Category Archives: Survival Manual

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Walking to your destination

(Survival Manual/Prepper articles/Walking to your destination)

A. How Far can You Walk in a Day When Bugging Out?
Feb 2014, PreparednessAdvice.com, by admin – Howard
Pasted from: http://preparednessadvice.com/survival/far-can-walk-day-bugging-foot/#.UwM9IYmYbmh

bugging 2

The question how far can you walk in one day recently came up in regards to bugging out.  This led to quite a discussion, and many different opinions.  For the last twenty-five or so years, I have done a lot of hiking in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and can cover some pretty good distances.

However most of the time I am with someone else who is in shape to hike and we are not carrying much weight.  A seven-mile hike in about 2-3 hours is quite doable and I am 70 years old.  But that brings up the question of how much weight could I carry and could I do it day after day, while sleeping on the ground and making camp.  No nice soft lounge chair in which to recover.

A young man in good shape normally walks around three miles an hour, and can do it all day on level ground with little to no weight.  But remember the speed of the march is determined by the weakest member of the group not the strongest.  When bugging out the weight of a pack is going to slow him down.

Other factors that determine your speed are the weather, terrain, the condition of the trail and what you are carrying.  Do you have children or elderly people with you, do any of your group have medical conditions that slows them down.  Another factor is threats, are you having to hide to avoid other people.

The U.S. Army Ranger Training includes a 12-mile forced, tactical ruck march with full gear from Camp Rogers to Camp Darby.  This is the last test during one phase and is a pass/fail event.  If the Ranger student fails to finish the march in less than 3 hours, he is dropped from the course.  With the ruck and their other gear, they are carrying 65–90 pounds.  Now this is an extreme case, very few of us could even come close.

Many of us would be traveling with a family and might even have to carry younger children or infants.  In addition, we would have to carry our food and other supplies, set up a camp each day and take care of other chores.

I have done a bit of research for this post and looked at the speeds that were considered fast in traveling across the American plains.

A pioneer wagon might do 15-25 miles on a very good day, if it was being pulled by horses or mules. Oxen on the other hand only traveled one or two miles an hour but didn’t require as much rest or as good a forage as horses or mules. They might do 10-12 miles in a 10-hour day

A horse will walk 3-4 mph, trot about 8-10 mph and gallop depending on the ability of the animal and the terrain at 30-40 mph.  According to the U S Cavalry, a horse can cover some 30-40 miles a day, but can be pushed to double that, but then will be pretty much spent for several days while he recuperates.

I spoke to a local scout leader and was told that many of the young boys would struggle on a three or four mile hike in the mountains when carrying a full pack.

Now I see some preparedness books that tell you that when bugging out your pack should weigh up to a third of your body weight.  Now this may be a good guideline for a twenty year old in good shape.  But it won’t work for the rest of us.

Freezedryguy.com an old friend of mine and an old SF guy,  says that most people way over estimate their ability to walk in planning for bugging out.  He feels that most family groups with children or elderly will travel closer to 3-5 miles a day when walking cross country.  A lot will depend on you and your families physical and emotional condition and  don’t forget very good foot ware.

After talking with several-experienced hikers and some friends who have seen a real evacuation by foot I believe that most people over estimate the distances they can walk.  This is largely the result of having to travel at the pace of the slowest member of your group.

Most family groups with young children or elderly would average closer to 5 miles a day.  Young people in average shape should do 20 miles or so in good terrain for the first couple of days, then blisters, light rations and other problems will slow them down. So plan on your bug out taking longer then you expect if you are traveling by foot. Howard

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B. How to Go Unnoticed
Edited by FatDuckling, IngeborgK, DifuWu, Katie and 11 others
Pasted from: http://www.wikihow.com/Go-Unnoticed

bugging 1

This is a guide for those who desire to go unnoticed or hide in plain sight.

1. Ascertain why you don’t want to be noticed. Whether for a game, avoiding someone or just to blend and relax. It’s easier to know what you’re doing and why.

2. Dress plainly. One of the most important things you can do is dress down. Jeans and a T-shirt are generally good. Don’t wear tight jeans, low-cut shirts, or tons of make-up if you’re a girl. If you’re a guy, don’t wear your jeans half-way down your butt and a T that’s way too big. You’re trying not to stand out. It is also best to avoid bright colors, especially reds, oranges and yellows, especially when these colors come in stripes across the body. The human brain is wired to react to these colors, leading you to be noticed more easily.

3. Act as if you belong even if you don’t. People notice people who look as though they don’t fit far quicker than people who look as if they walk down this street every day. Practice feeling comfortable in any setting – this takes some confidence.

4. Act natural. If something catches your eye in a shop go look at it, if you feel hungry go get food. If every third person has a shopping bag, go buy something. If half the people around you are eating, then eat. People tend to pass over people who look preoccupied doing something else.

5. Be quiet. It doesn’t seem important but people hear easier than they see in crowded places. Even if a person is not looking at you they can still hear you.

6. Be still. If pressed stand still. People notice movement more than shapes. Don’t become a statue. Just stand still like you don’t have a reason to move, not like you have a reason not to.

7. Walk with your head down. That way you can move slower if you want and people can’t see your face as easily.

Tips:

  • Don’t look people in the eye. They will definitely notice. Keep your head down.
  • If you see someone you know don’t go and greet them. Walk past and see if they notice you. This is a good test for your covertness.
  • If you’re following someone don’t always keep your eyes on them, reflective glass is good. If they walk into a shop look in the window of one across from it or look in the shop next door, don’t follow them in.
  • Get lost in a crowd. A person in fifty is harder to spot than a person in five.
  • If you’re avoiding someone don’t try to hide behind a wall or something if they look your way, just keep right on doing whatever you were doing. A person jumping behind a wall is very noticeable.

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Filed under Prepper articles, Survival Manual

Lessons from the Great Depression & modern Prepper terminology

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Lessons from the Great Depression & Modern prepper terminology)

A. The Most Often Forgotten Survival Preparations
31 July 2012, SHTFplan.com, by Brandon Smith
http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/the-most-often-forgotten-survival-preparations_07312012
depression1

I think it’s safe to say with some conviction that in the year of 2012 the concept of survival prepping is NOT an alien one to most Americans. When National Geographic decides there is a viable market for a prepper TV show (no matter how misrepresentative of true preppers it may be), when Walmart starts stocking shelves with long term emergency food storage kits, when survivalism in general becomes one of the few growing business markets in the midst of an otherwise disintegrating economy; you know that the methodology has gone “mainstream”. There is a noticeable and expanding concern amongst Americans that we are, indeed, on the verge of something new and unfortunate.

Is it the big bad hoodoo of the soon to expire Mayan Calendar? For a few, maybe, but for the majority of us, no. That jazz is a carnival sideshow designed to make the prepping culture appear ridiculous. We don’t need to believe in magical prophecies to know that there is a catastrophic road ahead; all we have to do is look at the stark realities of our current circumstances. It does not take much awareness anymore to notice looming fiscal volatility, social unrest, the potential for unrestrained war, and the totalitarian boldness of our government. I’ll take the wrath of Quetzalcoatl any day over the manure storm that is approaching us currently.

With some estimating a count of 3 million prepper families and growing in the U.S., the motto of “beans, bullets, and band-aids” is finding a home amongst legions. However, being closely involved in the survivalist movement during the past six years and speaking with literally thousands of preppers, it has become clear to me that we still have a long journey ahead of us before we can claim true efficiency and mastery.

Sadly, having a stockpile of food, weapons, and some slick tactical gear is not enough to ensure a high likelihood of survival, at least not in any of the social collapses that have occurred in the past century around the world. It’s a start, but only just…

There are a number of detrimental weakness to the survivalist movement and considerable holes in prepper knowledge that must be addressed now while we have the time and relative safety to do so. The greatest threat to the common survivalist is not economic collapse, roving bandits, Blackwater mercenaries, or predator drones; those dangers are a piece of cake compared to the threat of an overblown ego, which will get a man killed faster than the most sophisticated smart bomb. If we cannot accept that there is always more to learn, and room to improve, we have been defeated before we have begun.

The following is just a short list of the many areas in which there is obvious and acute inadequacy in the movement overall…

Secondary Retreat Locations
Never put all your eggs in one basket. I hear a lot of tough talk from some survivalists who claim they would rather die than leave their property. Of course, I suspect they will see the error in this brand of bravado when the legitimate chance of death actually arises. There is no harm whatsoever in having a backup plan. I’m not sure any survivalist who doesn’t is really a survivalist. Stand your ground when necessary, but don’t let pure pride and stupidity prevent you from living to fight again another day.

Physical Fitness And Health
You may be the Tom Berenger-like master sniper of your particular county, but if you can’t run a hundred yards with your rifle rig without going into coronary thrombosis, then you aren’t going to live long during a collapse scenario. Even those preppers who have age as an excuse…don’t really have an excuse. I personally know survivalists and homesteaders in their 60’s and 70’s who could physically outmatch numerous other preppers of the same age or younger without much effort. The difference? They make a concerted effort to take care of their health.

Sometimes certain wise-cracks made by the insipid yuppies of our modern era against suvivalists are true, and we should take serious note when this occurs. The primary insult being that many of us are far too fat to outrun or outfight a paper sack, let alone a determined opponent. I have, to be honest, seen chest beating antics from more than a few clinically obese “preppers” that were truly embarrassing. On the bright side, this does not have to be a permanent hindrance to our success.

The solution is simple: Eat less. Eat healthier. Exercise more.

A person who has attained a high level of physical fitness has done more than prove his prowess. He has also proven he has the will and the passion to pursue a directed goal and achieve it, regardless of difficulty. This is where the adults are separated from the children in this world. Are you willing to endure extreme difficulty to win something of legitimate value? Do you have the self discipline to forgo certain luxuries and comforts to gain long term advantages? Or, would you rather take the path of least resistance and certain doom? Personal health is no joke for the survivalist.

Community Building And Networking
Organization is not the strongest suit of the survivalist movement for a number of reasons. The first being that our paranoia completely impedes our ability to work with others. Now, to be clear, it is not paranoia if they are really out to get you, and with multiple leaked documents like the MIAC Report, the Virginia Fusion Center Report, and the DHS reports on “right wing extremism”, it is not as if our concerns are unfounded. However, the movement needs to realize that the primary object of labeling us as “extremists” and categorizing us as potential threats to national security is to create crippling fear. Their main goal is to condition preppers to censor themselves, and to stifle their own organizational efforts.

Solid community, even open formation of community, is necessary for countless reasons. The more we isolate ourselves from one another now, the more alone and vulnerable we will be tomorrow. Calls for “OPSEC” should be embraced to a point, but they can also become an excuse for laziness and inaction. No prepper who goes it alone during crisis is going to come out unscathed, if they come out alive at all. This is the great forgotten lesson of survival, from the Depression and Weimar Germany, to Argentina and Bosnia; those persons and families who were isolated simply did not make it. The wide spectrum of skill sets and supplies needed to establish a survival foundation are far too many for any single prepper to attain.

The logical fallacy that usually prevents survival networking is the argument that if you are a bigger group, you are a bigger target. This thinking shows a lack of prioritization. During a social or economic collapse, EVERYONE is a target. National chaos does not make distinctions between those who never shared their survivalist tendencies and those who did. The DHS might, but they are not the biggest threat to the common prepper. The most dangerous environment for the prepper, no matter what the circumstances may be, is one in which he has no support.

If you do not have ample neighbors and friends on board with the prepper lifestyle, and who can be counted on in an emergency, then you are not ready, nor are your chances very good. Period.

Barter Markets And Trade Skills
At Alt-Market we relentlessly promote the idea of decentralized trade markets because, to be frank, they are going to spring up one day soon whether the IRS, the DOJ, or the Federal Reserve likes it or not. The crisis in the EU has proven my position on the inevitability of the barter dynamic conclusively. These private trade networks are becoming the new foundation for countries like Greece, Italy, and Spain, and it should be noted that the financial instabilities in America far outweigh any of the problem in those places. If we know that economic danger is on the horizon, and we know that barter markets will be the immediate result, then why not build them now, instead of waiting and scrambling after disaster strikes?

Any survivalist that does not know who he will be trading for essential supplies, and who does not know what skills he will use to garner those supplies, is in for a world of hurt.

Overlooked But Vital Items
There is a saying in the survival movement: You’re never done prepping. I absolutely agree. Unless you are a millionaire with a highly organized brain, there will always be some other piece of equipment that you’ll discover you need down the line. That said, there are some things every prepper should have, but many, from my observations, do not. I have also heard every excuse imaginable and some unimaginable when such people are presented with the recommendation that they obtain these items, lack of money being the usual suspect.

Yes, many of us are broke, or feel broke, these days Invariably, though, when most survivalists examine their financial situation carefully, they will discover a host of peripheral expenses that are unnecessary or outright extravagant. I once had a would-be survivalist make the argument that he could not afford a year’s supply of food, then admit that he had just went on a Carnival Cruise to the Caribbean. This is an extreme example, but it illustrates a common hang up. Now is not the time for people to live beyond their means, or to shrug off their preps so that they can have a new La-Z-Boy, cable TV, an internet gaming account, a high priced vacation, a six day a week stockpile of beer (hey, cut back a day, guys! Try it out and see how it fits) etc. Times are changing, and they will definitely change without us if we are not careful.

There is always a way to get the preps you need, if you are motivated enough to make it happen. Here are a few items that seem to escape from people’s lists:

Extra Survival Clothing:
Clothing is a real pain for a lot of survivalists because it is one prep that they must absolutely purchase doubles and triples of. Good durable shoes, pants, even socks, can get expensive. Base layer clothing like Smart Wool sometimes costs in the range of $100 or more for a single set. Take the pain, bite the bullet, and get the absolute best clothing you can find in multiples. It may have to last you quite a long time without replacement, especially the artificial fabrics. Imagine having to wear the same vapor producing sweat drenched crusty duds day in and day out while sharing a retreat location with some less than amused buddies. They may end up coming after you before the looters do.

Body Armor:
This stuff is going to be at a premium in the near future. I have already seen price spikes in good body armor in the days after the Aurora Theater shootings. Why? Because the fear is that the establishment will move to try to ban said gear in response, causing a rush to purchase. That fear is not misplaced. Plus, I would imagine a bullet to the gut, whether accidental or intentional, is not an event to celebrate with a rootbeer float. Believe it or not, body armor rigs that include rifle plates are extremely sparse amongst preppers right now, and this simply can’t continue.

Gas Masks And Filters:
Not long ago I wrote about the revolutions and rebellions that took place in Russia after the formation of the Soviet Union against the abuses of communism. At that time, the more successful the rebellion, the more apt the Soviets were to dump chemical weapons over entire towns, mountains, and valleys, to erase the problem. Never expect that a tyrannical government is going to fight fair. In fact, expect that they won’t. Even if you don’t foresee such an event taking place in the U.S., it is imperative that every person owns not just a gas mask, but extra filters as well. Plan on dealing with multiple incidences in which your air will be unsafe to breath.

NBC Alert Items:
How many preppers do you know with a Geiger Counter? I know three, out of the hundreds I speak with regularly. This is not a good sign. If the Fukushima disaster has taught us anything, it is that radiological threats are not just relegated to the realm of nuclear bombs. Every community should have several Geiger Counter devices handy, along with chemical warfare strips which change color when exposed to an offending airborne agent. Remember the panic buying that ensued in Japan for these kinds of goods after the reactor meltdown? Don’t overlook radioactivity. Knowing what has been hit by concentrated fallout and what hasn’t is a tremendous advantage.

Thermal Countermeasures:
A box of road flares, IR flashlights, and IR floodlights, should be in every survivalists home. With the advent of predator drones armed with night vision and thermal vision, as well as numerous other nasty weapons platforms, the need for countermeasures that create false thermal signatures to confuse an attacker with this kind of technology is a must.

Extra First Aid Supplies:
During a collapse, you become the hospital, and no amount of Obamacare is going to help you. Almost every prepper has a first aid kit, but few have one that will really last through a prolonged crisis. Collapse brings with it all kinds of injuries and sicknesses we never think of facing in our current atmosphere, with more frequency than I believe many would like to admit possible. A sterile bandage may be as sought after and as rare as a warm shower in the near future, so stock an ample supply.

Solar Panels:
I am astonished at how many preppers still do not have any solar power capability today. It’s FREE off grid power, for god’s sake! Pay the initial costs, and at least buy a system that is capable of charging and running batteries and essential electronics that will aid you in your survival.

Greenhouse:
When discussing the idea of relocation, I sometimes hear the assertion that places like Montana are terrible for growing food (usually from people who have never lived in Montana). In fact, a survival garden could be grown almost anywhere, regardless of region or climate, if you use the right methods. One of the best methods is the use of a greenhouse, which many preppers do not have. Set aside your preconceptions of what gardening is, and do what works. Even in winter, some plants can be grown in a greenhouse environment to provide you and your family with precious vitamin rich food. Just build it.

Raw Building Materials:
Do you have a stockpile of lumber and nails? What about raw iron and steel? Sealants to repel pests and maintain your home? Bags of concrete to reinforce a new addition? Think about how much you will need to build after the final shoe drops. Probably a lot more than you have ever built in your life…

No Room For Error
Time is running short, and if we are to succeed as a movement, we must be ready to hold a candle to ourselves, admit where we are lacking, and fix the problem while we have the luxury to do so. Ultimately, the most important and most ignored aspect of prepping is our own mindset. Do we have the correct sense of urgency, and are we acting on it? Have we prepared ourselves psychologically for the difficulties ahead? Are we ready to make sacrifices for survival and victory? Will we have what it takes at our core to see this thing through? At this very moment, many do not. But, they have the potential to rise to the occasion. The decision is theirs to make…

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B. Prepper Lessons from the Great Depression
Why it’s so important to create a deep larder
This article by HappyPreppers.com
Pasted from: http://www.happypreppers.com/Depression.html

Preppers are optimistic for the best of times, and yet they know that our fragile society can quickly cause the worst of times as with the Great Depression in the decade following October 1929. What lessons can preppers learn to prepare for the next economic collapse? The Great Depression certainly caused an economic collapse; however people did not starve during the Great Depression! There was never an interruption with the food supply other in that people changed their eating habits. They did more with less. They ate all the food on their plate. They also grew their own food and raised animals. Some accepted the charity support of penny restaurants in which patrons paid a small portion of the actual food costs.

What are the prepper lessons?
Here is a summary of lessons from the Great Depression:

1.  Most people did with less. Food was actually ample during the Great Depression. While times were tough, most people just made do with lesser quality foods, such as lower quality meats. Soups and stews made up most of the meals, because it could stretch! Casseroles stretched the budget, too. As an example of brands that thrived during the Great Depression:

  • Crisco was a less expensive option to butter.
  • Oscar Meyer Weiners replaced finer sausages.
  • Maxwell House Sanka coffee replaced more expensive whole bean coffees.
  • Heinz Ketchup was used as the base for a simple tomato soup.
  • Underwood Deviled Ham substituted fresh lunch meat.
  • Carnation evaporated milk substituted fresh milk.

    depression foods

 2.  People grew their own food. The exception being the dust bowl states (Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas and parts of Texas). This was 100,000,000 acres of land barren, which forced farm families to flee, mostly from Oklahoma. While today, big farms and machines work the fields, back in the day, a farmer fed an average of eight families with his crops. People got by also got by with food grown in their own gardens and they canned foods for the Winter. While the economy collapsed, the food on the farms were for the most part unaffected.

3. Penny restaurants fed the proud. Penny restaurants popped up as a way to feed unemployed families who were too proud to accept charity. People paid pennies for meals that were subsidized by charitable organizations.

4. Soup kitchens fed the rest. Soup kitchens fed many people, the way charitable organizations and food banks feed people today. Chefs could make soup with whatever was available, including produce grown in charity gardens. Soup was a convenient, one pot meal that could be served with bread. Plus, it was easier to clean up than other more elaborate meals.Happy Preppers don’t rely on the public food supply. They know panic buying can strip store shelves in a few short hours. Anyone who lived through Hurricane Katrina can attest to this. But why is this so? The culprit is just-in-time inventory: a cost effective management practice established in the 1970s borrowed from the Japanese. In concept, just-in-time inventory saves on warehouse space and other expenses, and it generally provides less risk and less capital, but requires more infrastructure. Mind you this is a corporate benefit; it actually puts the general public at risk!

What’s different about the food supply today?
Happy Preppers don’t rely on the public food supply. They know panic buying can strip store shelves in a few short hours. Anyone who lived through Hurricane Katrina can attest to this. But why is this so? The culprit is just-in-time inventory: a cost effective management practice established in the 1970s borrowed from the Japanese. In concept, just-in-time inventory saves on warehouse space and other expenses, and it generally provides less risk and less capital, but requires more infrastructure. Mind you this is a corporate benefit; it actually puts the general public at risk!

Why is just in time inventory dangerous?
In the good old days, grocery stores stocked back rooms with inventory of canned and dry goods, and they replenished the shelves as needed from this stock. In other words, there was more food in the back. That was back in the day.. Unfortunately, supermarkets today have virtually no back room warehouse. Managers order twice weekly. Merchandise comes off the pallet and directly onto store shelves, quickly and efficiently. What you see is what you get.   Trucks may be unable to deliver food for many reasons:

•  Natural causes. Natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tornadoes always create local food shortages, albeit temporary. Droughts and dust-bowl storms of the 1930s contributed to the Great Depression and disrupted the food supply.
•  Economic Collapse. In a hyper inflation scenario, gas might be too cost prohibitive to distribute foods.’
•  Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). In an Electro Magnetic Pulse or nuclear catastrophe, vehicles will be unable to start as the electrical components would be fried.
•  Rationing. The government could halt production for any number of reasons, including issuing wartime rations, or to ration gas.
•  Pandemic. In a pandemic situation, truck drivers and the people who stock the shelves may not want to risk their lives getting exposed. Or worse yet, they may be dead and unable to continue.

The list could go on. All you need to know is that it’s wise to create a deep larder of food in case the food distribution chain suffers a disruption.

Planning food supplies for a catastrophe, not just a disaster Preppers know the difference between a disaster and a catastrophe. It’s not a matter of semantics, because there is a fundamental and important difference, which will affect the food supply strategy of a Prepper.

You see, a disaster is a local occurrence, such as a hurricane or an earthquake, which affects a region. Disasters have the support of various agencies that come in to mobilize and support victims.
A catastrophe is a much grander problem by scale. Most notably, a catastrophe is outside the scope of ability for government to mitigate and charitable organizations to respond. In a true catastrophe, it’s every man, woman and child for himself.
In short, planning for a disaster means having food supplies that will last a couple of weeks; while planning for a catastrophe means food and supplies should last a year or more. Newbies should first plan for a disaster and then move towards being as prepared as possible for a catastrophic event. Happy Preppers have a vast knowledge of long term food storage, considering their stockpiling a sort of self funded and secured food insurance plan.

Happy Preppers are not panic shoppers;  they actively plan food needs for a catastrophic event ensuring adequate supplies at a fair price. They start with their short term food storage needs (mostly foods that are shelf stable including an excess of canned foods that people normally stock in their pantry. Then they have a second storage system filled with freeze dried foods for their long term needs, including foods in #10 cans, dehydrated foods, buckets of foods packed in gamma lids. Extreme Prepper’s plan for self sustenance by farming food at home and foraging for food.

Weird facts about the Great Depression…
1.  Women Preppers: take a lesson from the Great Depression. After the collapse of the economy, families began splitting up. Nearly 1.5 million husbands of the Great Depression left their families leaving the women and children to fend for themselves!
2.  What did people miss most during the Great Depression? As one Prepper’s grandmother put it… “nails, garden seeds, wire, string, sewing supplies, clothes pins, bleach, disinfectant, and vanilla.” What will you add to the list? Take one day to write down everything you use from your toothbrush to a pencil to ear swabs or chocolate. What will you miss the most? That’s the stuff you should hoard too.
3.  What did people eat During the Great Depression?
Meals during the great depression included:

Foods the debuted during Great Depression, include:
_ Bisquick
_ Good Humor ice cream bars
_ Kraft macaroni and cheese
_ Krispy Kreme doughnuts
_ Kool-Aid
_ Toll House chocolate chips
_ Ritz Crackers
_ Spam 

Even though food was ample, after the Depression, many people began conserving and stockpiling food and money for times of uncertainty. Sugar was a premium item!
Preppers today take comfort in stockpiling food and water, the way the people did just after the Great Depression, taking lessons from the past.

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C. Prepping Terms and Acronyms You Should Know
SurvivalistPrepper, by Dale
Pasted from: http://survivalistprepper.net/prepping-terms-acronyms-know/

Ok, here’s the situation:

“It’s TEOTWAWKI and the SHTF because of a HEMP which caused an OTGE. So you call your EOTWBFL and tell them “Grab you BOB and put it in your BOV we need to GOOD and get to our BOL! And get over here ASAP before the golden horde gets to your front door and your SOL. And don’t forget to BYOW and MRS’s because if not YOYO”

Did you get all that?

There are quite a few prepping terms and acronyms you should know and that we see all the time, not to mention all the OMG’s and LOL’s we have to learn these days if we want to understand our teenagers. It seems like everywhere you go you and read an article you see the basic SHTF, BOB’s and EMP’s but but it seems like I come across something new all the time and say “what is that!?” Like EOWBFL… Not sure what that is? keep reading.

Some people hate these acronyms and some people use these acronyms all the time, regardless of where you stand the more you read, the more you will see these.

Now I’m not going to go through every acronym and term you will hear because honestly I can’t think of them all right now. But I am going to go over some of the terms you are most likely to hear as you begin to educate yourself about preparedness.

I also have a PDF at the end f this post for you to download that has a complete list. But keep in mind, I did my best putting together this list, and I’m sure there are more out there, and I’m sure there are even some that I haven’t heard of.

So let’s dive into this list so hopefully when you are reading an article you don’t have to stop and look up what TEOTWAWKI.

TEOTWAWKI is an acronym for the end of the world as we know it. This doesn’t necessarily mean doomsday or Armageddon it’s something that would not kill us, but change the way we need to live our lives. For kids TEOTWAWKI could be losing their cell phones, and unfortunately this could be the same for some adults.

When I think of TEOTWAWKI I think of having to survive without power, water, heat stuff like that.

TEOTWAWKI is synonymous with SHTF (Sh*t Hits the Fan) or WTSHTF (When the Sh*t Hits the Fan) and if you don’t prepare you might need to GOOD – (Get out Of Dodge) or you could be SOL – Sh*t out of luck.

A few others will see are BOB, BIB, BOV and BOL these all involve Bugging Out.
You have a BOB which is a bug out bag
You have a BIB which is a bug in bag
You have a BOV which is a bug out vehicle
And a BOL which is a bug out location.

Why would you need to bug out? Good question. If you live in an urban area you are more likely to be surrounded by the GOLDEN HOARD which is basically swarms of people that are flipping out and want what you have and coming towards a town near you. The GOLDEN HORDE is made up of the POLLYANNA or SHEEPLE, these people blindly follow the masses and are in denial about world events

Or it could be because of an economic collapse that causes FIAT CURRENCY to become worthless and you need to own some JUNK SILVER (1964 or earlier silver coins)

An EMP (electromagnetic pulse) could also cause an economic collapse because it would cause a GDE (Grid Down Event) or an OTGE (Off the Grid Event) An EMP could be caused by a CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) from the sun or a CARRINGTON EVENT (caused by a large Coronal Mass Ejection)  or even a HEMP (High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse) because an unfriendly neighbor launched a missile at us.

But don’t worry, if you have a FARADAY CAGE (Used to shield electronics from an EMP) your iPad will still work…although the internet will probably be down.

All of this could cause our government to enact MARTIAL LAW because WROL (Without Rule of Law) the GOLDEN HORDE and the POLLYANNA’S would be after our LONG TERM FOOD STORAGE and we don’t want to be in their LOS (Line of Sight)

You don’t want to bug out with just the cloths on your back and it’s SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) to have BOB or a 72 HOUR BAG ready to go. You might use an ALICE backpack as your BOB which can also come with an ALICE frame. ALICE packs were created by the military To Reduce the load of the Infantry Combat Soldier and distribute weight more evenly.

The ALICE pack has been superseded by the MOLLE system (Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment) {pronounced molly} by the armed forces and some preppers as well.

The MOLLE system is modular because of the use of the PALS (Pouch Attachment Ladder System) and allows you to add storage space. You might not want to use an ALICE frame for your BIB because a bug in bag is for getting from where you are to your BIL (bug in location) where your BOB is. These could be stored in your car or taken with you when you leave home. I personally choose the MOLLE system but the choice is yours. Price might play a role in this as well.

Along with medical supplies, water, weapons and survival gear you might want to have some MRE’s (meals Ready To Eat) or some C-Ration (Combat ration) to eat along the way, but try to avoid food from Monsanto because it is made from GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms)

So, FWIW (For What It’s Worth) if the SHTF because of an EMP or an OTGE  well basically YOYO (You’re On Your Own) and you won’t be able to depend on FEMA (Federal Emergency Management System) or ARC (American Red Cross) for your safety. You need to take your survival in your own hands and have a BOB or an INCH (I’m Never Coming Home Kit) that you can put in your BOV to get to your BOL or ISOLATED RETREAT (A BOL but better) It might be a good idea to get a HAM RADIO license or have a crank radio JIC (Just in Case) you have no other way of communicating with the people around you.

And if were in a GDE you might want to have some FIAT CURRENCY or some JUNK SILVER because you won’t be able to get money from the ATM (automated Teller Machine) and you might not have the money in your account that you thought you had.

Long list right, honestly this probably doesn’t even cover all of the terms and acronyms you will hear, but it gives you a good idea and a good starting point so you don’t have to Google every term and acronym you come across while your reading articles and learning about preparedness.

Oh yeah, an EOTWBFL is a term that a member of the Facebook group coined. It means end of the world buddy for life…I had no idea until he told me.

Here is a video I put together for the free intro to prepping course I am putting together at the Survivalist Prepper Academy. If you are just getting started in prepping head over and have a look. (This article is a transcript of the video)

YouTubeYou tube video: “Prepping Terms and Acronyms You Should Know”:

 

 

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Food during a nuclear or volcanic winter

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Food during a nuclear or volcanic winter)

food v2]

A. Scientists Map Food Security, Self-Provision of Major Cities
12 Dec. 2013, ScienceDaily, by the University of Copenhagen.
Pasted from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131212100055.htm

Wealthy capital cities vary greatly in their dependence on the global food market. The Australian capital Canberra produces the majority of its most common food in its regional hinterland, while Tokyo primarily ensures its food security through import. The Copenhagen hinterland produces less than half of the consumption of the most common foods. For the first time, researchers have mapped the food systems of capital cities, an essential insight for future food security if population growth, climate change and political instability will affect the open market. Several partners in the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) are behind the study.

“The three major cities in our study achieve food security by different degrees of self-provision and national and global market trade. It is important to understand such food flows in order to relate it to the energy challenge and the risk of national political unrest caused by food shortages and its effect on the open food trade,” says Professor Dr. John R. Porter from the University of Copenhagen, who is leading author on the study recently published online in the journal Global Food Security.
John R. Porter is also the main lead author of the forthcoming report from the IPCC Working Group 2 on food production systems and food security, which will be released following governments’ review, in March 2014.Higher farmland yields have influenced the cities self-provisioning over the past 40 years, but overall the ability of cities to feed themselves is unlikely to keep pace with increasing population, the research shows.

 Self-provisioning does not increase in line with population growth
Particularly in the capitals of Australia and Japan, where the population has increased tremendously over the past 40 years, the self-provision has declined; in Canberra from 150 to 90 percent and in Tokyo from 41 to 27 percent.
This is despite the increase in yield of agricultural land per hectare. Copenhagen on the other hand, has increased its self-provision slightly from 34 to 45 percent because its population has remained fairly constant.
“When the local capacity to supply a city declines, it becomes more dependent on the global market. As an example, Japan imported wheat from 600,000 hectares of foreign farmland to meet the demand of their capital and surrounding region in 2005. This means that large cities should now start to invest in urban agriculture especially if climate change has large effects on food production and other parts of the food chain in the future,” says John R Porter.
The study has exclusively focused on the historical and current production and not considered whether changes in land management practices can increase productivity further or whether consumers are willing to limit their intake to local seasonally available goods. It did not include citizen-based production from allotments, urban gardens etc.

Food v winter1

Scientific debate on food security and urbanization
More than half the human population lives in or near cities. That has increased global food transportation which makes up 15 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions.Both food security and urbanization is on the program for next year’s major international conference on sustainability hosted by the IARU partnership. John Porter is organizing the session on global challenges and sustainable solutions related to food security.
“The congress will be an important event to discuss new insight in global food security and the different challenges faced by rural and urban populations. Also, we get a unique chance to stimulate the discussion with input from expertise of other disciplines, such as economy, biodiversity and health.”

.
B.  Feeding Yourself Through a Nuclear, Impact, or Volcanic Winter
18 January 2013, Schemabyte.com, by scemabyte author (see website)
Pasted from: http://schemabyte.com/feeding-yourself-through-a-nuclear-impact-or-volcanic-winter/

The primary orientation of prepper gardens is disaster scenarios. Disaster scenarios such as volcanic winters, however, involve a reduction of sunlight and heat that would reduce the efficiency of gardens, if not outright destroy them. We should keep winter crops in our stockpiles and have the skills to fall back to mushroom and insect farming, should it come to that.

1816 was the “Year Without a Summer” when volcanic and solar activity combined to create freezing temperatures that caused widespread crop failures. By Giorgiogp2 (Own work)

Artificial Winters
There’s a number of ways how enough particulate matter could be injected into the atmosphere to reduce the global temperature and block out sunlight, thus affecting plant life and our crops.These kinds of things don’t necessarily have to be regional. They could impact the entire planet. If the event’s small enough, you could just pack your seed stores and hit the trail. But if it’s a big one, there’s probably nowhere to go where you’ll be much more effective than where you are.
If you’re a regular reader, you know I’m not trying to cause you to react to these threats in a fear-based way. Instead, I’m suggesting that we ensure we have the proper supplies and skills to react to them – that we prep.

In no particular order:
1. A severe volcanic eruption could create a volcanic winter. Major volcanic eruptions frequently occur; check out the timetable on wikipedia.org. 1816 was the Year Without a Summer caused by a combination of volcanic and solar activity, resulting in a severe food shortage.
2. A series of nuclear explosions could theoretically create a nuclear winter. The ash and dust in this scenario would get lifted into the stratosphere, where rain couldn’t wash it down. One of the hypotheses over on Wikipedia holds that temperatures would become colder than the Little Ice Age and would last for more than a decade from a small exchange of nuclear weapons. Per that hypothesis, a large exchange would make agriculture completely impossible.
3. The impact of a sizable asteroid or comet on earth could create an impact winter. Per that Wikipedia article, one study showed there’s a 1 in 10,000 chance a sizable rock could hit us in the next century.

TOPSHOTS-INDONESIA-VOLCANO

Three Possible Approaches to Nuclear, Impact, and Volcanic Winters
There’s three possible solutions I see for resolving this scenario.You could:
1. Wait it out. If your food stores are big enough, just bunker down and there you have it. This is ideal because it minimizes the variables, of course, if you have enough supplies.
2. Generate artificial light. If you have an alternative energy source and a hell of a lot of plant lights, you could play space station.
3. Adapt your farming.

I don’t like the first two options for the same reason, although you should certainly have some supplies to implement them as possible.

1. When your entire plan relies on stored food or technology, then your entire focus becomes protecting and rationing those resources.
2. Sufficient food or alternative energy for either proposition directly impacts your mobility and is situation dependent.
3. Significant investment is required up-front for both of those solutions, and investing in that way could mean you’re not preparing for other disaster circumstances.

After your supplies fail, only an alternative way of farming will keep you alive.

Winter Crops with Low Light Requirements
Hopefully, an artificial winter wouldn’t totally block out the light. Instead, the atmosphere would just filter out much of the sunlight. While still disastrous for most crops, there’s some that don’t need as much light and heat. The problem is that edible plants that grow well in really low light aren’t, generally speaking, the same plants that grow in cold temperatures. Even when there’s a bit of overlap, plants that grow in very low light have very low nutrition. Light is, after all, their food.Nevertheless, I’m with you on this. If there’s some light coming on down, let’s bust out our winter crops and go year-round with them.

Per organicgardening.about.com, your best bet for vegetables in the shade are:

  1. Beans
  2. Beets
  3. Broccoli
  4. Brussel Sprouts
  5. Cauliflower
  6. Leafy Greens like collards, mustard greens, spinach, and kale
  7. Peas
  8. Radishes
  9. Salad Greens like leaf lettuce, arugula, endive, and cress.
  10. Swiss Chard

Per forums.gardenweb.com, garden.lovetoknow.com, guardian.co.uk, and telegraph.co.uk, some good winter crops might be:

  1. Asparagus
  2. Beets
  3. Broad Beans
  4. Brussel Sprouts
  5. Cabbage – spring cabbage
  6. Collards
  7. Cauliflower
  8. Garlic
  9. Lettuce – lambs & winter lettuce
  10. Leeks
  11. Kale
  12. Onions, Spring Onions, Shallots
  13. Peas – english & sweet
  14. Radish
  15. Rhubarb
  16. Spinach
  17. Turnip

But that’s way optimistic. For my money, I’m sticking with the southernstates.com zone 7 recommendations.

  1. Beets
  2. Broccoli
  3. Carrots
  4. Kale
  5. Lettuce
  6. Peas
  7. Spinach

Combine that with the shady vegetable list above, you’re left with beets, broccoli, lettuce, peas, and spinach. Good thing those are all tasty. Feel free to correct me (on either recommended vegetables for low heat + low light or on the tastiness opinion) in the comments. Something else to keep in mind XS29L on survivalistboards.com‘s excellent advice of focusing on sprouting; sprouts don’t require light and, even though it’s not sustainable forever, it’s a lot better than just relying on your dried and canned stores if the skies darken.

Mushrooms 
In a “true” nuclear or volcanic winter, traditional agriculture would become completely impossible. Without greens to feed animals, farming for the most part would be annihilated until the stratosphere cleared enough to let some sunlight back in. But the trees could live on for decades because of their sugar stores and slow metabolisms. They wouldn’t produce much, if anything, but they’d still be there. That’s good, we can feed mushrooms with wood.

If you want to play Darwin, read the list of edible fungi on wikipedia.org. What we’re really talking about here, though, is mushrooms and truffles. Perhaps there’s a species of yeast that could grow on bark and the two together would be quite tasty, but if you go sucking on something like that I don’t want to know about it.

The easiest way to grow mushrooms (and the only way if you aren’t good at identifying them) is to buy a mushroom-growing kit from a company like mushbox. Making sure you pick an edible one, of course, you then take the fruited mushrooms off to a dark corner and continue to feed them substrate – and they continue to produce. Some mushrooms need light to propagate, so you need to verify that before proceeding, but the light requirements for those species that do need it is insignificant compared to plants. White, crimini, and portobello (which are just large crimini) mushrooms need complete darkness, so those are winners on that score.
Since stable mushroom colonies don’t keep producing in the winter outside and might even die if it gets too cold, the plan is to grow them indoors. Makes it easier, anyway, because they have to be kept humid as well as warm (misted once or twice a day). Since heat rises, logically the best place for your mushroom farm is going to be as high up in your house as you can go, keeping in mind that the attic might be out of the question unless you have good air circulation there. If there’s some sunlight, you could consider the greenhouse in a shady area too.
The substrate you feed the mushrooms depends on the type of the mushroom you’re growing. Check out the Mushroom Shack product page for a description of the various choices available to you like straw, logs, sawdust, compost, paper & cardboard, and other organic materials. Per ehow.com, the classic white button mushroom prefers compost. While I understand portobello is more sensitive and difficult than white mushrooms, be aware that most of the online descriptions are targeted toward professional growers. Once you get the colony going, you should be able to just feed them things like wood chips and other discards, mostly just focusing on not introducing competing fungi.

Don’t Forget the Crawlies
As long as you’re out scrounging in the wet and dark for wood to feed your mushrooms, pick up some of the other rotted stuff for your mealworms, termites, and other micro-livestock that can earn off a living off the other crap you’ll be able to find. You actually give them the worst of what you scrounge up and save the good stuff for the mushrooms.

This list of wood-attacking insects could actually be a menu for us someday.  (http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/insectid/wood-attk.php)
I won’t go too deeply into this since I just put out a post titled “Micro-Livestock: Why More Preppers Should Consider Farming Insects”, but insects are a perfect candidate for the wintry world after nuclear blasts, a meteor impact, or a large volcanic eruption.
Certainly, you can look to feed those insects to chickens or fish if you want to move further up the animal chain. And certainly, hunt and fish while it lasts.
But if it’s a long winter, and it very well could be, you can thank me for that delicious termite and mushroom stew. Save some for me.

Byte: The Scenario

  1. A change falls upon the land from a volcanic eruption, the skies darken, and the crops fail.
  2. Live off stored food and sprouted grains, expanding insect and mushroom farming capacity.
  3. Turn on the space station in your basement as you near stockpile emptying, powering your grow lights with energy from a wind turbine, modified exercise bike, or whatever else your prepper ingenuity has prepared.
  4. Revert to insects, whatever you still have that can live off bugs, and mushrooms after the stockpiles empty and the technologies fail. Talk about your Atkins diet.
  5. Survive to the day when the sky lightens and winter crops will succeed.

Resources & More Reading
Nuclear Winter – wikipedia.org
Volcanic Winter – wikipedia.org
Impact Winter – wikipedia.org
Year Without a Summer – wikipedia.org
Timetable of major worldwide volcanic eruptions – wikipedia.org
Which edible plant requires the least amount of sunlight to grow? – survivalistboards.com
Top 10 vegetables to grow over winter – telegraph.co.uk
Ten Vegetables You Can Grow Without Full Sun – organicgardening.about.com
Fresh vegetables in winter – forums.gardenweb.com
How to grow winter veg – guardian.co.uk
Best Producing Winter Vegetable Garden – garden.lovetoknow.com
Planting Fall and Winter Vegetables, Good For Nutrition and Good For Your Pocket – southernstates.com
Top 10 Vegetables to Grow Over Winter – thompson-morgan.com
Winter Garden Crops – greenhousecatalog.com
Vegetables to grow in winter: a how-to guide – permaculture.co.uk
How to Grow Truffles Indoors – ehow.com
If The Sun Went Out, How Long Would Life On Earth Survive? – popsci.com
How to Grow Edible Mushrooms in Your Backyard – tobuildagarden.com
Grow mushrooms indoors with a kit – oregonlive.com
How to Grow Portobello Mushroomshttp://growyourownmushrooms.net/
How to Grow Mushrooms in Coffee Grounds – ehow.com
Types of mushroom Substrates – mushroomshack.com
What Is the Natural Habitat for Mealworms? – ehow.com
Darkling Beetle/Mealworm Information
.

food v winter ash
.C.  What’s it like during an ashfall?
Excerpts pasted from: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ash/ashfall.htmlWhen ash begins to fall during daylight hours, the sky will turn increasingly hazy and “dusty” and sometimes a pale yellow color. The falling ash may become so dense that daylight turns to murky gray or even an “intense blackness” such that “it is impossible to see your hand when held up close to the eye.” Loud thunder and lightning and the strong smell of sulfur often occurs during an ash fall. Furthermore, rain may accompany the ash and turn the tiny particles into a slurry of slippery mud. Most people also describe an intense quietness, except for thunder that may accompany the ash fall, giving a “deadness” to the normal sounds of life.During a heavy ash fall and for several days after, normal community and business services are typically severely limited or completely unavailable. Transportation systems are likely to be shut down or restricted—roads may be impassable or purposefully blocked, airports temporarily closed. People will be stranded away from home. Electrical power may be intermittently unavailable when conditions favor

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Problems with the natural food chain

(Survival Manual/1. Disaster/Problems with the natural food chain)

A.  Crop Disease
The Food Crisis Of 2011, Oct. 27 2010 by Addison Wiggin, contributor
Pasted from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2010/10/27/the-food-crisis-of-2011/

“Every month, JPMorgan Chase dispatches a researcher to several supermarkets in Virginia. The task is to comparison shop for 31 items.
In July, the firm’s personal shopper came back with a stunning report: Wal-Mart had raised its prices 5.8% during the previous month. More significantly, its prices were approaching the levels of competing stores run by Kroger and Safeway. The “low-price leader” still holds its title, but by a noticeably slimmer margin.
[The world’s population is growing  at about 83 million people each year. During the last ten years, while global grain supplies have remained below average, about 830 million people have been added. A rising number of people on a diminished resource base has already lead to political turmoil across the Middle East. Now switch ‘food’ for ‘fuel’ in the ‘use more- have less’ equation and in a couple years when we are seen on the downside of peak oil, imagine retail cost increases and gasoline prices in North America, Europe, and developed of Asia. Mr Larry]
Read more at: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_does_the_world_population_grow_each_year#ixzz1U44q6sq

Within this tale lie several lessons you can put to work to make money. And it’s best to get started soon, because if you think your grocery bill is already high, you ain’t seen nothing yet. In fact, we could be just one supply shock away from a full-blown food crisis that would make the price spikes of 2008 look like a happy memory.
Fact is,  the food crisis of 2008 never really went away.
True, food riots didn’t break out in poor countries during 2009 and warehouse stores like Costco didn’t ration 20-pound bags of rice…but supply remained tight.

Prices for basic foodstuffs like corn and wheat remain below their 2008 highs. But they’re a lot higher than they were before “the food crisis of 2008” took hold. Here’s what’s happened to some key farm commodities so far in 2010…
•  Corn:  Up 63%
•  Wheat:  Up 84%
•  Soybeans:  Up 24%
•  Sugar:  Up 55%
What was a slow and steady increase much of the year has gone into overdrive since late summer. Blame it on two factors…
•  Aug. 5:  A failed wheat harvest prompted Russia to ban grain exports through the end of the year. Later in August, the ban was extended through the end of 2011. Drought has wrecked the harvest in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan – home to a quarter of world production
•  Oct. 8:  For a second month running, the Agriculture Department cut its forecast for US corn production. The USDA predicts a 3.4% decline from last year. Damage done by Midwestern floods in June was made worse by hot, dry weather in August.

America’s been blessed with year after year of “record harvests,” depending on how you measure it. So when crisis hits elsewhere in the world, the burden of keeping the world fed falls on America’s shoulders.
According to Soren Schroder, CEO of the food conglomerate Bunge North America, US grain production has filled critical gaps in world supply three times in the last five years, including this summer…
• In 2010, when drought hit Russian wheat
• In 2009, when drought hit Argentine soybeans
• In 2007–08, when drought hit Australian wheat

So what happens when those “record harvests” no longer materialize?
In September, the US Department of Agriculture estimated that global grain “carryover stocks” – the amount in the world’s silos and stockpiles when the next harvest begins – totaled 432 million tons.
That translates to 70 days of consumption. A month earlier, it was 71 days. The month before that, 72. At this rate, come next spring, we’ll be down to just 64 days – the figure reached in 2007 that touched off the food crisis of 2008. But what happens if the U.S. scenario is worse than a “nonrecord” harvest? What if there’s a Russia-scale crop failure here at home?

“When we have the first serious crop failure, which will happen,” says farm commodity expert Don Coxe, “we will then have a full-blown food crisis” – one far worse than 2008. Coxe has studied the sector for more than 35 years as a strategist for BMO Financial Group. He says it didn’t have to come to this. “We’ve got a situation where there has been no incentive to allocate significant new capital to agriculture or to develop new technologies to dramatically expand crop output.”
“We’ve got complacency,” he sums up. “So for those reasons, I believe the next food crisis – when it comes – will be a bigger shock than $150 oil.”

A recent report from HSBC isn’t quite so alarming…unless you read between the lines. “World agricultural markets,” it says, “have become so finely balanced between supply and demand that local disruptions can have a major impact on the global prices of the affected commodities and then reverberate throughout the entire food chain.”
That was the story in 2008. It’s becoming the story again now. It may go away in a few weeks or a few months. But it won’t go away for good. It’ll keep coming back…for decades.
There’s nothing you or I can do to change it. So we might as well “hedge” our rising food costs by investing in the very commodities whose prices are rising now…and will keep rising for years to come.

“While investor eyes are focused on the gold price as it touches new highs,” reads a report from Japan’s Nomura Securities, “the acceleration in global food price is unrestrained. We continue to believe that soft commodities will outperform base and precious metals in the future.”
So how do you do it? As recently as 2006, the only way Main Street investors could play the trend was to buy commodity futures. It was complicated. It involved swimming in the same pool with the trading desks of the big commercial banks. And it usually involved buying on margin – that is, borrowing money from the brokerage. If the market went against you, you’d lose even more than your initial investment.
Nowadays, an exchange-traded fund can do the heavy lifting for you, no margin required. The name of the fund is the PowerShares DB Agriculture ETF (DBA).
There are at least a half-dozen ETFs that aim to profit when grain prices rise. We like DBA the best because it’s easy to understand. It’s based on the performance of the Deutsche Bank Agriculture Index, which is composed of the following:
•  Corn 12.5%
•  Soybeans 12.5%
•  Wheat 12.5%
•  Sugar 12.5%
•  Cocoa 11.1%
•  Coffee 11.1%
•  Cotton 2.8%
•  Live Cattle 12.5%
•  Feeder Cattle 4.2%
•  Lean Hogs 8.3%

So you have a mix here of 50% America’s staple crops of corn, beans, wheat and sugar…25% beef and pork…and 25% cocoa, coffee and cotton. It might not be a balanced diet (especially the cotton), but it makes for a good balance of assets within your first foray into “ag” investing.
The meat weighting in here looks especially attractive compared to some of DBA’s competitors, which are more geared to the grains. It takes about six months for higher grain prices to translate to higher cattle and hog prices.
You can capture that potential upside right now…and you’ll be glad you did when you sit down to a good steak dinner a few months down the line. After all, it’s going to cost you more.”
.

B.  Five Dangers to Global Crops That Could Dramatically Reduce the World Food Supply
29 Oct 2010, The Economic Collapse, by Michael Snyder
Pasted from: http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/5-dangers-to-global-crops-that-could-dramatically-reduce-the-world-food-supply

 “The world food situation is starting to get very, very tight. Unprecedented heat and wildfires this summer in Russia and horrific flooding in Pakistan and China have been some of the primary reasons for the rapidly rising food prices we are now seeing around the globe.
In places such as Australia and the African nation of Guinea-Bissau, the big problem for crops has been locusts. In a world that already does not grow enough food for everyone (thanks to the greed of the elite), any disruption in food production can cause a major, major problem. Tonight, thousands of people around the world will starve to death. So what happens if things get even worse? Many agricultural scientists are now warning that global food production is facing dangers that are absolutely unprecedented. Crop diseases such as UG99 wheat rust and the “unintended effects” of genetic modification pose challenges that previous generations simply did not have to face. The outbreak of a real, live global famine looks increasingly possible with each passing year. So are you and your family prepared if a global famine does strike?
Already, there are huge warning signs on the horizon. Just check out what agricultural commodities have been doing. They have been absolutely soaring.
A recent article on the Forbes website noted a few of the agricultural commodities that have skyrocketed during this year….

Here’s what’s happened to some key farm commodit prices so far in 2010…
• Corn: Up 63%
• Wheat: Up 84%
• Soybeans: Up 24%
• Sugar: Up 55%
Are you ready to pay 84 percent more for a loaf of bread?

[A 1 lb. loaf of multigrain wheat bread would  therefore increase in cost from about $2.78 to $5.11. Mr Larry]
You better get ready – these raw material prices will filter down to U.S. consumers eventually. So what is going to happen if the world food situation gets even tighter?
You don’t think that it can happen?

The following are 5 potential dangers to global crops that could dramatically reduce the world food supply:

1.  UG99 Wheat Rust
UG99 is commonly known as “wheat rust” or “stem rust” because it produces reddish-brown flakes on wheat stalks. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Mexico believes that approximately 19 percent of the global wheat crop is in imminent danger of being infected with UG99.
Ultimately, it is estimated that about 80 percent of the wheat on the globe is capable of catching the disease.
There is no known cure.
This current strain of wheat rust was discovered in Uganda in 1999 and has spread into areas of Kenya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen and Iran. It is feared that this crippling disease will spread even farther into south Asia, devastating the fertile growing regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
If that happens, you might as well kiss world food stability goodbye.
A recent article in the Financial Times contained an absolutely stunning quote from one prominent agricultural scientist….“You can talk about crying wolf,” says Ronnie Coffman, director of the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project at the University of Cornell in the US, “but it is a wolf”, he asserts, “driving across the corn fields of Kansas.”
Later on in the same article, Coffman warns that this disease could cause a devastating famine in which literally millions of people would die….“It can be absolutely devastating if environmental conditions are right,“ he says. “You can count the number of people who could die from this in the millions.”

2.  Mad Soy Disease
Mad Soy disease is spreading at an alarming rate among soy farms down in Brazil. Previously, the disease had been confined to the north part of the country, but now it has been increasingly spreading south. This disease retards the maturation of infected plants, and it has been causing yield losses of up to 40 percent. The USDA says that “there are no known effective treatments.”

3.  Verticillium Wilt
Verticillium Wilt is a fungus that prevents lettuce from absorbing water, causing it to quickly grow yellow and eventually wilt. This dangerous fungus is very hard to get rid of totally because it can stay in the soil for up to seven years.
Today, Verticillium Wilt is spreading all over Monterey County, California. Considering the fact that Monterey County produces more than 60 percent of the lettuce in the United States, that is very bad news.

4.  Late Blight
In 2009, a disease known as “late blight” attacked potato and tomato plants in the United States with a ferocity never seen before. According to a press release from Cornell University, late blight had “never occurred this early and this widespread in the U.S.” when it started showing up all over the place early last year.
Late blight begins as ugly brown spots on the stems of potato and tomato plants, and as the spots increase in size, white fungal growth develops until finally a soft rot completely collapses the stem.
This was the disease that was responsible for the Irish potato famine in the 1850s. A major new outbreak could occur without warning.

5.  Genetic Modification
While it may or may not technically be a disease (depending on how you look at it), genetic modification is having a very serious affect on crops around the globe. For example, about 10 years ago Chinese farmers began to widely adopt Monsanto’s (MON) genetically modified Bt cotton. Researchers have found that since that time, mirid bugs that are resistant to the Bt pesticide have experienced a complete and total population boom.
Today, six provinces in Northern China are experiencing what can only be described as a “mirid bug plague”. Mirid bugs eat more than 200 different kinds of fruit, vegetables and grains. Chinese farmers in the region are completely frustrated.
In the United States, a different problem is developing. The complete and total reliance of so many U.S. farmers on Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide has resulted in several varieties of glyphosate-resistant “superweeds” developing in many areas of the United States.
The most feared of these “superweeds”, Pigweed, can grow to be seven feet tall and it can literally wreck a combine. Pigweed has been known to produce up to 10,000 seeds at a time, it is resistant to drought, and it has very diverse genetics.
Superweeds were first spotted in Georgia in 2004, and since then they have spread to South Carolina, North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri. In some areas, superweeds have become so bad that literally tens of thousands of acres of U.S. farmland have actually been abandoned.
One of the most frightening things about genetic modification is that it actually reduces that amount of crop diversity in the world. For example, if nearly all farmers start using the same “brand” of genetically modified plants that are all virtually identical, it sets up a situation where crop diseases and crop failures can cascade across the planet very easily.
Genetic variety is a very desirable thing, but today our scientists are just doing pretty much whatever they want without really considering the consequences.
It has been said many times that genetic engineering is similar to “performing heart surgery with a shovel”. The truth is that we just do not know enough about how our ecosystems work to be messing around with them so dramatically.
Can we afford to make any serious mistakes at this point? The truth is that we already live in a world that is not able to feed itself. Tonight, approximately 1 billion people across the globe will go to bed hungry. Every 3.6 seconds someone in the world starves to death, and three-fourths of those who starve to death are children under the age of five.”

 

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Filed under __1. Disaster

War, Cyber attack

(Survival Manual/1. Disaster/ War, Cyber attack)
(Further reading: Nuclear EMP and Long Term Power Outage

 A.  An All Out Cyber Attack on U.S. Grid Would Be Devastating; the Trojans, Malware & Trapdoors Already Exist
January 16th, 2011, SHTF, by Mac Slavo
Pasted from: http://www.shtfplan.com/headline-news/cyber-attack-on-us-grid-would-be-devastating-trojans-malware-trapdoors-already-exist_01162011

Computer expert, author and  technical trend forecaster James Martin says what many others, including ourselves, have warned about for quite some time. The electric and utilities power grid of the United States is completely unsecured and vulnerable to attack via the internet:

“There is quite a lot of evidence that people have been hacking into the American grid, and probably the grids of other countries to. In the American grid they’ve found quite a large number of Trojan horses and trap doors, they’ve found quite a lot of hidden malware, not coming from the States but coming from somewhere outside the States,” he said.

“If you knocked out all the power in America, it would be devastating. Normally when you get a blackout it comes back very quickly, but there have been some that don’t. If it was a deliberate attack, then the people attacking it would try to do damage that could not be repaired quickly,” he said.

“If they caused the grid to crash it would be much worse than 2008. This is known today, but what I find rather alarming is that although it is known the authorities are not really trying to stop it by making it secure.

“Certainly an outside entity could have a capability today to send many different malware messages into the grid at the same time in such a way that you could take down most of the grid, and may be all of the grid,” he said.

“The grid is full of huge transformers and pumps that are one off, which means that if you knock them out you can’t go and buy them off the shelf. If you picked out the things that could not be bought or not replicated quickly, and there a lot of those, then that would be damage that you couldn’t repair quickly.

“You have a large amount of company-to-company automation and all of that could be put out of operation. If it was put out of operation it could do immense financial damage, enormously
greater than the 2008 crash,” he told The Independent.

 Forget about financial damage – that would be the least of our worries if the power grid was attacked in any sort of meaningful way. A complete power grid failure, or one that took out large regions in unison would put a complete stop to commerce across the North American continent. Yes, there would be financial damage, but more importantly, there would be no way to re-supply our just-in-time inventory systems. That means there would be no gas, no food, and no way of getting those things delivered until the grid came back up.

As Mr. Martin points out, a coordinated attack focused on the ‘one-off’ elements of the grid would mean that once that hardware was destroyed there would be no way to replace it quickly. And that means not days or weeks, but potentially months, perhaps even years before things were back to normal.

When Hurricane Ike rampaged the Houston, TX area in 2008 it took down 95% of the metropolitan grid. This author was about 25 miles north-west of Houston at the time and can attest to the
difficulties utility workers had with restoring power. It took over 3 weeks to get power running to the outlying areas of the city – and it would have taken much longer had those repair workers not traveled from as far as Florida to assist Texas. Now, consider if a disaster that took out the grid included not
one, but several regional areas, where no workers would be able to come assist.

At the time of the Houston-area outage the first things to go were water, food and gas. Fights were literally breaking out at local gas stations. Those with home generators found them useless, as there was no fuel to keep them going. Grocery stores did not have reserve power, and those that did had it for maybe 12 hours, at which point all refrigeration came to a halt. City water filtration was non-existent, and “Boil Water” notices were posted all over the city – but there was no electricity available, so only those lucky enough to have fuel reserves for their generators or those with natural gas powered stoves were able to drink clean water. Luckily, this only affected a single major city and surrounding areas,
and within a week water and emergency rations became available.

Consider, for a moment, the ramifications of a full-out extended down-grid scenario affecting multiple regions. It would be much like an EMP attack, though some electronic systems may remain operational. Nonetheless, researchers have estimated that a worst-case EMP scenario could lead to 90% casualty rate over the course of a year. We would hope that a grid-attack could be resolved much quicker than an EMP attack, but there would likely still be mass casualties as food stocks ran low, emergency response personnel stayed home to care for their families and violent crime and looting ran rampant.

[Internet photographs:  (left) A nuclear power plant’s control room, TVA. (right) A subterranean power grid control room in Newark, NJ. Imagine the complexity of the things that make our nation what it is, maintaining regional optimized power grids, ‘just-in-time’ retail and grocery delivery/inventories, instant money-credit-financil transaction system,  self service electronic gasoline pumps, on-line brokers, cell phone communications, smart thermostats, transportation fleet controls, automated equipment and robotic workers, iPod- Ipad-microchips here- personal electronics there, conditions that a few decades ago would have almost been considered science fiction.  We live in a modern society bathed and nourished by the flow of digital information, we all depend on the stable flow of energy and the smooth flow of logical, digital language sequences as the machines talk to one another.]

How susceptible are we?
This is a topic of debate. Most of those people who have the power to harden and secure our grids will take no action until after a wide-scale event were to occur – at which point it would be much too late to do anything.

A close friend works for a large power company in the north-east. It just so happened that we had this very discussion a couple of weeks ago. He is a higher level executive at the company and when I asked how secure his company’s grid was in the event of a solar flare, cyber attack or EMP attack he responded, “Officially, we’re prepared to handle whatever comes our way. Unofficially, it will be a complete and utter disaster and we are simply not equipped to handle a mass failure.”

It is common knowledge that many elements of the U.S. power grid are decades old. We hear about smart meters being installed, but according to the friend at the power company, the smart grid portion is less than 1% of the complete grid. That means 99% of the physical grid is essentially running on equipment that has been around since the 70’s and 80’s. All of that old equipment is plugged into computer systems, and all of the computer systems are plugged into and fully accessible via the internet.

According to James Martin and other computer experts, our systems have likely already been breached and there is a real and serious possibility that Trojans, malware and trapdoors have already compromised our systems. They may very well just be sitting there waiting to be activated, at which point they could launch a massive, coordinated cyber attack on essential parts of our power grid infrastructure.

We’re not just talking about software glitches that can be fixed with a quick reboot. We’re talking about cyber attacks that target the physical hardware.

Hard to believe that a computer program can destroy hardware? Think again.

Consider the Stuxnet worm that was recently used to take down 1/5 (or more?) of Iran’s nuclear facilities. According to the New York Times, the Stuxnet worm utilized advanced programming to remain dormant for a time, and once launched, attacked the physical centrifuges used to enrich uranium. While the worm spun centrifuges to the point they destroyed themselves, a portion of the program responsible for sensors and warnings sent human operators and monitoring systems the green light that everything was running like normal. Iran’s nuclear plants,  much like the power grid of the United States, utilized old computer systems that were simply not equipped to handle advanced cyber-attacks that utilized 21st century cyber combat techniques.

There are plenty of enemies of the state who could bring down the US power grid infrastructure – China and Russia to name just a couple. And it’s no secret that the Chinese have been having their way with our networks for quite some time, so it is clearly a real and present danger. The US government regularly runs tests to Simulate Cyber Attacks on US the Internet Infrastructure.

In, 900 Seconds: Cyber Attack Wouldn’t Take Long to Bring Down the USA, [see the article, below] we previously outlined how a cyber attack might play out based on a report from Richard Clark, a one-time counter terrorist specialist with the US government.
In his warning, Mr. Clarke paints a doomsday scenario in which the problems start with the collapse of one of Pentagon’s computer networks.
Soon internet service providers are in meltdown. Reports come in of large refinery fires and explosions in Philadelphia and Houston. Chemical plants malfunction, releasing lethal clouds of chlorine.
Air traffic controllers report several mid-air collisions, while subway trains crash in New York, Washington and Los Angeles. More than 150 cities are suddenly blacked out. Tens of thousands of Americans die in an attack comparable to a nuclear bomb in its devastation.

[Internet photographs: (left) A server farm in San  Jose, CA, holding some of the  near 500bn GB data used on the internet. (right) Typical computer bank, storage, switching and automation controls for medium size business 50-150 employee. There would be many, many thousands of these in USA.]

Yet it would take no more than 15 minutes and involve not a single terrorist or soldier setting foot in the United States. The threat is real, and if it were to ever occur, it would likely come around the same time as an attack on our financial systems – which, as we saw in the May 2009 “fat finger” controversy that brought the stock market down 1000 points in a matter of minutes, is not so difficult to accomplish.

The biggest concern for the average American should be that there is really no emergency response ready to deal with the possibility of a wide-spread power grid cyber attack. The US government has specifically said, through FEMA, that they will not be able to help everyone in the event of a major emergency (think Hurricane Katrina). That means  you need take responsibility for yourself and family now, and Be Prepared to Be Without The System – Make It A Policy. What will you do if there comes a time when there is no electricity, no gas, no clean water and no access to food for several weeks or months?

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B.  900 Seconds: Cyber Attack Wouldn’t Take Long to Bring Down the USA
17 Sep 2011, James Martin (Computer expert, author and technical trend forecaster )
Pasted from: http://nieuwsanita.blogspot.com/2011/09/900-seconds-cyber-attack-wouldnt-take.html

“With our increasing dependence on the internet to transmit everything from emails and electronic payment information to air traffic control and transportation logistics, a properly targeted cyber attack could wreck havoc in the United States within minutes, says Richard Clark:
In his warning, Mr Clarke paints a doomsday scenario in which the problems start with the collapse of one of Pentagon’s computer networks.
Soon internet service providers are in meltdown.
Reports come in of large refinery fires and explosions in Philadelphia and Houston.
Chemical plants malfunction, releasing lethal clouds of chlorine.
Air traffic controllers report several mid-air collisions, while subway trains crash in New York, Washington and Los Angeles.
More than 150 cities are suddenly blacked out.
Tens of thousands of Americans die in an attack comparable to a nuclear bomb in its devastation. Yet it would take no more than 15 minutes and involve not a single terrorist or soldier setting foot in the United States.
An enemy of the United States, whether foreign or domestic, wouldn’t need a nuclear bomb. They would simply need to take down the main computer networks. Many internet operations are centralized, especially in the private sector, so taking down something like the national DNS (Domain Name System) databases would put a stop to pretty much any communications used by the general public.
An attack on Defense Department networks would be even more serious, potentially leading to a cascading effect across the entire nation. Utilities, like water systems and electricity, are highly vulnerable, as they are built on very old technologies and are very dependent on each other due to old-style distribution systems. As an example, consider the massive black out that covered the entire north east for several days in 2003 while emergency crews worked to resolve the problems.
Roughly one fifth of our country was out of power not because local power stations were taken down, but, according to the official story, because one or two main plants experienced outages due to natural causes (trees on power lines). There is still no definitive confirmation on what happened here, and for all we know this could have been a cyber attack testing our networks. It’s no secret that hackers in countries like Russia, and especially China, have spent the last decade infiltrating and testing the stability and security of US networks – including the Pentagon and our satellite systems. At the first sign of potential international conflict, the initial wave of attacks will likely occur on the digital battlefield, resulting in downed communication systems, utilities, cable systems, GPS, cell phone networks, hardline networks and transaction processing systems. Another issue, not related directly to defense computer networks, is that the plans for US water utility, electrical utility, and internet networks are readily available on the internet for anyone to download and analyze for vulnerabilities. We’ve essentially given any potential enemies a road map for how to bring down the United States without even firing a shot.”
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C.  Combined computer attacks could have ‘catastrophic’ global effects
Pasted from: http://www.newkerala.com/news/world/fullnews-125659.html

 ANI, London, Jan 17: A new study has found that coordinated computer attacks could have ‘catastrophic’ global effects.
The report by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) said that multiple cyber attacks could “become a full-scale global shock” on a par with a pandemic and the collapse of the world financial system.
“What should concern policy-makers are combinations of events: two different cyber-events occurring at the same time, or a cyber-event taking place during some other form of disaster or attack,” the Scotsman quoted the report as saying.
One such example the report cited was “a very large-scale solar flare (bursts of energy from the sun), which physically destroys key communications components such as satellites, cellular base stations and switches.”
Another could involve “a hitherto unknown fundamental flaw” in the technical building blocks of the Internet “over which agreement for remedy could not be quickly reached”, it added.
According to the report’s co-author Professor Peter Sommer, of the London School of Economics, lurid language and poor analysis were blocking government planning for cyber protection.
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D.  Cyber attacks could create ‘perfect storm’
17 Jan, 2011,  Reuters, By Michael Holden
Pasted from: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/technology/tech-news/oecd-cyber-attacks-could-create-perfect-storm/article1872682/
LONDON – Attacks on computer systems now have the potential to cause global catastrophe, but only in combination with another disaster, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) said in a report.

The study, part of a wider OECD project examining possible “Future Global Shocks””such as a failure of the world’s financial system or a large-scale pandemic, said there were very few single “cyber events” that could cause a global shock.

Examples were a successful attack on one of the technical protocols on which the Internet depends, or a large solar flare that wiped out key communications components such as satellites. But it said a combination of events such as coordinated cyber attacks, or a cyber incident occurring during another form of disaster, should be a serious concern for policy makers. “In that eventuality, ‘perfect storm’ conditions could exist,” said the report, written by Professor Peter Sommer of the London School of Economics and Dr Ian Brown of Britain’s Oxford University.

Governments are increasingly emphasizing the importance of cyber security. The United States is preparing for cyber conflict and has launched its own military cyber command. Britain last October
rated cyber attacks as one of the top external threats, promising to spend an extra 650 million pounds ($1 billion) on the issue.

Meanwhile, emerging nations such as China and Russia are believed to see it as an arena in which they can challenge the United States’ conventional military dominance.

The Stuxnet computer worm — which targets industrial systems and was widely believed to be a state attack on Iran’s nuclear program — is seen as a sign of the increasing militarization of cyberspace.
The New York Times reported on Saturday that the worm was a joint U.S.-Israeli effort and had been tested at Israel’s Dimona nuclear plant.

The OECD study concluded that cyber attacks would be ubiquitous in future wars, and that cyber weaponry would be “increasingly deployed and with increasing effect by ideological activists of all persuasions and interests”. But it concluded that a true “cyberwar”, fought almost entirely through computer systems, was unlikely as many critical systems were well protected and the effects of attacks were difficult to predict, and so could backfire on the assailants.

Adopting a largely military approach to cyber security is a mistake, as most targets in the critical national infrastructure, such as communications, energy, finance and transport, are in the private sector.

The US has already experienced two major cyber warning shots. Hackers from Russia or China or both successfully planted software in the US electricity grid that left behind software that could be used to sabotage the system at a later date.

The North Koreans may not be able to feed their people but in 2009 they succeeded in bringing down the servers of the Department of Homeland Security, the US Treasury and several other government departments, along with regular internet providers, by flooding them with requests for data. Most dramatically, it saturated the internet connections of a Pentagon server that the military would rely for
logistical communications in an armed conflict.

“There are significant and growing risks of localized misery and loss as a result of compromise of computer and telecommunications services,” the report said.

Protecting your computer and data
Five steps that every computer user should implement to prevent cyber crime attacks. These days the cyber world is becoming bigger and bigger with rapidly growing number of businesses and individuals using internet as a business place. Naturally, cyber criminals target computers with low antivirus internet security and commit their criminal activities.
However, there are guidelines that need to be followed in order to secure your computer from internet security attacks:
1.  Back-up Data – Savvy computer users are aware of the importance of keeping their data safe and away from internet security attacks and regularly perform backups. You can back up your data on an external data storage device such is CD, memory stick or external hard drive. The device you use will depend on the data size. The overall idea is that if anything happens to your primary data, you can always retrieve them from somewhere.

[Mr Larry: Consider backing up your files in one or more of the ways discussed below:
a)  Seagate Freeagent Go, 250GB or larger,  USB external hard drive. Portable storage solution makes it easy to take your photos, music, videos, ‘historic e-mail’, pdf files, other Internet downloads, and documents everywhere; now they have 1 Terrabyte models.   :-)
b)  Amazon Jungle Disk and S3 olr other “Cloud storage”. The Jungle Disk software is your computer’s interface with Amazon’s cloud drive file servers. Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service) is basically an infinite hard drive you can buy on a pay per usage basis, and Jungle Disk is a utility that allows you to mount S3 as a hard drive on any OS. Jungle Disk has a backup tool built in. I use the S3 only for back up so have been paying about 25¢ – 30¢ a month for the service. See also,   https://www.amazon.com/clouddrive/learnmore/ref=sa_menu_acd_lrn2
c)  Kingston Data Traveler 32GB, USB flash drive. Supports Windows 7, Vista, XP & Mac. Compatible with Windows 7 Available in multiple colors by capacity.
I’ve included images of these items/services below; they should be thought of simply as examples of the many products ‘out there’ that used together will give a depth to your data bases, documents, spreadsheets, photograph, music, MP3,  video and podcast files, etc.]

Images above include (L>R): Left) Seagate Freeagent Go, external,  drive, Middle) A web cloud service, Right) Portable USB flash drive that is never left connected to the system.

2.  File sharing– Another very important thing to be avoided is sharing files with strangers. This makes your computer internet security vulnerable as the files from other computer users may contain malicious infections that without a good anti-virus internet security can potentially destroy your computer or steal sensitive information. Make sure you turn off and disable file-sharing if it is not needed.
3.  Disconnecting from the Internet– It is additional prevention so whenever you internet is not in use just simply disconnect form internet. It lessens the possibility of cyber criminals passing your internet security.
4. Update security patches– Computer programs sometimes contain bugs that can be an entrance to your computer for any malicious person to attack and potentially harm your computer. Therefore, it is very important to regularly update your security patches and increase.
5.  Maintain up to date antivirus software firewall– Good antivirus software and firewall are crucial components of your arsenal to increase internet security that will protect your computer from attacks. Make sure to keep your anti-virus program and firewall up to date.

 

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Filed under Survival Manual, __1. Disaster

Hurricane survival

(Survival manual/1. Disaster/Hurricane survival)

A hurricane is a massive weather phenomenon, usually about 300 miles in diameter. Even when the center of a hurricane is more than 300 miles away, surrounding areas are already feeling its effects, such as winds in excess of 39 miles per hour and long bands of severe storms and tornadoes. These conditions worsen dramatically as the hurricane grows near. In other words, once the storm is close enough to see, you’re already in it.

A .  What Is A Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm Or A Hurricane?
•   Tropical Depression: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained wind speed is 38 mph or less. Depressions have a closed circulation.
•   Tropical Storm: A tropical cyclone in which the maximum sustained wind speed ranges from 39 mph to 73 mph. The convection in tropical storms is usually more concentrated near the center with outer rainfall organizing into distinct bands.
•   Hurricane: When winds in a tropical cyclone equal or exceed 74 mph it is called a hurricane. Hurricanes are further designated by categories on the Saffir-Simpson scale. Hurricanes in categories 3, 4, 5 are known as Major Hurricanes or Intense Hurricanes.
•   The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale:  The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a 1-5 rating based on the hurricane’s present intensity. This is used to give an estimate of the potential property damage and flooding expected along the coast from a hurricane landfall. Wind speed is the determining factor in the scale, as storm surge values are highly dependent on the slope of the continental shelf in the landfall region. Note that all winds are using the U.S. 1-minute average.

_1.  Category One Hurricane: Winds 74-95 mph. Barometric Pressure Above 980 mb (Above 28.94 in) Storm surge generally 4-5 ft above normal. No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes, shrubbery, and trees. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage.

_2.  Category Two Hurricane: Winds 96-110 mph. Barometric Pressure 965-980 mb (28.50-28.94 in) Storm surge generally 6-8 feet above normal. Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down. Considerable damage to mobile homes, poorly constructed signs, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape routes flood 2-4 hours before arrival of the hurricane center. Small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings.

_3. Category Three Hurricane:Winds 111-130 mph. Barometric Pressure 945-965 mb (27.91-28.50 in) Storm surge generally 9-12 ft above normal. Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtain wall failures. Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large trees blown down. Mobile homes and poorly constructed signs are destroyed. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Flooding near the coast destroys smaller structures with larger structures damaged by battering from floating debris. Terrain continuously lower than 5 ft above mean sea level may be flooded inland 8 miles (13 km) or more. Evacuation of low-lying residences with several blocks of the shoreline may be required.

_4.  Category Four Hurricane: Winds 131-155 mph. Barometric Pressure 920-945 mb (27.17-27.91 in) Storm surge generally 13-18 ft above normal. More extensive curtain wall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small residences. Shrubs, trees, and all signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Extensive damage to doors and windows. Low-lying escape routes may be cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Major damage to lower floors of structures near the shore. Terrain lower than 10 ft above sea level may be flooded requiring massive evacuation of residential areas as far inland as 6 miles (10 km).

_5.  Category Five Hurricane:Winds greater than 155 mph. Barometric Pressure Below 920 mb (Below 27.17 in) Storm surge generally greater than 18 ft above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes.
Severe and extensive window and door damage. Low-lying escape routes are cut by rising water 3-5 hours before arrival of the center of the hurricane. Major damage to lower floors of all structures located less than 15 ft above sea level and within 500 yards of the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas on low ground within 5-10 miles of the shoreline may be required.
Note: Severe Wind: The highest winds ever recorded in the world (by fixed equipment) – 231 Mph were recorded on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire on April 12, 1934.
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B. Hurricane!
There are no other storms like hurricanes, on Earth. Views of hurricanes from satellites located thousands of miles above the Earth show how these powerful, tightly coiled weather systems are unique. Each year, on average, 10 tropical storms (of which six become hurricanes) develop over the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, or Gulf of Mexico. Many of these storms remain over the ocean. However, an average of five hurricanes strike the United States coastline every three years. Of these five, two will be major hurricanes, which are storms of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson scale, which corresponds to hurricanes with winds at or above 111 miles per hour.

Timely warnings have greatly diminished hurricane fatalities in the United States. In spite of this, property damage continues to mount. There is little we can do about the hurricanes themselves. However, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s) Tropical Prediction Center and National Weather Service (NWS) field offices team up with other federal, state, and local agencies; rescue and relief organizations; the private sector; and the news media in a huge warning and preparedness effort.

What Are Hurricanes, and What Causes Them?
•  Hurricanes and tropical storms are cyclones with tropical origins (tropical cyclones). When the winds of a tropical storm (winds 39 to 73 miles per hour) reach a constant speed of 74 miles per hour or more, it is called a hurricane. Hurricane winds blow in a large spiral around a relatively calm center known as the “eye.” The “eye” is generally 20 to 30 miles wide, and the storm may have a diameter of 400 miles across. As a hurricane approaches, the skies will begin to darken and winds will grow in strength. A hurricane can bring torrential rains, high winds, and storm surge as it nears land. A single hurricane can last more than two weeks over open waters and can run a path across the entire length of the eastern seaboard.
•  More dangerous than the high winds of a hurricane is the storm surge – a dome of ocean water that can be 20 feet high at its peak and 50 to 100 miles wide. The surge can devastate coastal communities as it sweeps ashore. In recent years, the fatalities associated with storm surge have been greatly reduced as a result of better warning and preparedness within coastal communities.
•  Most deaths due to tropical cyclones are flood-related. Inland flooding is a common occurrence with hurricanes and tropical storms. Torrential rains from decaying hurricanes and tropical storms can produce extensive urban and river flooding. Winds from these storms located offshore can drive ocean water up the mouth of rivers, compounding the severity of inland flooding. Inland streams and rivers can flood and trigger landslides. Mudslides can occur in mountainous regions. In addition, hurricanes can spawn tornadoes, which add to the destructiveness of the storm.
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C.  How to Protect Your Property
•  Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a storm. A list will help you remember anything that can be broken or picked up by strong winds. Hurricane winds, often in excess of 100 miles per hour, can turn unanchored items into deadly missiles, causing damage or injury when they hit.
•  Keep trees and shrubbery trimmed. Make trees more wind resistant by removing diseased or damaged limbs, then strategically remove branches so that wind can blow through. Hurricane winds frequently break weak limbs and hurl them at great speed, causing great damage when they hit property. Debris collection services may not be operating just before a storm, so it is best to do this well in advance of approaching storms.
•  Remove any debris or loose items in your yard. Hurricane winds can pick up anything unsecured, creating damage to property when the debris hits.
•  Clear loose and clogged rain gutters and downspouts. Hurricanes often bring long periods of heavy rain. Providing clear drainage will help prevent misdirected flooding.
•  Install permanent hurricane shutters. Hurricane shutters provide the best protection for your windows and doors. Taping windows could take critical time from more effective preparedness measures. All tape does is help prevent glass from broken windows from scattering all over inside. Tape does not prevent windows from breaking. Cover the outside of windows with shutters or plywood.
•  If you do not have permanent hurricane shutters, install anchors for plywood (marine plywood is best) and predrill holes in precut half-inch outdoor plywood boards so that you can cover the windows of your home quickly. Mark which board fits which window.
Note: Tape does not prevent windows from breaking, so taping windows is not recommended.
Most homes destroyed during recent hurricanes had no window protection. When wind enters a home through broken windows, the pressure builds against the walls and can lift roofs, followed by collapsing walls.
•  Install protection to the outside areas of sliding glass doors. Glass doors are as vulnerable as windows to breakage by wind-driven objects.
•  Well ahead of time, buy any other items needed to board up windows and protect your home. When a hurricane threatens, supplies are quickly sold out at many stores. Stock may not be replenished until after the storm.
•  Strengthen garage doors. Many houses are destroyed by hurricane winds that enter through damaged garage doors, lifting roofs, and destroying the remainder of the house.
•  Have an engineer check your home and advise about ways to make it more resistant to hurricane winds. There are a variety of ways to protect your home. Professionals can advise you of engineering requirements, building permits or requirements of local planning and zoning departments to provide the most effective protection.
•  Elevate coastal homes. Raising houses to a certain height will make them more resistant to hurricane-driven waters. There may be many local codes affecting how and where homes can be elevated. Meet
with your emergency manager or planning and zoning official for a description of the process to have your home elevated. There may also be community funds available for such measures.
•  If you live in a flood plain or are prone to flooding, also follow flood preparedness precautions. Hurricanes can bring great amounts of rain and frequently cause floods. Some hurricanes have dropped more than 10 inches of rain in just a few hours.
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1.  What to Do During a Hurricane WATCH

Continue listening regularly to a NOAA Weather Radio or local radio or television stations for updated information. Hurricanes can change direction, intensity, and speed very suddenly. What was a minor threat several hours ago can quickly escalate to a major threat.
√  Listen to the advice of local officials, and evacuate if they tell you to do so. Avoid flooded roads and watch for washed-out bridges. Leaving an area that may be affected will help keep your family safe.
Local officials may call for evacuation in specific areas at greatest risk in your community. Following the advice of local authorities is your safest protection. Local officials may close down certain roads, especially near the coast, when the outer effects of increasing wind and rain from a hurricane reach the coast.
√  Prepare your property for high winds. Hurricane winds can blow large, heavy objects and send them crashing into homes. Anything not secured may become a deadly or damaging projectile.
√  Bring lawn furniture inside, as well as outdoor decorations or ornaments, trash cans, hanging plants, or anything else that can be picked up by the wind.
√  Make trees more wind resistant by removing diseased and damaged limbs, then strategically remove branches so that wind can blow through.
√  Secure building by closing and boarding up each window of your home. Remove outside antennas.
√  Moor boat securely or move it to a designated safe place. Use rope or chain to secure boat to trailer.
√  Fill your car’s gas tank. If advised to evacuate, you may have to travel long distances or be caught in traffic, idling for long periods of time. Gas stations along the route may be closed.
√  Stock up on prescription medications. Stores and pharmacies may be closed after the storm.
√  Recheck manufactured home tie-downs. Manufactured homes may not be as affected by strong winds if they are tied down according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Properly tied down homes are more likely to stay fixed to their foundations.
√  Check your ’72 Hour Emergency Kit’ (see post: Survival Manual/2. Social Issues/72 Hour Emergency Kit)  Some supplies may need to be replaced or restocked.
√  Turn refrigerator and freezer to coldest setting. Open only when absolutely necessary and close quickly. Keeping the coldest air in will help perishables last much longer in the event of a power failure.
√  Store valuables and personal papers in a safe deposit box in a waterproof container on the highest level of your home. Hurricanes leave much water damage inside homes. Historically, it is shown that protecting valuables in this manner will provide the best security.
√  Turn off utilities if told to do so by authorities. Authorities may ask you to turn off water or electric utilities to prevent damage to your home or within the community. Most of the time they will tell you to leave the gas on because a professional is required to turn your gas back on, and it may be several weeks before you receive service.
√  Turn off propane tanks. Propane tanks may be damaged or dislodged by strong winds or water. Turning them off reduces the fire potential if they are damaged by the storm.
√  Unplug small appliances. Small appliances may be affected by electrical power surges that may occur as the storm approaches. Unplugging them reduces potential damage.
√  Review evacuation plan. Make sure your planned route is the same as the currently recommended route. Sometimes roads may be closed or blocked, requiring a different route.
√  Stay away from flood waters. If you come upon a flooded road, turn around and go another way. When you are caught on a flooded road and waters are rising rapidly around you, if you can do so safely, get out of your vehicle and climb to higher ground. Most hurricane-related deaths are caused by floods, and most flood fatalities are caused by people attempting to drive through water. The depth of water is not always obvious. The roadbed may be washed out under the water, and you could be stranded or trapped. Rapidly rising water may stall the engine, engulf the vehicle and its occupants, and sweep them away. Two feet of water will carry away most automobiles.
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2.  What to Do During a Hurricane WARNING

√  Listen to a NOAA Weather Radio, or portable, battery – powered radio or television for updated information and official instructions. Hurricanes can change direction, intensity, and speed
very suddenly. Continue listening for local information.
√  If officials announce a  hurricane warning, they may ask you to leave your home as soon as possible to be safe. Take your Disaster Supplies Kit and go to a shelter or your family contact’s home. Call your check-in contact so someone will know where you are
going.
Local officials advise leaving only if they truly believe your location is in danger. It is important to follow their instructions as soon as possible. Roads may become blocked and the storm can worsen, preventing safe escape. Having your disaster supplies will make you more comfortable while you are away from home.
√  If you are not advised to evacuate, stay indoors, on the first floor away from windows, skylights and glass doors, even if they are covered. Stay on the floor least likely to be affected by strong winds and flood waters. A small interior room without windows on the first floor is usually the safest place. Have as many walls between you and the outside winds as possible. Sometimes strong winds and projectiles may tear hurricane shutters off, so stay away from windows even if they are covered. Lie on the floor under a table or other sturdy object. Being under a sturdy object will offer greater protection from falling objects.
√  Close all interior doors. Secure and brace external doors. Closed doors will help prevent damaging hurricane winds from entering additional rooms.
√  Have a supply of flashlights and extra batteries handy. Avoid using open flames (candles and kerosene lamps) as a source of light. Flashlights provide the safest emergency lighting source. Between 1984 and 1998, candle-related deaths from home fires following hurricanes were three times greater than the number of deaths related to the direct impact of the hurricane. Kerosene lamps require a great deal of ventilation and are not designed for indoor use.
√  Store drinking water in clean bathtubs, sinks, plastic bottles, and cooking utensils. Public water supplies and wells may become contaminated, or electric pumps may be inoperative if power is lost. Survivors of community-wide disasters have said the individual’s greatest need following the disaster is water.
√  If power is lost, turn off major appliances to reduce the power “surge” when electricity is restored.
When electricity is restored, the surge from many major appliances starting at the same time may cause damage or destroy the appliances. Turning off or unplugging major appliances will allow you to decide when it is best to turn them back on.
√  If in a mobile home, check tie-downs and evacuate immediately. Historically, manufactured homes suffer the greatest amount of damage during hurricanes. Prior to 1994, most manufactured homes were not designed to withstand even moderate winds.
√  Be aware that the calm “eye” is deceptive; the storm is not over.  The worst part of the storm will happen once the eye passes over and the winds blow from the opposite direction. Trees, shrubs, buildings, and other objects damaged by the first winds can be broken or destroyed by the second winds. The opposing winds begin suddenly, and have surprised and injured many people who ventured out during the eye.
√  Watch out for flooding. Hurricanes and tropical storms often drop large amounts of rainfall and cause severe flooding, even when they are weakening or are no longer a named storm. “Weak” tropical storms are just as capable of producing heavy rainfall and flooding as major hurricanes.
√  Be alert for tornadoes. Tornadoes can happen during and after a hurricane passes over. Remain indoors on a lower level, in the center of your home, in a closet or bathroom without windows. Going below ground, such as to a basement or storm cellar, increases your risk from flood.
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3.  What to Do if Evacuation Is Necessary

√  Leave as soon as possible (if possible, in daylight). Avoid flooded roads and watch for washed-out bridges. Roads and bridges frequently become crowded and traffic moves slow. Evacuation will probably take longer than expected. Give yourself plenty of time.
√  Secure your home by unplugging appliances and turning off electricity and the main water valve. This will reduce potential damage to your appliances (from power surges) and to your home.
√  Tell someone outside of the storm area where you are going. Relatives and friends will be concerned about your safety. Letting someone know your travel plans will help relieve their fear and anxiety.
√  If time permits, and you live in an identified surge zone or area prone to flooding, move furniture to a higher floor. Moving valuable furnishings helps reduce potential damage.
√  Bring preassembled emergency supplies and warm protective clothing. People frequently arrive at shelters or hotels with nothing. Having these items will make you more comfortable in other
locations.
√  While shelters provide a safe place to stay and food, specialty items for infants and individuals on restricted diets may not be available. It may take several days until permission is given by local authorities to re-enter an evacuated area. Bring these items with you to a shelter:
•   First aid kit, manual, and prescription medications.
•   Baby food and diapers.
•   Cards, games, books.
•   Toiletries.
•   Battery-powered radio and extra batteries.
•   Flashlight (one per person) and extra batteries.
•   Blankets or sleeping bags.
•   Identification.
•   Valuable papers (copies of insurance papers, passports, and other  essential documents).
•   Lock up your home and leave. There may be individuals evacuating after you, or returning before you. Police may be busy with hurricane-related emergencies and not able to patrol neighborhoods as usual. Lock your property as you normally would when leaving home.

4.  What to Do After a Hurricane

•   Continue listening to local radio or television stations or a NOAA Weather Radio for information and instructions. Access may be limited to some parts of the community, or roads may be blocked.
•   If you evacuated, return home when local officials tell you it is safe. Local officials on the scene are your best source of information on accessible areas and passable roads.
•   Stay alert for extended rainfall and subsequent flooding, even after the hurricane or tropical storm has weakened. Hurricanes may stall or change direction when they make landfall, or they may bring a lot of rain upriver, causing additional flood hazards for hours or days after the storm.
•   Stay away from flood waters. Drive only if absolutely necessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges. Continue to follow all flood safety messages. Flood waters may last for days following a hurricane. If you come upon a flooded road, turn around and go another way. When you are caught on a flooded road and waters are rising rapidly around you, if you can safely get out of the car, do so immediately and climb to higher ground. Never try to walk, swim, or drive through such swift water. Most flood fatalities are caused by people attempting to drive through water or people playing in high water. If it is moving swiftly, even water six inches deep can sweep you off your feet, and two feet can carry away most automobiles.
•   If you come upon a barricade, follow detour signs or turn around and go another way. Barricades are put up by local officials to protect people from unsafe roads. Driving around them can be a serious risk.
•   Stay on firm ground. Moving water only six inches deep can sweep you off your feet. Standing water may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.
•   Help injured or trapped persons. Give first aid where appropriate. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help.
•   Help a neighbor who may require special assistance – infants, elderly people and people with disabilities. Elderly people and people with disabilities may require additional assistance. People who care for them or who have large families may need additional assistance in emergency situations.
•   Avoid disaster areas. Your presence might hamper rescue and other emergency operations, and put you at further risk from the residual effects of floods, such as contaminated waters, crumbled roads, landslides, mudflows, and other hazards.
•   Avoid loose or dangling power lines; immediately report them to the power company, police, or fire department. Reporting potential hazards will get the utilities turned off as quickly as possible, preventing further hazard and injury.
•   Electrical equipment should be checked and dried before being returned to service. Call an electrician for advice before using electricity, which may have received water damage.
•   Stay out of the building if water remains around the building. Flood waters often undermine foundations, causing buildings to sink, floors to crack, or walls to collapse.
•   When entering buildings, use extreme caution. Hurricane- driven flood waters may have damaged buildings where youleast expect it.
Carefully watch every step you take:

>  Wear sturdy shoes. The most common injury following a disaster is cut feet.
>  Use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when examining buildings. Battery-powered lighting is the safest and easiest, preventing fire hazard for the user, occupants, and building.
>  Examine walls, floors, doors, staircases, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing.
>  Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage. Cracks and damage to a foundation can render a building uninhabitable.
>  Look for fire hazards. There may be broken or leaking gas lines, flooded electrical circuits, or submerged furnaces or electrical appliances. Flammable or explosive materials may come from upstream. Fire is the most frequent hazard following floods.
>  Check for gas leaks. If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise, open a window and quickly leave the building. Turn off the gas, using the outside main valve if you can, and call the gas company from a neighbor’s home. If you turn off the gas for any reason, it must be turned back on by a professional.
>  Look for electrical system damage. If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell burning insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician first for advice. Electrical equipment should be checked and dried before being returned to service.
>  Check for sewage and water line damage. If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company, and avoid using water from the tap. You can obtain safe water from undamaged water heaters or by melting ice cubes.
>  Watch out for animals, especially poisonous snakes, that may have come into buildings with the flood waters. Use a stick to poke through debris. Flood waters flush many animals and snakes out of their homes.
>  Watch for loose plaster, drywall, and ceilings that could fall.
>  Take pictures of the damage, both of the building and its contents, for insurance claims.
>  Open windows and doors to ventilate and dry your home.
>  Check refrigerated food for spoilage. If power was lost, some foods may be spoiled.
>  Avoid drinking or preparing food with tap water until you are certain it is not contaminated. Hurricane-driven flood waters may have contaminated public water supplies or wells. Local officials should advise you on the safety of the drinking water. Undamaged water heaters or melted ice cubes can provide good sources of fresh drinking water.
>  Pump out flooded basements gradually (about one-third of the water per day) to avoid structural damage. If the water is pumped out completely in a short period of time, pressure from water on the outside could cause basement walls to collapse.
>  Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems as soon as possible. Damaged sewage systems are health hazards.
>  Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Telephone lines are frequently overwhelmed in disaster situations. They need to be clear for emergency calls to get through.
Pasted from <http://www.disastercenter.com/guide/hurricane.html>

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D. After effects
Hurricane Ike was devastating to the regions it struck. Galveston, Houston, and the surrounding areas were especially hard hit by the storm. These areas experienced massive, long-lasting power outages as a result of the hurricane.
90% of the 2 million customers of CenterPoint Energy, the largest power provider in the region, were left without power after the storm. Entergy Texas, another major power provider in the region, reported that an estimated 392,600 of their 395,000 customers lost power during the storm. The one area that was notably able to retain its power in Houston, Texas was the Texas Medical Center, a complex containing 13 renowned hospitals. People experiencing a myriad of medical complications due to the lack of power flocked to the Texas Medical Center for assistance after Hurricane Ike.

Residential homes were not the only places where power was conspicuously missing after Hurricane Ike. Many traffic signals in Houston were damaged or destroyed or were powerless due to the storm. Some estimate that as many as half of the city’s 2,500 traffic signals were disabled by the storm. As a result, Houston’s roads were congested with traffic for approximately two weeks after Ike hit.
Some residents reported that their commutes stretched up to three hours because of the traffic jams.

Power outages in Texas can be truly devastating. Because natural disasters often occur during the hottest months of the year, it is vital that power remain on for as much of the city as possible. Due to the humidity in places like Houston, a power outage can mean quickly rotting food, billions of dollars in damage to restaurants and grocery stores, and insurance claims in the millions during traffic accidents. Many people are at risk for heat exhaustion and stroke during power outages, as the heat in asphalt and concrete covered cities builds to dangerous levels.  [At my home east ‘n Texas, power was out for about 4 days due to a blown local transformer. Mr. Larry]
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E.  Prevent Illness From Food and Water After a Hurricane or Flood
Pasted from:
http://www.bt.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/foodwater.asp
Highlights

  • Throw away food that may have come in contact with flood or storm water.
  • Keep the refrigerator and freezer doors closed as much as possible and add block ice or dry ice if the electricity is expected to be off longer than 4 hours.
  • Local authorities will tell you if tap water is safe to drink or use for cooking or bathing.
  • If the water is unsafe, follow the directions of local authorities to safely disinfect the water.

Prevent illness from food

  • Identify and throw away food that may not be safe to eat
  • Throw away food that may have come in contact with flood or storm water.
    • Throw away canned foods that are bulging, opened, or damaged.
    • Throw away food that has an unusual odor, color, or texture.
    • Throw away perishable foods (including meat, poultry, fish, eggs and leftovers) that have been above 40°F for 2 hours or more. Thawed food that contains ice crystals or is 40°F or below can be refrozen or cooked.
    • If cans have come in contact with floodwater or storm water, remove the labels, wash the cans, and dip them in a solution of 1 cup (240 milliliters) of bleach in 5 gallons of water. Relabel the cans with a marker.

Water

Local authorities will tell you if tap water is safe to drink or to use for cooking or bathing. If the water is not safe to use, follow local instructions to use bottled water or to boil or disinfect water for cooking, cleaning, or bathing.

Correctly boil or disinfect water

  • Hold water at a rolling boil for 1 minute to kill bacteria.
  • If you can’t boil water, add 1/8 teaspoon (approximately 0.75 mL) of newly purchased, unscented liquid household bleach (Clorox) per gallon of water. Stir the water well, and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it.
  • You can use water-purifying tablets instead of boiling water or using bleach. For infants, use only pre-prepared canned baby formula.
    Do not use powdered formulas prepared with treated water.
  • Disinfect children’s toys that have come in contact with water. Use a solution of 1 cup of bleach in 5 gallons of water to disinfect the toys. Let toys air dry after cleaning.
  • Some toys, such as stuffed animals and baby toys, cannot be disinfected; they should be discarded.

Prevent carbon monoxide poisoning

  • Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless gas that is produced by many types of equipment and is poisonous to breathe.
  • Don’t use a generator, pressure washer, charcoal grill, camp stove, or other gasoline- or charcoal-burning device inside your home, basement, or garage or near a window, door, or vent.
  • Don’t run a car or truck inside a garage attached to your house, even if you leave the door open. Don’t heat your house with a gas oven.
  • If your carbon monoxide detector sounds, leave your home immediately and call 911. Seek prompt medical attention if you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning and are feeling dizzy, light-headed, or nauseated.
    .

F.  Prevent and Treat Other Illnesses and Injuries After a Hurricane or Flood

Avoid floodwater and mosquitoes

  • Follow all warnings about water on roadways. Do not drive vehicles or heavy equipment through water.
  • If you have to work in or near floodwater, wear a life jacket. If you are caught in an area where floodwater is rising, wear a life jacket, or use some other type of flotation device.
  • Prevent mosquito bites by wearing long pants, socks, and long-sleeved shirts and by using insect repellents that contain DEET or Picaridin.

Avoid unstable buildings and structures

Stay away from damaged buildings or structures until they have been examined and certified as safe by a building inspector or other government authority. Leave immediately if you hear shifting or unusual noises that signal that the structure is about to fall.

Beware of wild or stray animals

Avoid wild or stray animals. Take appropriate precautions to avoid animal bites and rabies exposure. Call local authorities to handle animals. Get rid of dead animals according to local guidelines.

Beware of electrical and fire hazards

  • NEVER touch a fallen power line. Call the power company to report fallen power lines. Avoid contact with overhead power lines during cleanup and other activities.
  • If electrical circuits and equipment have gotten wet or are in or near water, turn off the power at the main breaker or fuse on the service panel.
  • Do not turn the power back on until electrical equipment has been inspected by a qualified electrician.
  • Do not burn candles near flammable items or leave the candle unattended. If possible, use flashlights or other battery-operated lights instead of candles.

Beware of hazardous materials

  • Wear protective clothing and gear (for example, a respirator if needed) when handling hazardous materials. Wash skin that may have come in contact with hazardous chemicals.
    Contact local authorities if you are not sure about how to handle or get rid of hazardous materials.
  • Clean up and prevent mold growth.
  • Clean up and dry out the building quickly (within 24 to 48 hours). Open doors and windows. Use fans to dry out the building. To prevent mold growth, clean wet items and surfaces with detergent and water. To remove mold growth, wear rubber gloves, open windows and doors, and clean with a bleach solution of 1 cup of bleach in 1 gallon of water. Throw away porous items (for example, carpet and upholstered furniture) that cannot be dried quickly. Fix any leaks in roofs, walls, or plumbing.

Pace yourself and get support

Be alert to physical and emotional exhaustion or strain. Set priorities for cleanup tasks, and pace the work. Try not to work alone. Don’t get exhausted. Ask your family members, friends, or professionals for support. If needed, seek professional help.

Prevent musculoskeletal injuries

Use teams of two or more people to move bulky objects. Avoid lifting any material that weighs more than 50 pounds (per person).

Stay cool

When it’s hot, stay in air-conditioned buildings; take breaks in shaded areas or in cool rooms; drink water and nonalcoholic fluids often; wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing; and do outdoor activities during cooler hours.

Treat wounds

  • Clean out all open wounds and cuts with soap and clean water. Apply an antibiotic ointment. Contact a doctor to find out whether more treatment is needed (such as a tetanus shot).
    If a wound gets red, swells, or drains, seek immediate medical attention.
  • Wash your hands
  • Use soap and warm water to wash your hands. If water isn’t available, you can use alcohol-based products made for washing hands.
  • Wear protective gear for cleanup work
  • Wear hard hats, goggles, heavy work gloves, and watertight boots with steel toes and insoles (not just steel shank). Wear earplugs or protective headphones to reduce risk from equipment noise.

[Internet image: Looking straight up in the eye of a hurricane, blue sky and wall illuminated by sunlight.]

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Filed under Survival Manual, __1. Disaster

Canned protein

(Survival Manual/Prepper Articles/ Canned protein)

 A. Canned Protein Foods For SHTF
7 December 2013, ModernSurvivalBlog, by Ken Jorgustin
Pasted from: http://modernsurvivalblog.com/survival-kitchen/canned-protein-foods-for-shtf/

Protein can

While planning and choosing various foods for your overall preparedness food storage, also think about the proteins.
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group.
Proteins are the building blocks for our bones, muscles, and blood.
Here’s a list of some choices for storing back some canned protein…

CANNED PROTEINS
They are already ready-to-eat, pre-cooked and/or pasteurized, and therefore theoretically require no fuel consumption for safe eating (although some of the items listed below will likely taste better warmed up or cooked).

Canned Salmon
Not only is this fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, it’s actually better for you when canned because ‘traditional pack’ salmon is packed with the bones intact, meaning more calcium for your bones and teeth. Also, some of the fat is removed, making it a healthier option.

Canned Tuna
Tuna is a naturally lean protein source, also containing good omega-3. Be aware that tuna may contain levels of mercury, so it’s probably best not to consume more than a few cans a week. Here is a tuna consumption calculator for your reference regarding maximum recommended intake.

Canned Chicken
Packed with protein and low in fat for a relatively low calorie count, chicken is high in selenium as well as cancer-preventing B-vitamin niacin. It also contains B6, which is important for energy metabolism.

Canned Pinto Beans
The canned beans are convenient and can easily be added to soups or stews. They’re a good source of folate and manganese, relatively high in protein, and rich in vitamin B1 as well as a slew of other minerals.

Canned Kidney Beans
They are high in fiber, iron and memory-boosting B1, releasing their energy slowly (meaning no sugar spikes), and contain a relatively good amount of protein.

Canned Beef
There are a variety of commercially available canned beef choices out there. Beef is another source of protein. I just randomly checked a can of Kirkland canned beef (12 oz) and it contains 15 grams of protein, slightly more than the same size canned chicken (13 grams).

Canned Almonds
Often considered the healthiest nut, a medium sized handful contains about 5 grams of protein, 4 grams of fiber (the highest of any nut), calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin E, and some B-vitamins, minerals, and selenium. Generally, most all unprocessed nuts are good in that they contain protein and other attributes. If they’re canned, they should have a longer shelf life, but the oils in them will go rancid after a time.

How much protein do you need each day?
Recommended daily amounts are shown in the following list from the USDA.

These amounts are appropriate for individuals who get less than 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity, beyond normal daily activities. Those who are more physically active may be able to consume more while staying within calorie needs.

Children 2-3 years old – 2 ounce equivalents**
Children 4-8 years old – 4 ounce equivalents**
Girls 9-13 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Girls 14-18 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Boys 9-13 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Boys 14-18 years old – 6 ½ ounce equivalents**

Women 19-30 years old – 5 ½ ounce equivalents**
Women 31-50 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Women 51+ years old – 5 ounce equivalents**

Men 19-30 years old – 6 ½ ounce equivalents**
Men 31-50 years old – 6 ounce equivalents**
Men 51+ years old – 5 ½ ounce equivalents**

**See Protein Equivalents Chart below…

 Protein Equivalents Chart

protein chart

B.  My Protein Food Sources
2009, iProtein.com,
Pasted from: http://www.iprotein.com/protein-foods.html

Find out how much protein is found in the protein sources listed below!

Protein in Foods

…………………………………..Calories       Protein (g)  Total Fat (g)  Ounces

Beef

Pot Roast                                    183               28                8                     3

Flank Steak                                 175               24                9                     3

Rib Roast                                    172               24                8                     3

Round Roast                               153               27                4                     3

Sirloin                                         165               26                6                     3

Tenderloin                                  174               24                8                     3

Lean 85% Ground Beef            204               22                12                   3

Lean 90% Ground Beef            162               25                7                     3

Beef Jerky                                      70              11                1                     1

Beef Liver                                   184               23                7                     3

Beef Hot Dogs                            184               6                  17                   1 hot dog

Chicken

Broth                                          19                 3                  1                     1/2 cup

Dark Meat                                  174               23                8                     3

White Meat                                 147               26                4                     3

Ground                                       178               22                9                     3

Chicken Liver                              133               21                5                     3

Pork

Loin Chop                                    165               26                7                     3

Country-style Ribs                     203               21                13                   3

Shoulder-lean                              207               22                13                   3

Tenderloin (breaded)                  277               30                13                   3

Lean Tenderloin                          133               25                4                     3

Pork Hot Dog                              183               6                  17                   1 hot dog

Ham                                              133               21                5                     3

Turkey

Beast (no skin)                           133               26                3                     3

Breast (with skin)                     168               24                4                     3

Ground                                      210               23                12                   3

Dark Turkey (no skin)            159                24                6                     3

Turkey Hot Dogs                    129               8                  11                   1 hot dog

Lamb

Shoulder                                   239               30                12                   3

Leg                                             163               23                7                     3

Loin Chops                              186               25                8                     3

Veal                                            127               25                3                     3

Seafood

Fish

Breaded Fish Sticks           231                13                10                   3

Cat Fish                                132                 21                5                     3

Cod (baked or broiled)       89                  19                1                     3

Flounder/Sole                    99                  22                2                     3

Haddock                             98                  23                1                     3

Orange Roughy               143                   17                8                     3

Red Snapper                     19                  22                1                     3

Canned Salmon                130                17                6                     3

Fresh Salmon                   183                23                9                     3

Sardines                           177               21                10                   3

Shark                               148                24                5                     3

Sword Fish                      127                22                 4                     3

Trout                                  164                30                 5                     7-8

Tuna (oil packed)            169                25                 7                     3

Tuna (water packed)        111                25                 –                      3

Fresh Tuna                       156                25                 5                     3

Shrimp

Batter                                 195                18                11                   3

Canned                               102                20                 2                     3

Fresh/Frozen                      84                 19                 1                     3

Lobster

Broiled/Grilled                     80                  17                1                     3

Canned Meat                       79                  17                1                     3

Oysters                                    117                12                 4                     3

Bread

French                                        100               3                  1                     1 slice

Italian                                         83                 3                  –                      1 slice

Mixed Grain                             65                 2                  1                     1 slice

Pumpernickel                           80                 3                  1                     1 slice

Raisin                                         68                 2                  1                     1 slice

Rye                                               65                 2                  1                     1 slice

Sourdough                                  88                 3                  1                     1 slice

White-firm                                  88                 3                  1                     1 slice

White-firm                                  75                 2                  1                     1 slice

Hamburger Bun                          129               4                  2                     1 bun

Hard Roll                                    155               5                  2                     1 roll

Hot Dog Bun                              115                3                  2                     1 bun

Whole Wheat                                60                2                  1                     1 slice

English Muffins                            140                5                  1                     1-3 1/2 inch

Tortillas

Corn                                            61                  2                  1                     1-6 inch

Flour                                          105                3                                         1-8 inch

Vegetables

Lentils                                        115               9                  –                      1/2 cup

Refried Beans                            135               8                  1                     1/2 cup

Radish                                          1                 –                  –                      one

Rhubarb                                      26                 1                  –                      1 cup

Spinach-Fresh                            9                 1                  –                      1/4 cup

Potatoes

Baked                              220                5                  –                      7

Boiled                              124                3                  –                      5

Mashed                            122                3                  1                     3/4 cup

Baked French Fries            224                3                  12                   1/3 cup

Fruits

Bananas                                     105               1                  1                     1 med.

Pears – Fresh                             98                 1                  1                     1 med.

Pineapple – Fresh                     38                 –                  –                      1/2 cup

Plums – Fresh                           36                 1                  –                      1 med.

Prunes                                        20                 –                  –                      one

Raisins                                        55                 1                  –                      2 Tbsp.

Raspberries – Fresh                  30                 1                  –                      1/2 cup

Tangerine                                    37                 1                  –                      1 med.

Cherry Tomatoes                         3                   –                  –                      one

Tomatoes – Fresh                        26                 1                  –                      med.

Grape Fruit                                 39                 1                  –                      1/2 med.

Oranges – Fresh                          60                 1                  –                      1 med.

Cantaloupe                                 94                 2                  1                     1/2 med.

Honeydew                                  113               1                  –                      1/4 med.

Watermelon                                152               3                  2                     1 – 1×10″ slice

Cherries – Fresh                        104               2                  1                     1 cup

Strawberries – Fresh                 23                 –                  –                      1/2 cup

Kiwi                                             46                 1                  –                      1 med.

Apple                                           80                 –                  –                      1 med.

Nectarine                                   67                 1                  1                     1 med.

Peach                                          37                 1                  –                      1 med.

Soups

Chicken Noodle                          56                 3                  2                     1/2 cup

Cream of Mushroom (water)    98                 2                  7                     3/4 cup

Cream of Mushroom (milk)    154                5                  10                   3/4 cup

Cream of Tomato                       65                 2                  1                     3/4 cup

Vegetable Beef                           59                 4                  1                     3/4 cup

Eggs

Egg                                               75                 6                  5                     1 large

Egg Yolk                                      59                 3                  5                     1 large

Egg Substitute                             48                 3                  3                     2 Tbsp.

Cheese

American                                    106                6                  9                     1

Cheddar                                      114               7                  9                     1

Cheddar (low fat)                         90                 8                  6                     1

4% Cottage Cheese                     109               13                5                     1/2 cup

2% Cottage Cheese                     102               16                2                     1/2 cup

1% Cottage Cheese                      82                 14                1                     1/2 cup

Cream Cheese Light                     60                 3                  5                     1

Feta                                                 75                 4                  6                     1

Mozzarella                                     72                  7                  5                     1

Parmesan                                       23                 2                  2                     1 Tbsp.

Ricotta Park Skim Mild            170               14                10                   1/2 cup

Swiss                                             107               8                  8                     1

Miscellaneous

Peanut Butter                              95                 4                  8                     1 Tbsp.

Air-popped Popcorn                  30                 1                  –                      1 cup

Oatmeal – Cooked                      109                 5                  2                     3/4 cup

 

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