a daily rate and a much lower weekly rate. If the disaster event should come and go and the city is able to survive with only moderate damage, then you could always return to your old apartment and way of life after the debris has been cleaned up, and the water and power is restored throughout the city. Just use a few days of your sick leave during this interval of time while things are being returned to normal inside the city. When you return tell anyone who asks the truth: you and your family stayed in a motel outside the city while you waited for the disaster to pass. You do not need to add any additional details. However, if the water and power is not restored and conditions inside the city continue to degenerate then you and your family would be able start a new future together in your new community.

Some of the very first things you should do after you rent a new apartment are:
1.  Hold onto your cash as long as possible and, if possible, pay by credit card instead.
2.  If necessary have the utilities connected at your new apartment. If necessary have the utilities stopped at your old apartment in the city.
3.  If your bank has a branch in your rural town then visit the bank and change the mailing address on your existing account. Or open a new checking account at a local bank by making the minimum opening deposit. Do not      deposit all of your cash.
4.  Visit the Division of Motor Vehicles and have them change the address on your driver’s license.
5.  Register to vote. You are now a legitimate member of your new community.
6.  Register your children in the local public school system. You will need your apartment rent receipt, your children’s birth certificates, a copy of their immunization records, and maybe a copy of their most recent report      cards or their previous year’s final report cards.
7.  You and your spouse should immediat ely file for unemployment benefits and for any welfare subsidies you may be entitled to. These benefits could keep your family alive until you can find a new job. However, you should not be surprised if it takes a very long time before you actually begin to receive any of these benefits because your state may be swamped with similar requests from millions of other individuals.
8.  Carefully consider who you want to notify of your new address and then do so. It may not be wise to notify everyone.
9.  Establish a budget and stick to it. Do not make any unnecessary purchases. Use the items in your storage unit. Do not tell anyone about the items in your storage unit. It may be a long time before things return to normal so      carefully ration your available food resources beginning immediately and don’t wait until half your food is gone. It is okay if you and your spouse loose a little weight. It will probably help you to better blend in with the other starving families in the immediate area.
10.  Honestly evaluate your current financial situation. If necessary, file for complete bankruptcy immediately. Since you and your spouse have both unexpectedly lost your jobs, a complete write-off of all your previous debts      should be relatively straightforward if you consult a good bankruptcy attorney. A good attorney will advise you to start over with no debt instead of just shuffling your existing debt around and decreasing your monthly payments by a little bit.
11.  You and your spouse should begin a diligent search for new employment. Almost any honest job, including a part-time job, is better than no job. Part-time jobs sometimes become a full-time job after your employer sees that you are a diligent honest hard-working person. You can look for  a better job after you have established some type of regular income. Never quit one job until after you have found another job. If necessary, work two jobs to keep your rent and utility bills paid. Do not continue working at a job if you do not receive your pay when it was originally promised.  There are unethical people even in small rural towns who will try to take advantage of anyone they can. Before you leave a steady paying job you should be reasonably certain you will get paid on your new job on a regular basis.
12.  Become a member of a local church and attend church every Sunday. Give thanks that your family has survived the disaster.


[Provide insurance for yourself and your family. At minimum, put together a “Bug Out Bag” for each family member, include sufficient cash in the bags to meet your finances for up to a month. Keep these minimal supplies out of the way from your daily lives, but in place for an easy grab-and-go should a suprise emergency strike your area. With fifty pounds per person of individual personal supplies, plus a tent, a “portapottie”, and several cases of freeze dried meals or canned goods for two weeks you are pretty much prepared to weather out the aftermath of most natural disasters and could survive the initial shock of other unpleasant  events. Be prepared. Mr. Larry]

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