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Rise of the Preppers

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Rise of the Preppers)

A.  Rise Of The Preppers: 50 Of The Best Prepper Websites And Blogs On The Internet
1 Feb 2013, SHTFplan.com, by Michael Snyder (http://thetruthwins.com/)
Pasted from: http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/rise-of-the-preppers-50-of-the-best-prepper-websites-and-blogs-on-the-internet_02012013

 

shtf food

Are you preparing for the collapse of society? If so, the truth is that you are definitely not alone. The number of preppers in the U.S. has absolutely exploded in recent years. It has been estimated that there are now approximately 3 million preppers in the United States, and “Doomsday Preppers” is currently the highest rated show on the National Geographic channel [in 2013]. In fact, you could be living next to a prepper and never even know it. All over America, families are transforming spare rooms into long-term food storage pantries, planting survival gardens, unplugging from the grid, converting their homes over to alternative sources of energy, taking self-defense courses and stocking up on just about everything that you can imagine. The re-election of Barack Obama and other recent events seem to have given the prepper movement even more momentum. For example, in January the U.S. Mint broke all kinds of records and sold nearly half a billion dollars worth of gold and silver coins to the public. Not only that, Americans bought enough guns during the last two months of 2012 alone to supply the entire armies of China and India. When it comes to prepping, nobody can match the passion that Americans put into it.

So what are all of these people prepping for?

Well, the truth is that no two preppers have the exact same motivation. There is a general consensus among preppers that our world is becoming increasingly unstable, but when you sit down and talk with them you find out that there are a whole host of different civilization-killing events that various preppers are concerned about. Some are preparing for the collapse of the economy. Others are extremely concerned about the potential for crippling natural disasters andcatastrophic earth changes. To other preppers, the rise of the “Big Brother” surveillance grid that is being constructed all around us is the greatest danger, and many of them warn of the tyrannical agenda of the New World Order. Terrorism, killer pandemics, EMP attacks, World War III, martial law, solar megastorms, asteroid strikes and societal chaos are some of the other things that many preppers are worried about. There are even some preppers that are not worried about any “threats” at all – they just want to get “back to the land” and want to become less dependent on the system.

Whatever the motivation, it is undeniable that the prepper movement has gotten very large and that it continues to grow.

In fact, there was a recent article in the New York Times about preppers that was actually written by a prepper entitled “The Preppers Next Door“…

To the unprepared, the very word “prepper” is likely to summon images of armed zealots hunkered down in bunkers awaiting the End of Days, but the reality, at least here in New York, is less dramatic. Local Preppers are doctors, doormen, charter school executives, subway conductors, advertising writers and happily married couples from the Bronx. They are no doubt people that you know — your acquaintances and neighbors. People, I’ll admit, like myself.

I was absolutely amazed that one of the key mouthpieces of the establishment, the New York Times, would publish an article that was mostly positive about preppers, because the truth is that prepping is essentially a huge expression of a lack of faith in the establishment. Even the article admitted as much…

PREPPING IS THE BIG SHORT: a bet not just against a city, or a country or a government, but against the whole idea of sustainable civilization. For that reason, it chafes against one of polite society’s last remaining taboos — that the way we live is not simply plagued by certain problems, but is itself insolubly problematic.

And that is exactly right. There are millions of us that are entirely convinced that the world around us is becoming increasingly unstable and that “the system” will not be there to take care of us when everything falls to pieces.

With each passing day, even more Americans lose faith in the system and begin prepping. If you are one of those new preppers, there are actually dozens of great websites out there on the Internet where you can get an education about prepping for free. The list of websites and blogs that I have compiled below contains more articles and resources than you could ever possibly need. Hopefully many of you will find this list to be extremely helpful.

The following are 50 of the best prepper websites and blogs on the Internet…

  1. Survival Blog
  2. American Preppers Network
  3. The Survival Mom
  4. SHTFPlan.com
  5. Survival 4 Christians
  6. Urban Survival
  7. Backdoor Survival
  8. Off Grid Survival
  9. Modern Survival Online
  10. The Survivalist Blog
  11. The Suburban Prepper
  12. The Great Northern Prepper
  13. Prepper Website
  14. The Survival Podcast
  15. Doom And Bloom
  16. Provident Living Today
  17. Prepper.org
  18. Prepared Christian
  19. SHTFblog.com
  20. Survival Cache
  21. Modern Survival Blog
  22. Rural Revolution
  23. Preparedness Advice Blog
  24. Prep-Blog.com
  25. Survival And Prosperity
  26. TEOTWAWKI Blog
  27. The Neighbor Network
  28. The Apartment Prepper
  29. Armageddon Online
  30. The Berkey Guy Blog
  31. The Home For Survival
  32. My Family Survival Plan
  33. Prepography
  34. Prepper Dashboard
  35. Bacon And Eggs
  36. SHTF School
  37. Canadian Preppers Network
  38. Maximum Survival
  39. Survivor Jane
  40. Prepping To Survive
  41. SaltnPrepper
  42. SGTReport
  43. SHTF Wiki
  44. Jewish Preppers
  45. Survival Magazine
  46. Survival Week
  47. Prepper Forums
  48. Survivalist Boards
  49. Tactical Intelligence
  50. The Prepared Ninja
  51. Common Sense Homesteading

The sad truth is that our world is becoming increasingly unstable in a whole bunch of different ways and we all need to learn how to prepare for the difficult years ahead.

Unfortunately, most Americans simply are not prepared for much of anything.

For example, a large percentage of Americans do not even have enough savings to get them through a single financial emergency. According to one recent report, approximately 44 percent of all households in the United States are just one unexpected event away from financial disaster.
(See article: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/30/financial-emergency-report_n_2576326.html)

Most American families do not have much food stored up either. One recent survey discovered that 55 percent of all Americans have less than three days supply of food in their homes.
(See article: http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2012/September/Doomsday-Ready-More-Americans-Becoming-Preppers/)

Could that possibly be accurate? Do people really keep that little food in their homes?

Another survey asked Americans how long they think they could survive if the entire electrical grid went down and there was no more power for an extended period of time. Incredibly, 21 percent of those who responded said that they would survive for less than a week, and an additional 28 percent of those who responded said that they would survive for less than two weeks. Close to 75 percent of those who responded said that they would be dead before the two month mark.

So who are the crazy ones?
Are the people trying to become more independent and self-sufficient crazy, or are the people who have complete and total faith that the system will take care of them no matter what happens actually the crazy ones?
I don’t know about you, but I would prefer for myself and my family to at least have a chance to survive if society melts down for some reason

 

 

B. Doomsday Ready? More Americans Becoming ‘Preppers’
28 Dec 2012, CBN news, By Chuck Holton
Pasted from: http://www.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2012/September/Doomsday-Ready-More-Americans-Becoming-Preppers/

BLACK MOUNTAIN, N.C. – When an unexpected summer storm knocked out power across the mid-Atlantic region in July, more than 4 million people went without power for up to two weeks.
Throughout the summer, a severe drought across much of the country also put a serious strain on the nation’s infrastructure.

Couple that with the threat of a currency collapse, civil unrest, and other nightmare scenarios – stocking up for the unexpected is looking smarter all the time.
Now, a small but growing segment of society is asking the question, “What happens when the lights go out for more than just a few days?”

Preparation or over reaction? CBN News Reporter Chuck Holton talked more about the “prepper” movement as well as how and why many Americans are readying for the worst, on “The 700 Club,” Sept. 12.
Many of these “preppers” think the recent record-setting blackout could be just a preview of things to come.
Keith Iton is a die hard prepper and has started a business to help others get ready as well.
“The biggest problem we suffer here in North America is complacency,” he claimed.
“People figure since nothing has happened in ‘x’ amount of years, nothing bad will ever happen,” Iton continued. “So they get comfortable, and they get lazy and then unpreparedness comes in. Then you have other people who look at history.”

From ‘Crazy’ to Common
Survivalists are sometimes seen as wild eyed, crazy people waiting for the ‘zombie apocalypse.’ But with the state of the economy in today’s world, being prepared is more popular than ever.

Recently, some 2,000 people gathered in North Carolina for the Carolina Readiness Seminar to discuss the risks and what can be done about them.
“It’s very environmental, very green, takes us off of fossil fuels, and [is] very easy to do,” prepper Joel Henderson said.
Henderson is co-owner of Green Gold Filters, one of the vendors at the recent convention. His patented filtration system is helping people accomplish something that America has been trying to do for years — run a vehicle without foreign oil.
“If anybody has a diesel engine, truck, tractor, or generator, you can use used cooking oil as an alternative diesel fuel, or motor oil,” Henderson explained.

“If you go to the restaurants, this is a local restaurant here in Nashville, an Indian restaurant, this is their used cooking oil they were throwing away,” he continued. “We picked it up, ran it through our filter system, and now we have a nice alternative diesel fuel that I’ll put right in my tank.”

‘Doomsday Preppers’
The prepper movement is being helped along by a new trend in television shows about the subject. The most popular is National Geographic’s “Doomsday Preppers.”

“‘Doomsday Preppers’ is the highest rated show right now ever on National Geographic,” casting director Brooklyn Bagwell said.
“It’s a show about your average American family, unique people who are prepping for any of life’s uncertainties, whether that be economic collapse to solar flare in 2012. No matter what it is they’re going to be prepared,” he added.

One of the challenges for the show is that most preppers aren’t eager to advertise their stockpiles of supplies, since if the bottom drops out, looting could be a real problem.
“We do understand it could be a risk, but we do respect privacy on the show. We don’t have to say your first name or last name or where you’re from,” Bagwell said.
“We try to get in the lives of many diverse preppers, and have each prepper give a take away to our viewers so they can learn more about prepping,” he said.

prepper crazy vs normal[Top: The general public perception of Preppers (everything including the kitchen sink in a stockpile).
Bottom: Reality (Ordinary things, bulky water, bulky food, bags and cases of sustainability supplies and the means of
protecting those belongings from theft). Mr. Larry]

Prepare with God
Iton said the first step to being prepared, however, has nothing to do with canned food or bottled water.
“Your first step to preparedness, for me personally, is your relationship with Jesus Christ,” he explained. “If you build a solid relationship with Jesus Christ, then you are more prepared than the average Joe.”
“Then after that, if you can get a little food, water stored away, a little safe retreat, it’ll all fall into place,” Iton said. “You want to be able to feed yourself, feed your family, help a neighbor, help a friend.”

A hundred years ago, having extra supplies in the house was considered completely normal. But that has changed.
A recent survey found that 55 percent of Americans have less than three days supply of food in their homes. Many people have no emergency supplies, or even a first aid kit.
But with America’s infrastructure becoming more fragile every day, preppers say it’s a good idea to stock up, just in case.

 

C. The Prepper Movement: Why Are Millions Of Preppers Preparing Feverishly For The End Of The World As We Know It?
26 Oct 2011, http://endoftheamericandream.com
Pasted from: http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/the-prepper-movement-why-are-millions-of-preppers-preparing-feverishly-for-the-end-of-the-world-as-we-know-it_10262011

 

prepper basement storageIn America today, there are millions of “preppers” that are working feverishly to get prepared for what they fear is going to happen to America. There is a very good chance that some of your neighbors or co-workers may be preppers. You may even have noticed that some of your relatives and friends have been storing up food and have been trying to convince you that we are on the verge of “the end of the world as we know it”. A lot of preppers like to keep their preparations quiet, but everyone agrees that the prepper movement is growing. Some estimate that there are four million preppers in the United States today. Others claim that there are a lot more than that. In any event, there are certainly a lot of preppers out there. So exactly what are all these preppers so busy preparing for?

Well, the truth is that the motivation for prepping is different for each person. Some preppers believe that a complete collapse of the economy is coming. Others saw what happened to so many during Hurricane Katrina are determined not to let that happen to them. Some preppers just want to become more independent and self-sufficient. There are yet others that are deeply concerned about “end of the world as we know it” scenarios such as terrorists using weapons of mass destruction, killer pandemics, alien invasions, World War III or EMP attacks.

But whatever the motivation is, the prepper movement is clearly growing. Today, millions of Americans are converting spare rooms into storage pantries, learning how to grow survival gardens and stocking up on everything from gas masks to auxiliary generators.

Recently, the Salina Journal gathered together about two dozen preppers. What they found is that there is a tremendous amount of diversity among preppers, but that they also clearly share a common passion….

It was a diverse bunch. All different shapes, sizes, ages, gender and political persuasions.

Some were ex-military. Some never served. Some were unemployed, some had jobs. A few were retired.

But they all shared a common bond: They call themselves Preppers, and they had gathered to share ideas, demonstrate various skills, enjoy each other’s company and to put faces to the online names they use to disguise their identity.

Never before in U.S. history have we seen anything like this. We are at peace and most of us still have a relatively high standard of living and yet millions of Americans feel called to start preparing for the worst.

A lot of preppers don’t like to publicize the fact that they are prepping. As the Salina Journal discovered, a lot of preppers try very hard to keep their prepping to themselves…..

They are trying to keep their passion for prepping hidden from neighbors and, in some cases, employers who they said would frown on their association with such a group. Two admitted their appearance here would probably get them fired if their companies found out.

Many people believe that it takes a lot of money and resources to be a prepper, but that is not necessarily the case.
For some, the best way to get prepared is to radically simplify things.
For example, a recent article posted on Yahoo Finance profiled a man that lives in his RV and that survives on about $11,000 a year….

I had an apartment in Burbank and was the typical Los Angeles apartment dweller. I started to feel a strong desire to simplify my life. I had a garage full of stuff I never used, my closets were full, and I started to see that it was costing me money to have an apartment big enough to hold all the stuff I never use.

My initial plan was to scale back and move into a smaller apartment. Before long, I realized I didn’t need too much to be happy. I could fit into a small space. That’s when the RV idea occurred to me. I was just sitting in traffic and an RV pulled up. I said, “I could probably fit in that thing.” The more I looked into it, the more I realized how practical it would be. For what I was paying for rent in LA, I could own my “house” free and clear and not pay rent, and own my car as well.

Other people make the most of what they already have. It is absolutely amazing what some families are able to do with limited resources.

For example, there is one family that is actually producing 6000 pounds of produce a year on just 1/10th of an acre right in the middle of Pasadena, California.

This family grows more food than they need and they sell the excess to restaurants in the surrounding area.
You can see video of their amazing garden right here:

Other Americans take prepping to the other extreme. For example, Steven Huff is building a 72,000 square foot “home” (some call it a fortress) in Missouri. Huff is the chairman of Wisconsin-based TF Concrete Forming Systems, and he wants to show off what his firm is capable of. Huff claims that this will be “a home that uses very low energy, as well as having strong resistance to tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, fire, flood and insect damage”.

In reality, what Huff is building kind of resembles a castle. You can see pictures of this remarkable “home” right here: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2015900/Can-money-buy-taste-Inside-concrete-tycoons-72-000-square-foot-dream-home-guess–.html.

But Huff is not the only one taking things to extremes.
In a recent article, I detailed how renowned Texas investor Kyle Bass appears to be very well prepared for the horrible economic collapse that he believes is coming. The following is how one reporter described his recent visit to the 40,000 square foot “fortress” owned by Bass….

“We hopped into his Hummer, decorated with bumper stickers (God Bless Our Troops, Especially Our Snipers) and customized to maximize the amount of fun its owner could have in it: for instance, he could press a button and, James Bond–like, coat the road behind him in giant tacks. We roared out into the Texas hill country, where, with the fortune he’d made off the subprime crisis, Kyle Bass had purchased what amounted to a fort: a forty-thousand-square-foot ranch house on thousands of acres in the middle of nowhere, with its own water supply, and an arsenal of automatic weapons and sniper rifles and small explosives to equip a battalion.”

Do you think that Bass is taking things too far?

Well, there are other big names that are busy preparing for the worst as well.
For instance, Robert Kiyosaki, the best-selling author of the “Rich Dad, Poor Dad” series of books is now a full-fledged prepper.
He says that he is “prepared for the worst” and that he and his wife “have food, we have water, we have guns, gold and silver, and cash”.

So should the rest of us be preparing?
Of course we should be. Our nation is drowning in debt, the U.S. economy is dying, the number of earthquakes and other natural disasters is increasing, and the entire globe is becoming an extremely unstable place. If you read my articles on a regular basis, then you know that there are a whole host of reasons to try to become more independent and self-sufficient.

So what can we all do to get prepared?
Well, in a previous article I listed a few things that can be done by most people….

#1  Become Less Dependent On Your Job
#2  Get Out Of Debt
#3  Reduce Expenses
#4  Purchase Land
#5  Learn To Grow Food
#6  Find A Reliable Source Of Water
#7  Explore Alternative Energy Sources
#8  Store Supplies
#9  Protect Your Assets With Gold And Silver
#10  Learn Self-Defense
#11  Keep Yourself Fit
#12  Make Friends

For those interested in learning more about preppers and prepping, there are a lot of really great resources out there….

*American Preppers Network

*The Survival Mom

*In Case Of Emergency, Read Blog

*The Surburban Prepper

 

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Filed under Prepper articles, Survival Manual

Personal hygiene after SHTF

(Survival Manual/Prepper articles/ Personal hygiene after SHTF)

A.  Personal Hygiene After SHTF
7 May 2013, SurvivalAndBeyond, by The Maj – Prepper Resources
Pasted from: http://www.survivalandbeyond.net/personal-hygiene-after-shtf/

Staying clean by today’s standards in a post SHTF world will be a task that is close to impossible.  The daily, sometimes twice daily, bath or shower will become a thing of the past and the old joke of  “bath  night Saturday” will no longer be a joke for most people.  The world will be vastly different but the same “bugs” we are so careful to cleanse ourselves of today will be even more relentless.  The only advantage you will have then, that most do not have today, is the fact that contact with other people will be limited to you and the people trying to survive along side of you.  Everyone within that group taking some basic steps in personal hygiene will be a huge benefit to everyone in the group and even the most basic steps by today’s standards will go a long way to making you feel better.

sanitation conditionsThe no brainer here is washing your hands and I am certain that most reading this have an ample supply of hand sanitizer in their stockpile right now.  Since the average person touches their face 2,000 plus times per day and the face (and head) is the most common place where someone will contract a “bug”, it only makes sense that keeping the hands clean will help.  This is especially important to consider when preparing food for yourself and other people.  Hand sanitizer, rubbing alcohol, vinegar, disinfectant wipes and bleach will all work to clean or sanitize your hands.  Soap and water is probably the easiest and most common mechanism for keeping the hands clean.  Even washing with clean water is better than not washing your hands at all, so do not let being out of a manufactured product keep you from washing your hands.

Let your body air out.  Whether it is the socks on your feet, your underwear, or the t-shirt you have not had a chance to wash in five days, your undergarments are going to be packing a pretty powerful punch even if you have been sedentary the entire time.  Wearing dirty, sweat soaked clothes constantly next to your skin gives bacteria a place to cling to and given enough time they will create a problem for you.  At every available opportunity, get as naked as possible and give your body a chance to air.  This may not be practical in many instances where mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects will have an open door to your body, but letting your body (especially “the dirty” parts) get some air will help to keep you healthy.  I keep a pair of loose fitting shorts and a loose fitting t-shirt in my bugout bag for this very purpose.  Also, while you are airing out, it is a good time for a “buddy check”.  Have someone else look at the areas that you can not readily see, especially your backside.  They will need to be looking for bites, boils, and insects which might have attached themselves to your nether region.  The time for modesty has long since past by this point, so put aside any apprehension you may have concerning having your buddy take a look at you.

When you are airing yourself out, take the time to take a splash bath.  Clean your feet, crotch, underarms, and face with soap and water or disinfectant/baby wipes.  Taking the time to do this will remove a lot of the bacteria that has built up in the area(s), it will help prevent chaffing, and  it will make you feel better than you did.  In a perfect world, I would try to do this before I went to bed but since the post SHTF world will be far from perfect just make the time for it.  If you have packed body powder or foot powder, dust the clean areas with powder to help keep them fresh longer.  Try to stay away from the scented powders for obvious reasons.

While we are on the subject of rank clothes, you will need to develop a plan to wash your clothes and more than likely this task will have to be done by hand.  If possible, you will want to have a “fresh” set of clothes on hand when you do finally find the chance to get a real bath or shower because I do not know of much worse than finally getting clean and then having to put back on some clothes that could stand up and walk by themselves.  You can easily go a week or longer without washing your outer garments but the undergarments and socks typically will not last as long.  Pack extra socks, underwear (or opt out of underwear), and t-shirts if possible.

As weird as it may sound, grooming will help with cleanliness as well.  Keeping finger nails and toe nails neat, clean and trimmed to proper lengths will keep germs from hiding under them.  If you happen to be a nail biter, you might want to consider breaking that habit now.  You will want to keep head and facial hair trimmed as short as possible and run a comb through it daily.  Believe it or not, your hair will get so dirty that it will actually hurt.  Avoid scratching your scalp and let the comb do the work when possible.  If you have not considered nail clippers/files, scissors, and a razor for your bugout bag, now would be the time to consider it.

Treat every scrape, bump, bite, boil, cut, burn, and hangnail as a life threatening condition.  Sanitize the area as soon as time allows with soap and water or other disinfectant, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover the area with a bandage.  If possible, avoid tasks which will unnecessarily introduce germs into the affected area, avoid food preparation for the group if the troublesome spot is on your hands, and allow the area to get air when you are resting.  If the affected area begins to swell, change color, or worsens, you will need to take additional first-aid or medical measures.

Brush and floss your teeth at least once daily, twice if your supplies allow it.  Use a good quality toothpaste or baking soda to brush your teeth and make certain to rinse your mouth thoroughly with clean water.  If you have an alcohol based mouthwash in your bugout bag or stockpile use it at least once daily.  Alcohol based breath strips help to “freshen” your mouth, but other than that they do not cleanse very well.  Sans mouth wash, you can rinse your mouth with clean water or a saltwater mix to help keep your mouth clean.  If you find yourself without toothpaste, you can still use your toothbrush to break the build up loose and rinse your mouth.  Some brushing is better than not brushing at all.

Shoot for taking a bath or shower once per week, if time and your water stockpiles allow it.  Over the course of a week you will build up a lot of grime all over your body, especially during the warmer months.  A bath will become a real treat and something that you will look forward to.  Wash with unscented soap from head to toe and make certain to scrub the dirty areas very well.  Of course, if it comes down to a choice between having clean drinking water and taking a bath, opt for the clean drinking water. An example of what I have in my bugout personal hygiene kit:

  • Unscented Soap (2bars)
  • Travel Shampoo
  • Travel Bottle of Listerine
  • Hand Sanitizer (small bottle)
  • Toothpaste (1 full size tube)
  • Dental Floss (2 packages)
  • Toothbrush (2 each)
  • Q-tips (2 travel packages)
  • Tweezers
  • Triple Antibiotic Ointment (2 tubes)
  • Baby Wipes (travel package)
  • Band-Aids (travel pack)
  • Safety Razor (with spare blades)
  • Small Scissors
  • Nail Clippers with File
  • Large MicroNet Pack Towel (2 each)
  • MicroNet Pack Wash Cloth (2 each)
  • Needles (one package)
  • Unscented Body/Foot Powder (small container)
  • Travel Washboard
  • Powder Laundry Detergent (small container)
  • Toilet Paper (1 roll)
  • Sunscreen
  • Bug Repellant
  • Absorbine Jr. (1 bottle)
  • Travel Mirror
  • Rubbing Alcohol (small bottle)

As with anything else, you can configure your personal hygiene supplies a thousand different ways and there is no absolute “right way” to do it.  I am not female, so I left the feminine hygiene products off of my list and they would have to be incorporated into the supplies for a female.  In a bug-in situation, you can expand this list to include more of the necessary supplies and add many nice to have items that are not very portable for personal hygiene uses.  The important thing is to have personal hygiene supplies on your list and at a minimum have a means of keeping yourself clean post SHTF

 

B.  When the SHTF, you will still have to poop
7 Oct 2012, Prepper-Resources.com, by PJ
Pasted from: http://www.prepper-resources.com/when-the-shtf-you-will-still-have-to-poop/

I have been very close to burning mixtures of fecal matter, urine, and diesel fuel and I can tell you the smell is pretty disgusting.  You never quite get used to it, nor does your appetite fully recover.  Quite often people forget that everybody poops, and should the power go out for an extended period of time in suburbia you will only have a couple options when it comes to dealing with human waste.  You can poop in buckets and bury the contents around your yard, poop buckets and attempt to burn your waste (not a good idea), or you can dig a sanitary pit away from any water supply and hopefully keep your family from getting sick.  Quite often people do not realize just how important it is to stay clean and germ free, especially in a survival environment.  No matter how hard you try to avoid it everyone has to poop.  It would be optimal to find a way to get around the hazards of exposed waste prior to some catastrophe occurring.  I have dug many pits in my day but never a full on functioning pit for an outhouse.  Since I am not the subject matter expert on this topic  I will post is an article from someone who is, take from it what you will and remember that E. Coli can kill you just as easily as a 55 grain FMJ bullet.

Here is the link to the article over on Rogue Turtle: http://www.rogueturtle.com/articles/outhouse.php.
What follows would be some practical potty advice offered up by the author.

sanitation outhousePractical potty advice
If you have small children, be sure you accompany them to the outhouse and help them use the facilities. Since the bottom opening in the potty is considerably larger than a home toilet, the urge to reach in and “play” may be too great for a toddler…with tragic results. Keeping a outside door latch mounted up high will prevent small children from straying inside while you’re not looking. Like a swimming pool, it can be considered an “attractive nuisance”.

In winter, run ropes to and from the shelter and the outhouse. That way, you won’t get lost in the blowing snow when going to the bathroom. Out west, people have died going to potty.

Until you get your first deep pit dug, temporary potties can be made from 5 gallon buckets. The walls can be simple blankets or other coverings to make tent-like walls. Unless you are digging in frozen ground, a hole large enough to use right away can be dug in less than one day. Most military units I have been around use digging latrine holes as a method of punishment. It’s considered a “crappy” job, if you get my drift. If you have an all male outfit, jut run a plank out, cut a few holes, and you are done. It’s not a pretty sight for visitors. Most people prefer walls.

A word about toilet paper: Like ammunition, you can never have too much. I do not recommend you give everyone their own roll of paper, only replace the one in the outhouse when it runs out. Too many people with toilet paper means some gets lost or “borrowed” and I have seen fights break out over this stupid subject. (Remember, I work in a jail in Florida.) One hole, one roll.

If your family is like mine, you need some sort of inside latch so accidental “embarrassing moments” are kept to a minimum. Screaming teenage girls hurt my ears. Make sure the latch can be used by the youngest person in the group who will be using the place without assistance. I’ve seen youngsters accidentally get locked into bathrooms when they don’t know how to unlock the door. It would be even more traumatic in a cold and drafty outhouse in the woods at night. Heck, that would scare me…I have a son named Jason, did you know that? He was born on Friday the 13th, no kidding. I think he owns an axe.

Lighting in an outhouse at night is on a “bring your own” basis. Don’t leave valuable lights laying around in the outhouse. First of all, they may fall into the hole never to be seen again. I’m sure not going after it. Second, someone will leave it on and it will be useless anyway. If I did mount one, the only light I would even consider is one of those “tap lights” advertised on TV. It seems to be about the easiest and cheapest to install. If you lose one of them, you haven’t lost much. Everyone in your shelter should have their own personal flashlight at night anyway.

There are many humorous stories associated with the outhouse. Many people name their outhouses: “Moldy Manor”, “Moon Room”, etc. Name it after someone you hate: “Hitler House” would have been appropriate years ago. How about “Saddam’s Palace”? “Thunder Dome”?

On a practical note, if you bag up all the dirt removed from the hole, you can berm-up the north side of the outhouse to keep the cold winter winds out. Then, when you are ready to cover the hole up, the dirt is right there ready for you. Just a thought. I don’t like doing work twice.

C.  The 4 Most Likely Ways You Can Die If the SHTF
June 2011, Ready Nutrition.com, by Tess Pennington
Pasted from: http://readynutrition.com/resources/the-4-most-likely-ways-you-can-die-if-the-shtf_29062011/

The subject of survival in a long term disaster goes beyond having stockpiles of beans, bullets and band-aids. Those that do survive during a long term emergency will no doubt be tried and tested with a great many things. One of those trying scenarios is dealing with death.

Zombie attacks seem to be a prevalent theme for preppers to prepare for. In fact, the CDC has even posted a preparedness article on how to ward off zombie attacks. See the zombie article at:
http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/05/preparedness-101-zombie-apocalypse/

While I believe these zombies will likely take the form of substance abusers, mental patients, chronically ill or diseased, and desperate individuals whose basic needs have not been met, they will die out in the first few months of an onset of a  major disaster, and there presence will rarely be an issue in a long term situation.

In reality, a majority of those that will die during a long-term disaster will be from illnesses brought on by acute respiratory infections due to cramped living conditions, poor water conditions (or lack of), or bacterial infections from wounds. If we survive a major disaster, America would become a third world country and the aftermath of such a scenario will be similar to those living in Africa, Ethiopia and India.

Illness Due to Poor Water Conditionssanitation germs
Typically, any diseases that are brought on by lack of sanitation and hygiene are controllable and preventable. In a disaster where water sources are compromised, people within a 50 mile radius could be adversely impacted by illness and disease if just one person incorrectly handles water or incorrectly disposes of waste.  Contaminated water, poor sanitation and/or lack of hygiene leads to diseases such as Hepatitis A, viral gastroenteritis, cholera, Shigellosis, typhoid, Diphtheria and polio. If these diseases affect enough people, an epidemic will ensue.

Dehydration and diarrhea are also water-related matters to contend with. Those without adequate water conditions and/or are suffering from disease brought on by poor water conditions could quickly dehydrate. These types of illnesses typically affect at-risk populations such as children, the sick and the elderly. Young children in particular are at high risk for diarrhea and other food- and waterborne illnesses because of limited pre-existing immunity and behavioral factors such as frequent hand-to-mouth contact. The greatest risk to an infant with diarrhea and vomiting is dehydration. In addition, fever or increased ambient temperature increases fluid losses and speeds dehydration. Having knowledge beforehand on how to properly clean drinking water and food, and the symptomatology and treatment of these types of diseases can prevent further outbreaks from occurring.

** Recommended preparedness items: water filtration systems, water purification tablets, chlorine granules, bleach, electrolyte or rehydration powders, anti-diarrhea medicines.

Malnutrition
Malnutrition from either improper water conditions or from lack of nutrients is also a large killer amongst those in impoverished communities.  Medical experts say there is a symbiotic relationship between malnutrition and diarrhea.  Malnutrition increases the severity of diarrhea while diarrhea can cause malnutrition. Either way, prevention for both of these health issues is key.

Those that are malnourished are more susceptible to illness and disease. Individuals who are malnourished will also be vitamin deficient and their health is likely to regress further. Those who survive from malnutrition are permanently affected by this disease and may suffer from recurring sickness, faltering growth, poor brain development, increased tooth decay, reduced strength and work capacity, and increased chance of chronic diseases in adulthood. Adult women with this condition will give birth to underweight babies.

** Recommended preparedness items: dietary supplements, vitamin powders, seeds for sprouting or  seeds for fresh vegetables and fruits, survival bars, knowledge of alternative means to attain vitamins

Acute Respiratory Infections
Upper respiratory infections (URI) will also be a leading cause of death in a long term disaster. Upper respiratory infections include: colds, flu, sore throat, coughs and bronchitis can usually be cured with additional liquids, rest and nourishment. Allowing the illness to exacerbate will lead to secondary infections such as bacterial pneumonia. The germs from pneumonia are easily spread from an infected person to others by coughing or sneezing or through close contact. A major concern about respiratory infections is that there are many drug resistant strands of viruses, bacteria and diseases (including tuberculosis), that regular medicine will not cure.  In a long term disaster situation, many could perish.

To properly prepare for this type of medical situation, learn about the more prevalent viruses and bacteria in your country and how to prevent them in order to provide a healthy living environment in a long term situation.

Not only are URI’s a concern but other air-borne diseases such as tuberculosis will likely fester during a long term scenario. In regular non-SHTF times, treatment for tuberculosis requires 6-12 months of medication.  In a long term emergency, chances of surviving tuberculosis are slim. The best way to prevent tuberculosis is adequate nutrition, vitamin D and living in a properly ventilated shelter.

Survival groups that have multiple people living under one roof will only increase the likelihood of passing air-borne infections and diseases to one another. In addition, those in an at-risk group (elderly, immuno-deficient, infants) are more likely to catch illnesses.  If a survival group is sharing a home, an infirmary or sick room should be prepared for those who have fallen ill.  Isolating the person who is ill will limit exposure to the other members of the group. Adequate nutrition, water, rest, good sanitary practices and ventilation of the home is essential in curbing this.

** Recommended preparedness items: decongestants, expectorants, upper respiratory medicines, antibiotics (for secondary and bacterial infections), knowledge on medicinal herbs, prepare a sick room at your survival homestead

Infections From Wounds
Open injuries have the potential for serious bacterial wound infections, including gas gangrene and tetanus, and these in turn may lead to long term disabilities, chronic wound or bone infection, and death.  Antibiotics will be few and far between and will be more precious than gold.  Without proper medicines, antiseptic and knowledge on proper medical procedures, many will die of bacterial infections.  Learning medical skills, gaining knowledge on natural medicines and alternative medical antiseptic (i.e., Dakin’s Solution) before a disaster occurs could help people survive from wound infections. Also, ensuring the area that you treat medical emergencies is clean and as sterile as possible may also prevent bacterial infections.

** Recommended preparedness items:  stock up on maxi pads for wound absorption, gauze, celox, antibiotics, suture needles and other basic first aid supplies.
**
Additionally, consider developing the following skills: basic first aid class, sign up for EMT classes in your community, an off-grid medical care class such as those offered by onPoint Tactical. Also, consider investing in books such as When There is No Doctor and When There is No Dentist.

Also look into making your own antiseptics utilizing alcohol distillation, such as the custom made units from LNL Protekt.

These illnesses (provided above) have impacted countries all over the world. These illness and conditions, coupled with unsanitary living conditions such as substandard sanitation, inadequate food and water supplies and poor hygiene, make disaster-affected people especially vulnerable to disease. These illnesses will affect us no matter what part of the world we live in, what socio-economic status we currently hold, and no matter how prepared we think we are.

Understanding what can happen and being prepared when it does is absolutely essential. The last thing we want to do when a serious condition arises is to panic. Preparing your supplies, developing your skills and educating the rest of your family and preparedness group on how to prevent, identify and counteract these serious conditions will provide a significant boost to your ability to survive if the worst happens.

[For the maintenance of your health and well being during and in the aftermath of a prolonged period of emergency, consider the topics in each of the following images: sanitation, general medical, OTC drugs, vitamins and key supplements, the ability to attend to temporary fillings, an emergency suture, and eye glass repair. Mr. Larry]

sanitation tools

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Weather prediction skills

(Survival manual / Prepper articles / Weather prediction skills)

 A.  Head For The Hills?
25 April  2013, Survival Life.com, by Joe Pasted from: http://www.survivallife.com/2013/04/25/head-for-the-hills/

Have you ever headed out in the morning to what you expect to be a bright and sunny day, only to have the bottom fall out of the sky hours later, leaving you soaked and miserable?

I have…

And while the weather is always unpredictable at best (especially in the spring) there is one simple trick that can you can do in order to keep yourself out of rough weather…. most of the time at least.

forecast cloudRead the clouds!

Cloud reading has been used as a basic primitive weather prediction for thousands of years, and unfortunately our protected, indoor lifestyle has caused us to forget how to read the world around us.

Clouds can easily be broken into four categories. These categories are high clouds, middle clouds, low clouds and clouds with vertical growth.

High clouds form at 16,000 – 43,000 feet. Basically, these are the clouds that you only encounter on the top of really high mountains or at the cruising altitude of a jet airplane. Due to the extreme conditions at which they form, they tend to be comprised primarily of ice crystals.

  •  High clouds include:
  • _Cirrostratus
  • _Cirrocumulus
  • _Cirrus
  • Middle clouds form at 6,500 to 23,000 feet. They are comprised of water, and, if cold enough, ice.
  • Middle clouds consist of:
  • _Altocumulus
  • _Altostratus
  • Low clouds form below 6,500 feet. These clouds are the ones that like to hang-around just above tall buildings. These clouds tend to contain water, but can also be comprised of snow if the weather gets cold enough. Low clouds include:_Stratocumulus
  • _Nimbostratus
  • _Stratus
  • And last, but not least, are clouds with vertical growth which tend to have a base that hangs really low (5,000 feet) and a top that climbs really high (over 50,000 feet). Clouds in this category include:_
    • _Cumulonimbus
  • _Cumulus

Clouds are one of the most reliable predictors of weather and cloud reading is a basic skill that every survivalist, hiker, camper and outdoors man should know. So how do you “read” the clouds? It’s fairly simple when you know what you are looking at.

There are 10 types of clouds that you should be able to recognize, but if you get their names confused, just remember that the higher the clouds, the better the weather will be.

forecast cloud read
1.  Cirrocumulus Clouds look like ripples of water on the surface of a lake. There are a sign of good weather and often dissipate to blue sky.
2. Altocumulus Clouds are fair weather clouds. They usually occur after a storm.
3.  Cumulonimbus Clouds are low thunder clouds that bring hail, strong wind, thunder and lightning. They have a characteristic flat, anvil-like top.
4.  Cumulus Clouds are easily recognizable, large, white, fluffy clouds. They indicate fair weather when they are widely separated, but if they are large and many headed, they are capable of bringing heavy showers.
5.  Cirrus Clouds are high altitude, wispy clouds, seen in fine weather.
6.  Cirrostratus Clouds are made up of ice particles and form a halo around the sun. If a Cirrus filled sky darkens and turns to Cirrostratus it is a sign of rain or snow, depending on temperature.
7.  Altostratus Clouds form a greyish veil over the sun or moon. If they get darker and thicken, it is a sign that rain is on the way.
8.  Nimbostratus Clouds form low blankets of cloud and indicate rain or snow, lasting for several hours.
9.  Stratocumulus Clouds can form a lumpy mass covering the entire sky and may produce light rain, but usually dissipate by the late afternoon or evening.
10. Stratus Clouds are low clouds that form a fog like layer and may produce drizzle. If they form thickly at night and cover the morning sky, they will usually burn off and produce a fine day.

So the next time you head out for the day, take a quick look at the sky and make a judgment call on whether or not you should bring sunglasses or an umbrella.

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B. Weather Forecasting
WeatherShack.com
Pasted from: http://www.weathershack.com/static/ed-weather-forecasting.html

Sharpen Your Weather Forecasting Skillt

Deterioraating Weather Indicators:

  • Clouds lowering and thickening, ceiling lowers
  • Puffy clouds begin to develop vertically and darken
  • Sky is dark and threatening to the West
  • Clouds increasing in numbers, moving rapidly across the sky
  • Clouds at different heights moving in different directions
  • Clouds moving from East or Northeast towards the South
  • Heavy rain occurring at night
  • Barometer falling steadily or rapidly
  • Smoke from stacks lowers
  • Static on AM radio
  • Wind shifting North to East and possibly through East to South
  • There is a ring (halo) around the moon
  • If on land, leaves that grow according to prevailing winds turn over and show their backs
  • Strong wind and/or a red sky in the morning
  • Temperature far above or below normal for the time of year

Impending Precipitation Weather Indicators:

  • Distant objects seem to stand above the horizon
  • Sounds are very clear and can be heard for great distances
  • Transparent veil-like cirrus clouds thicken, ceiling lowers
  • Hazy and sticky air. Rain may occur in 18-36 hours
  • Halo around the sun or moon
  • Increasing South wind with clouds moving from the West
  • Wind (especially North wind) shifting to West and then South
  • Steadily falling barometer
  • Pale sunset
  • Red sky to the West at dawn
  • No dew after a hot day

Impending Strong Winds Weather Indicators:

  • Light, scattered clouds alone in a clear sky
  • Sharp, clearly defined edges to clouds
  • Yellow sunset
  • Unusually bright stars
  • Major changes in the temperature

Clearing Weather Indicators:

  • Cloud bases rise
  • Smoke from stacks rise
  • Wind shifts to West, especially from East through South
  • Barometer rises quickly
  • A cold front has passed in the past 4 to 7 hours
  • Gray early morning sky shows signs of clearing
  • Morning fog or dew
  • Rain stopping and clouds breaking away at sunset

Continuing Fair Weather Indicators:

  • Early morning fog that clears
  • Gentle wind from the West or Northwest
  • Barometer steady or rising slightly
  • Red sky to East with clear sky to the West at sunset
  • Bright moon and light breeze at night
  • Heavy dew or frost
  • Clear blue morning sky to West
  • Clouds dot the afternoon summer sky.\
    .

WEATHER FORECAST CHART

 

WIND DIRECTION: BAROMETER (AIR PRESSURE) AT SEA LEVEL: EXPECTED WEATHER:
SW To NW 30.10 to 30.20, steady Fair with little temp. change for 2 days
SW To NW 30.10 to 30.20, rising fast Fair followed by precipitation in 2 days
SW To NW 30.20 or above, steady Continued fair with little temp. change
SW To NW 30.20 or above, falling slowly Slowly rising temp; fair for 2 days
S To SE 30.10 to 30.20, falling slowly Precipitation within 24 hours
S To SE 30.10 to 30.20, falling fast Increasing wind; precipitation in 12 – 24 hours
SE To NE 30.10 to 30.20, falling slowly Precipitation in 12 – 18 hours
SE To NE 30.10 to 30.20, falling fast Wind rising; precipitation within 12 hours
E To NE 30.10 or above, falling slowly Rain (snow) within 24 hours in winter
E To NE 30.10 or below, falling fast Precipitation, wind
SE To NE 30.00 or below, falling slowly Steady rain for 1 – 2 days
SE To NE 30.00 or below, falling fast Rain and high wind clearing in 36 hours
S to SW 30.00 or below, rising slowly Clearing within a few hours then fair
S to E 29.80 or below, falling fast Severe storm imminent, clearing in 24 hrs
E to N 29.80 or below, falling fast Severe northeast gale, precipitation
Going to W 29.80 or below, rising fast Clearing and colder

Naturally there are other factors than these, but this gives you a rough guide to start with.

Tools to help you make a reasonable forecast:

forecast tools

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Walking to your destination

(Survival Manual/Prepper articles/Walking to your destination)

A. How Far can You Walk in a Day When Bugging Out?
Feb 2014, PreparednessAdvice.com, by admin – Howard
Pasted from: http://preparednessadvice.com/survival/far-can-walk-day-bugging-foot/#.UwM9IYmYbmh

bugging 2

The question how far can you walk in one day recently came up in regards to bugging out.  This led to quite a discussion, and many different opinions.  For the last twenty-five or so years, I have done a lot of hiking in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and can cover some pretty good distances.

However most of the time I am with someone else who is in shape to hike and we are not carrying much weight.  A seven-mile hike in about 2-3 hours is quite doable and I am 70 years old.  But that brings up the question of how much weight could I carry and could I do it day after day, while sleeping on the ground and making camp.  No nice soft lounge chair in which to recover.

A young man in good shape normally walks around three miles an hour, and can do it all day on level ground with little to no weight.  But remember the speed of the march is determined by the weakest member of the group not the strongest.  When bugging out the weight of a pack is going to slow him down.

Other factors that determine your speed are the weather, terrain, the condition of the trail and what you are carrying.  Do you have children or elderly people with you, do any of your group have medical conditions that slows them down.  Another factor is threats, are you having to hide to avoid other people.

The U.S. Army Ranger Training includes a 12-mile forced, tactical ruck march with full gear from Camp Rogers to Camp Darby.  This is the last test during one phase and is a pass/fail event.  If the Ranger student fails to finish the march in less than 3 hours, he is dropped from the course.  With the ruck and their other gear, they are carrying 65–90 pounds.  Now this is an extreme case, very few of us could even come close.

Many of us would be traveling with a family and might even have to carry younger children or infants.  In addition, we would have to carry our food and other supplies, set up a camp each day and take care of other chores.

I have done a bit of research for this post and looked at the speeds that were considered fast in traveling across the American plains.

A pioneer wagon might do 15-25 miles on a very good day, if it was being pulled by horses or mules. Oxen on the other hand only traveled one or two miles an hour but didn’t require as much rest or as good a forage as horses or mules. They might do 10-12 miles in a 10-hour day

A horse will walk 3-4 mph, trot about 8-10 mph and gallop depending on the ability of the animal and the terrain at 30-40 mph.  According to the U S Cavalry, a horse can cover some 30-40 miles a day, but can be pushed to double that, but then will be pretty much spent for several days while he recuperates.

I spoke to a local scout leader and was told that many of the young boys would struggle on a three or four mile hike in the mountains when carrying a full pack.

Now I see some preparedness books that tell you that when bugging out your pack should weigh up to a third of your body weight.  Now this may be a good guideline for a twenty year old in good shape.  But it won’t work for the rest of us.

Freezedryguy.com an old friend of mine and an old SF guy,  says that most people way over estimate their ability to walk in planning for bugging out.  He feels that most family groups with children or elderly will travel closer to 3-5 miles a day when walking cross country.  A lot will depend on you and your families physical and emotional condition and  don’t forget very good foot ware.

After talking with several-experienced hikers and some friends who have seen a real evacuation by foot I believe that most people over estimate the distances they can walk.  This is largely the result of having to travel at the pace of the slowest member of your group.

Most family groups with young children or elderly would average closer to 5 miles a day.  Young people in average shape should do 20 miles or so in good terrain for the first couple of days, then blisters, light rations and other problems will slow them down. So plan on your bug out taking longer then you expect if you are traveling by foot. Howard

.

B. How to Go Unnoticed
Edited by FatDuckling, IngeborgK, DifuWu, Katie and 11 others
Pasted from: http://www.wikihow.com/Go-Unnoticed

bugging 1

This is a guide for those who desire to go unnoticed or hide in plain sight.

1. Ascertain why you don’t want to be noticed. Whether for a game, avoiding someone or just to blend and relax. It’s easier to know what you’re doing and why.

2. Dress plainly. One of the most important things you can do is dress down. Jeans and a T-shirt are generally good. Don’t wear tight jeans, low-cut shirts, or tons of make-up if you’re a girl. If you’re a guy, don’t wear your jeans half-way down your butt and a T that’s way too big. You’re trying not to stand out. It is also best to avoid bright colors, especially reds, oranges and yellows, especially when these colors come in stripes across the body. The human brain is wired to react to these colors, leading you to be noticed more easily.

3. Act as if you belong even if you don’t. People notice people who look as though they don’t fit far quicker than people who look as if they walk down this street every day. Practice feeling comfortable in any setting – this takes some confidence.

4. Act natural. If something catches your eye in a shop go look at it, if you feel hungry go get food. If every third person has a shopping bag, go buy something. If half the people around you are eating, then eat. People tend to pass over people who look preoccupied doing something else.

5. Be quiet. It doesn’t seem important but people hear easier than they see in crowded places. Even if a person is not looking at you they can still hear you.

6. Be still. If pressed stand still. People notice movement more than shapes. Don’t become a statue. Just stand still like you don’t have a reason to move, not like you have a reason not to.

7. Walk with your head down. That way you can move slower if you want and people can’t see your face as easily.

Tips:

  • Don’t look people in the eye. They will definitely notice. Keep your head down.
  • If you see someone you know don’t go and greet them. Walk past and see if they notice you. This is a good test for your covertness.
  • If you’re following someone don’t always keep your eyes on them, reflective glass is good. If they walk into a shop look in the window of one across from it or look in the shop next door, don’t follow them in.
  • Get lost in a crowd. A person in fifty is harder to spot than a person in five.
  • If you’re avoiding someone don’t try to hide behind a wall or something if they look your way, just keep right on doing whatever you were doing. A person jumping behind a wall is very noticeable.

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Lessons from the Great Depression & modern Prepper terminology

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Lessons from the Great Depression & Modern prepper terminology)

A. The Most Often Forgotten Survival Preparations
31 July 2012, SHTFplan.com, by Brandon Smith
http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/the-most-often-forgotten-survival-preparations_07312012
depression1

I think it’s safe to say with some conviction that in the year of 2012 the concept of survival prepping is NOT an alien one to most Americans. When National Geographic decides there is a viable market for a prepper TV show (no matter how misrepresentative of true preppers it may be), when Walmart starts stocking shelves with long term emergency food storage kits, when survivalism in general becomes one of the few growing business markets in the midst of an otherwise disintegrating economy; you know that the methodology has gone “mainstream”. There is a noticeable and expanding concern amongst Americans that we are, indeed, on the verge of something new and unfortunate.

Is it the big bad hoodoo of the soon to expire Mayan Calendar? For a few, maybe, but for the majority of us, no. That jazz is a carnival sideshow designed to make the prepping culture appear ridiculous. We don’t need to believe in magical prophecies to know that there is a catastrophic road ahead; all we have to do is look at the stark realities of our current circumstances. It does not take much awareness anymore to notice looming fiscal volatility, social unrest, the potential for unrestrained war, and the totalitarian boldness of our government. I’ll take the wrath of Quetzalcoatl any day over the manure storm that is approaching us currently.

With some estimating a count of 3 million prepper families and growing in the U.S., the motto of “beans, bullets, and band-aids” is finding a home amongst legions. However, being closely involved in the survivalist movement during the past six years and speaking with literally thousands of preppers, it has become clear to me that we still have a long journey ahead of us before we can claim true efficiency and mastery.

Sadly, having a stockpile of food, weapons, and some slick tactical gear is not enough to ensure a high likelihood of survival, at least not in any of the social collapses that have occurred in the past century around the world. It’s a start, but only just…

There are a number of detrimental weakness to the survivalist movement and considerable holes in prepper knowledge that must be addressed now while we have the time and relative safety to do so. The greatest threat to the common survivalist is not economic collapse, roving bandits, Blackwater mercenaries, or predator drones; those dangers are a piece of cake compared to the threat of an overblown ego, which will get a man killed faster than the most sophisticated smart bomb. If we cannot accept that there is always more to learn, and room to improve, we have been defeated before we have begun.

The following is just a short list of the many areas in which there is obvious and acute inadequacy in the movement overall…

Secondary Retreat Locations
Never put all your eggs in one basket. I hear a lot of tough talk from some survivalists who claim they would rather die than leave their property. Of course, I suspect they will see the error in this brand of bravado when the legitimate chance of death actually arises. There is no harm whatsoever in having a backup plan. I’m not sure any survivalist who doesn’t is really a survivalist. Stand your ground when necessary, but don’t let pure pride and stupidity prevent you from living to fight again another day.

Physical Fitness And Health
You may be the Tom Berenger-like master sniper of your particular county, but if you can’t run a hundred yards with your rifle rig without going into coronary thrombosis, then you aren’t going to live long during a collapse scenario. Even those preppers who have age as an excuse…don’t really have an excuse. I personally know survivalists and homesteaders in their 60’s and 70’s who could physically outmatch numerous other preppers of the same age or younger without much effort. The difference? They make a concerted effort to take care of their health.

Sometimes certain wise-cracks made by the insipid yuppies of our modern era against suvivalists are true, and we should take serious note when this occurs. The primary insult being that many of us are far too fat to outrun or outfight a paper sack, let alone a determined opponent. I have, to be honest, seen chest beating antics from more than a few clinically obese “preppers” that were truly embarrassing. On the bright side, this does not have to be a permanent hindrance to our success.

The solution is simple: Eat less. Eat healthier. Exercise more.

A person who has attained a high level of physical fitness has done more than prove his prowess. He has also proven he has the will and the passion to pursue a directed goal and achieve it, regardless of difficulty. This is where the adults are separated from the children in this world. Are you willing to endure extreme difficulty to win something of legitimate value? Do you have the self discipline to forgo certain luxuries and comforts to gain long term advantages? Or, would you rather take the path of least resistance and certain doom? Personal health is no joke for the survivalist.

Community Building And Networking
Organization is not the strongest suit of the survivalist movement for a number of reasons. The first being that our paranoia completely impedes our ability to work with others. Now, to be clear, it is not paranoia if they are really out to get you, and with multiple leaked documents like the MIAC Report, the Virginia Fusion Center Report, and the DHS reports on “right wing extremism”, it is not as if our concerns are unfounded. However, the movement needs to realize that the primary object of labeling us as “extremists” and categorizing us as potential threats to national security is to create crippling fear. Their main goal is to condition preppers to censor themselves, and to stifle their own organizational efforts.

Solid community, even open formation of community, is necessary for countless reasons. The more we isolate ourselves from one another now, the more alone and vulnerable we will be tomorrow. Calls for “OPSEC” should be embraced to a point, but they can also become an excuse for laziness and inaction. No prepper who goes it alone during crisis is going to come out unscathed, if they come out alive at all. This is the great forgotten lesson of survival, from the Depression and Weimar Germany, to Argentina and Bosnia; those persons and families who were isolated simply did not make it. The wide spectrum of skill sets and supplies needed to establish a survival foundation are far too many for any single prepper to attain.

The logical fallacy that usually prevents survival networking is the argument that if you are a bigger group, you are a bigger target. This thinking shows a lack of prioritization. During a social or economic collapse, EVERYONE is a target. National chaos does not make distinctions between those who never shared their survivalist tendencies and those who did. The DHS might, but they are not the biggest threat to the common prepper. The most dangerous environment for the prepper, no matter what the circumstances may be, is one in which he has no support.

If you do not have ample neighbors and friends on board with the prepper lifestyle, and who can be counted on in an emergency, then you are not ready, nor are your chances very good. Period.

Barter Markets And Trade Skills
At Alt-Market we relentlessly promote the idea of decentralized trade markets because, to be frank, they are going to spring up one day soon whether the IRS, the DOJ, or the Federal Reserve likes it or not. The crisis in the EU has proven my position on the inevitability of the barter dynamic conclusively. These private trade networks are becoming the new foundation for countries like Greece, Italy, and Spain, and it should be noted that the financial instabilities in America far outweigh any of the problem in those places. If we know that economic danger is on the horizon, and we know that barter markets will be the immediate result, then why not build them now, instead of waiting and scrambling after disaster strikes?

Any survivalist that does not know who he will be trading for essential supplies, and who does not know what skills he will use to garner those supplies, is in for a world of hurt.

Overlooked But Vital Items
There is a saying in the survival movement: You’re never done prepping. I absolutely agree. Unless you are a millionaire with a highly organized brain, there will always be some other piece of equipment that you’ll discover you need down the line. That said, there are some things every prepper should have, but many, from my observations, do not. I have also heard every excuse imaginable and some unimaginable when such people are presented with the recommendation that they obtain these items, lack of money being the usual suspect.

Yes, many of us are broke, or feel broke, these days Invariably, though, when most survivalists examine their financial situation carefully, they will discover a host of peripheral expenses that are unnecessary or outright extravagant. I once had a would-be survivalist make the argument that he could not afford a year’s supply of food, then admit that he had just went on a Carnival Cruise to the Caribbean. This is an extreme example, but it illustrates a common hang up. Now is not the time for people to live beyond their means, or to shrug off their preps so that they can have a new La-Z-Boy, cable TV, an internet gaming account, a high priced vacation, a six day a week stockpile of beer (hey, cut back a day, guys! Try it out and see how it fits) etc. Times are changing, and they will definitely change without us if we are not careful.

There is always a way to get the preps you need, if you are motivated enough to make it happen. Here are a few items that seem to escape from people’s lists:

Extra Survival Clothing:
Clothing is a real pain for a lot of survivalists because it is one prep that they must absolutely purchase doubles and triples of. Good durable shoes, pants, even socks, can get expensive. Base layer clothing like Smart Wool sometimes costs in the range of $100 or more for a single set. Take the pain, bite the bullet, and get the absolute best clothing you can find in multiples. It may have to last you quite a long time without replacement, especially the artificial fabrics. Imagine having to wear the same vapor producing sweat drenched crusty duds day in and day out while sharing a retreat location with some less than amused buddies. They may end up coming after you before the looters do.

Body Armor:
This stuff is going to be at a premium in the near future. I have already seen price spikes in good body armor in the days after the Aurora Theater shootings. Why? Because the fear is that the establishment will move to try to ban said gear in response, causing a rush to purchase. That fear is not misplaced. Plus, I would imagine a bullet to the gut, whether accidental or intentional, is not an event to celebrate with a rootbeer float. Believe it or not, body armor rigs that include rifle plates are extremely sparse amongst preppers right now, and this simply can’t continue.

Gas Masks And Filters:
Not long ago I wrote about the revolutions and rebellions that took place in Russia after the formation of the Soviet Union against the abuses of communism. At that time, the more successful the rebellion, the more apt the Soviets were to dump chemical weapons over entire towns, mountains, and valleys, to erase the problem. Never expect that a tyrannical government is going to fight fair. In fact, expect that they won’t. Even if you don’t foresee such an event taking place in the U.S., it is imperative that every person owns not just a gas mask, but extra filters as well. Plan on dealing with multiple incidences in which your air will be unsafe to breath.

NBC Alert Items:
How many preppers do you know with a Geiger Counter? I know three, out of the hundreds I speak with regularly. This is not a good sign. If the Fukushima disaster has taught us anything, it is that radiological threats are not just relegated to the realm of nuclear bombs. Every community should have several Geiger Counter devices handy, along with chemical warfare strips which change color when exposed to an offending airborne agent. Remember the panic buying that ensued in Japan for these kinds of goods after the reactor meltdown? Don’t overlook radioactivity. Knowing what has been hit by concentrated fallout and what hasn’t is a tremendous advantage.

Thermal Countermeasures:
A box of road flares, IR flashlights, and IR floodlights, should be in every survivalists home. With the advent of predator drones armed with night vision and thermal vision, as well as numerous other nasty weapons platforms, the need for countermeasures that create false thermal signatures to confuse an attacker with this kind of technology is a must.

Extra First Aid Supplies:
During a collapse, you become the hospital, and no amount of Obamacare is going to help you. Almost every prepper has a first aid kit, but few have one that will really last through a prolonged crisis. Collapse brings with it all kinds of injuries and sicknesses we never think of facing in our current atmosphere, with more frequency than I believe many would like to admit possible. A sterile bandage may be as sought after and as rare as a warm shower in the near future, so stock an ample supply.

Solar Panels:
I am astonished at how many preppers still do not have any solar power capability today. It’s FREE off grid power, for god’s sake! Pay the initial costs, and at least buy a system that is capable of charging and running batteries and essential electronics that will aid you in your survival.

Greenhouse:
When discussing the idea of relocation, I sometimes hear the assertion that places like Montana are terrible for growing food (usually from people who have never lived in Montana). In fact, a survival garden could be grown almost anywhere, regardless of region or climate, if you use the right methods. One of the best methods is the use of a greenhouse, which many preppers do not have. Set aside your preconceptions of what gardening is, and do what works. Even in winter, some plants can be grown in a greenhouse environment to provide you and your family with precious vitamin rich food. Just build it.

Raw Building Materials:
Do you have a stockpile of lumber and nails? What about raw iron and steel? Sealants to repel pests and maintain your home? Bags of concrete to reinforce a new addition? Think about how much you will need to build after the final shoe drops. Probably a lot more than you have ever built in your life…

No Room For Error
Time is running short, and if we are to succeed as a movement, we must be ready to hold a candle to ourselves, admit where we are lacking, and fix the problem while we have the luxury to do so. Ultimately, the most important and most ignored aspect of prepping is our own mindset. Do we have the correct sense of urgency, and are we acting on it? Have we prepared ourselves psychologically for the difficulties ahead? Are we ready to make sacrifices for survival and victory? Will we have what it takes at our core to see this thing through? At this very moment, many do not. But, they have the potential to rise to the occasion. The decision is theirs to make…

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B. Prepper Lessons from the Great Depression
Why it’s so important to create a deep larder
This article by HappyPreppers.com
Pasted from: http://www.happypreppers.com/Depression.html

Preppers are optimistic for the best of times, and yet they know that our fragile society can quickly cause the worst of times as with the Great Depression in the decade following October 1929. What lessons can preppers learn to prepare for the next economic collapse? The Great Depression certainly caused an economic collapse; however people did not starve during the Great Depression! There was never an interruption with the food supply other in that people changed their eating habits. They did more with less. They ate all the food on their plate. They also grew their own food and raised animals. Some accepted the charity support of penny restaurants in which patrons paid a small portion of the actual food costs.

What are the prepper lessons?
Here is a summary of lessons from the Great Depression:

1.  Most people did with less. Food was actually ample during the Great Depression. While times were tough, most people just made do with lesser quality foods, such as lower quality meats. Soups and stews made up most of the meals, because it could stretch! Casseroles stretched the budget, too. As an example of brands that thrived during the Great Depression:

  • Crisco was a less expensive option to butter.
  • Oscar Meyer Weiners replaced finer sausages.
  • Maxwell House Sanka coffee replaced more expensive whole bean coffees.
  • Heinz Ketchup was used as the base for a simple tomato soup.
  • Underwood Deviled Ham substituted fresh lunch meat.
  • Carnation evaporated milk substituted fresh milk.

    depression foods

 2.  People grew their own food. The exception being the dust bowl states (Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas and parts of Texas). This was 100,000,000 acres of land barren, which forced farm families to flee, mostly from Oklahoma. While today, big farms and machines work the fields, back in the day, a farmer fed an average of eight families with his crops. People got by also got by with food grown in their own gardens and they canned foods for the Winter. While the economy collapsed, the food on the farms were for the most part unaffected.

3. Penny restaurants fed the proud. Penny restaurants popped up as a way to feed unemployed families who were too proud to accept charity. People paid pennies for meals that were subsidized by charitable organizations.

4. Soup kitchens fed the rest. Soup kitchens fed many people, the way charitable organizations and food banks feed people today. Chefs could make soup with whatever was available, including produce grown in charity gardens. Soup was a convenient, one pot meal that could be served with bread. Plus, it was easier to clean up than other more elaborate meals.Happy Preppers don’t rely on the public food supply. They know panic buying can strip store shelves in a few short hours. Anyone who lived through Hurricane Katrina can attest to this. But why is this so? The culprit is just-in-time inventory: a cost effective management practice established in the 1970s borrowed from the Japanese. In concept, just-in-time inventory saves on warehouse space and other expenses, and it generally provides less risk and less capital, but requires more infrastructure. Mind you this is a corporate benefit; it actually puts the general public at risk!

What’s different about the food supply today?
Happy Preppers don’t rely on the public food supply. They know panic buying can strip store shelves in a few short hours. Anyone who lived through Hurricane Katrina can attest to this. But why is this so? The culprit is just-in-time inventory: a cost effective management practice established in the 1970s borrowed from the Japanese. In concept, just-in-time inventory saves on warehouse space and other expenses, and it generally provides less risk and less capital, but requires more infrastructure. Mind you this is a corporate benefit; it actually puts the general public at risk!

Why is just in time inventory dangerous?
In the good old days, grocery stores stocked back rooms with inventory of canned and dry goods, and they replenished the shelves as needed from this stock. In other words, there was more food in the back. That was back in the day.. Unfortunately, supermarkets today have virtually no back room warehouse. Managers order twice weekly. Merchandise comes off the pallet and directly onto store shelves, quickly and efficiently. What you see is what you get.   Trucks may be unable to deliver food for many reasons:

•  Natural causes. Natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and tornadoes always create local food shortages, albeit temporary. Droughts and dust-bowl storms of the 1930s contributed to the Great Depression and disrupted the food supply.
•  Economic Collapse. In a hyper inflation scenario, gas might be too cost prohibitive to distribute foods.’
•  Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). In an Electro Magnetic Pulse or nuclear catastrophe, vehicles will be unable to start as the electrical components would be fried.
•  Rationing. The government could halt production for any number of reasons, including issuing wartime rations, or to ration gas.
•  Pandemic. In a pandemic situation, truck drivers and the people who stock the shelves may not want to risk their lives getting exposed. Or worse yet, they may be dead and unable to continue.

The list could go on. All you need to know is that it’s wise to create a deep larder of food in case the food distribution chain suffers a disruption.

Planning food supplies for a catastrophe, not just a disaster Preppers know the difference between a disaster and a catastrophe. It’s not a matter of semantics, because there is a fundamental and important difference, which will affect the food supply strategy of a Prepper.

You see, a disaster is a local occurrence, such as a hurricane or an earthquake, which affects a region. Disasters have the support of various agencies that come in to mobilize and support victims.
A catastrophe is a much grander problem by scale. Most notably, a catastrophe is outside the scope of ability for government to mitigate and charitable organizations to respond. In a true catastrophe, it’s every man, woman and child for himself.
In short, planning for a disaster means having food supplies that will last a couple of weeks; while planning for a catastrophe means food and supplies should last a year or more. Newbies should first plan for a disaster and then move towards being as prepared as possible for a catastrophic event. Happy Preppers have a vast knowledge of long term food storage, considering their stockpiling a sort of self funded and secured food insurance plan.

Happy Preppers are not panic shoppers;  they actively plan food needs for a catastrophic event ensuring adequate supplies at a fair price. They start with their short term food storage needs (mostly foods that are shelf stable including an excess of canned foods that people normally stock in their pantry. Then they have a second storage system filled with freeze dried foods for their long term needs, including foods in #10 cans, dehydrated foods, buckets of foods packed in gamma lids. Extreme Prepper’s plan for self sustenance by farming food at home and foraging for food.

Weird facts about the Great Depression…
1.  Women Preppers: take a lesson from the Great Depression. After the collapse of the economy, families began splitting up. Nearly 1.5 million husbands of the Great Depression left their families leaving the women and children to fend for themselves!
2.  What did people miss most during the Great Depression? As one Prepper’s grandmother put it… “nails, garden seeds, wire, string, sewing supplies, clothes pins, bleach, disinfectant, and vanilla.” What will you add to the list? Take one day to write down everything you use from your toothbrush to a pencil to ear swabs or chocolate. What will you miss the most? That’s the stuff you should hoard too.
3.  What did people eat During the Great Depression?
Meals during the great depression included:

Foods the debuted during Great Depression, include:
_ Bisquick
_ Good Humor ice cream bars
_ Kraft macaroni and cheese
_ Krispy Kreme doughnuts
_ Kool-Aid
_ Toll House chocolate chips
_ Ritz Crackers
_ Spam 

Even though food was ample, after the Depression, many people began conserving and stockpiling food and money for times of uncertainty. Sugar was a premium item!
Preppers today take comfort in stockpiling food and water, the way the people did just after the Great Depression, taking lessons from the past.

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C. Prepping Terms and Acronyms You Should Know
SurvivalistPrepper, by Dale
Pasted from: http://survivalistprepper.net/prepping-terms-acronyms-know/

Ok, here’s the situation:

“It’s TEOTWAWKI and the SHTF because of a HEMP which caused an OTGE. So you call your EOTWBFL and tell them “Grab you BOB and put it in your BOV we need to GOOD and get to our BOL! And get over here ASAP before the golden horde gets to your front door and your SOL. And don’t forget to BYOW and MRS’s because if not YOYO”

Did you get all that?

There are quite a few prepping terms and acronyms you should know and that we see all the time, not to mention all the OMG’s and LOL’s we have to learn these days if we want to understand our teenagers. It seems like everywhere you go you and read an article you see the basic SHTF, BOB’s and EMP’s but but it seems like I come across something new all the time and say “what is that!?” Like EOWBFL… Not sure what that is? keep reading.

Some people hate these acronyms and some people use these acronyms all the time, regardless of where you stand the more you read, the more you will see these.

Now I’m not going to go through every acronym and term you will hear because honestly I can’t think of them all right now. But I am going to go over some of the terms you are most likely to hear as you begin to educate yourself about preparedness.

I also have a PDF at the end f this post for you to download that has a complete list. But keep in mind, I did my best putting together this list, and I’m sure there are more out there, and I’m sure there are even some that I haven’t heard of.

So let’s dive into this list so hopefully when you are reading an article you don’t have to stop and look up what TEOTWAWKI.

TEOTWAWKI is an acronym for the end of the world as we know it. This doesn’t necessarily mean doomsday or Armageddon it’s something that would not kill us, but change the way we need to live our lives. For kids TEOTWAWKI could be losing their cell phones, and unfortunately this could be the same for some adults.

When I think of TEOTWAWKI I think of having to survive without power, water, heat stuff like that.

TEOTWAWKI is synonymous with SHTF (Sh*t Hits the Fan) or WTSHTF (When the Sh*t Hits the Fan) and if you don’t prepare you might need to GOOD – (Get out Of Dodge) or you could be SOL – Sh*t out of luck.

A few others will see are BOB, BIB, BOV and BOL these all involve Bugging Out.
You have a BOB which is a bug out bag
You have a BIB which is a bug in bag
You have a BOV which is a bug out vehicle
And a BOL which is a bug out location.

Why would you need to bug out? Good question. If you live in an urban area you are more likely to be surrounded by the GOLDEN HOARD which is basically swarms of people that are flipping out and want what you have and coming towards a town near you. The GOLDEN HORDE is made up of the POLLYANNA or SHEEPLE, these people blindly follow the masses and are in denial about world events

Or it could be because of an economic collapse that causes FIAT CURRENCY to become worthless and you need to own some JUNK SILVER (1964 or earlier silver coins)

An EMP (electromagnetic pulse) could also cause an economic collapse because it would cause a GDE (Grid Down Event) or an OTGE (Off the Grid Event) An EMP could be caused by a CME (Coronal Mass Ejection) from the sun or a CARRINGTON EVENT (caused by a large Coronal Mass Ejection)  or even a HEMP (High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse) because an unfriendly neighbor launched a missile at us.

But don’t worry, if you have a FARADAY CAGE (Used to shield electronics from an EMP) your iPad will still work…although the internet will probably be down.

All of this could cause our government to enact MARTIAL LAW because WROL (Without Rule of Law) the GOLDEN HORDE and the POLLYANNA’S would be after our LONG TERM FOOD STORAGE and we don’t want to be in their LOS (Line of Sight)

You don’t want to bug out with just the cloths on your back and it’s SOP (Standard Operating Procedure) to have BOB or a 72 HOUR BAG ready to go. You might use an ALICE backpack as your BOB which can also come with an ALICE frame. ALICE packs were created by the military To Reduce the load of the Infantry Combat Soldier and distribute weight more evenly.

The ALICE pack has been superseded by the MOLLE system (Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment) {pronounced molly} by the armed forces and some preppers as well.

The MOLLE system is modular because of the use of the PALS (Pouch Attachment Ladder System) and allows you to add storage space. You might not want to use an ALICE frame for your BIB because a bug in bag is for getting from where you are to your BIL (bug in location) where your BOB is. These could be stored in your car or taken with you when you leave home. I personally choose the MOLLE system but the choice is yours. Price might play a role in this as well.

Along with medical supplies, water, weapons and survival gear you might want to have some MRE’s (meals Ready To Eat) or some C-Ration (Combat ration) to eat along the way, but try to avoid food from Monsanto because it is made from GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms)

So, FWIW (For What It’s Worth) if the SHTF because of an EMP or an OTGE  well basically YOYO (You’re On Your Own) and you won’t be able to depend on FEMA (Federal Emergency Management System) or ARC (American Red Cross) for your safety. You need to take your survival in your own hands and have a BOB or an INCH (I’m Never Coming Home Kit) that you can put in your BOV to get to your BOL or ISOLATED RETREAT (A BOL but better) It might be a good idea to get a HAM RADIO license or have a crank radio JIC (Just in Case) you have no other way of communicating with the people around you.

And if were in a GDE you might want to have some FIAT CURRENCY or some JUNK SILVER because you won’t be able to get money from the ATM (automated Teller Machine) and you might not have the money in your account that you thought you had.

Long list right, honestly this probably doesn’t even cover all of the terms and acronyms you will hear, but it gives you a good idea and a good starting point so you don’t have to Google every term and acronym you come across while your reading articles and learning about preparedness.

Oh yeah, an EOTWBFL is a term that a member of the Facebook group coined. It means end of the world buddy for life…I had no idea until he told me.

Here is a video I put together for the free intro to prepping course I am putting together at the Survivalist Prepper Academy. If you are just getting started in prepping head over and have a look. (This article is a transcript of the video)

YouTubeYou tube video: “Prepping Terms and Acronyms You Should Know”:

 

 

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Filed under Prepper articles, Survival Manual

Food during a nuclear or volcanic winter

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Food during a nuclear or volcanic winter)

food v2]

A. Scientists Map Food Security, Self-Provision of Major Cities
12 Dec. 2013, ScienceDaily, by the University of Copenhagen.
Pasted from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131212100055.htm

Wealthy capital cities vary greatly in their dependence on the global food market. The Australian capital Canberra produces the majority of its most common food in its regional hinterland, while Tokyo primarily ensures its food security through import. The Copenhagen hinterland produces less than half of the consumption of the most common foods. For the first time, researchers have mapped the food systems of capital cities, an essential insight for future food security if population growth, climate change and political instability will affect the open market. Several partners in the International Alliance of Research Universities (IARU) are behind the study.

“The three major cities in our study achieve food security by different degrees of self-provision and national and global market trade. It is important to understand such food flows in order to relate it to the energy challenge and the risk of national political unrest caused by food shortages and its effect on the open food trade,” says Professor Dr. John R. Porter from the University of Copenhagen, who is leading author on the study recently published online in the journal Global Food Security.
John R. Porter is also the main lead author of the forthcoming report from the IPCC Working Group 2 on food production systems and food security, which will be released following governments’ review, in March 2014.Higher farmland yields have influenced the cities self-provisioning over the past 40 years, but overall the ability of cities to feed themselves is unlikely to keep pace with increasing population, the research shows.

 Self-provisioning does not increase in line with population growth
Particularly in the capitals of Australia and Japan, where the population has increased tremendously over the past 40 years, the self-provision has declined; in Canberra from 150 to 90 percent and in Tokyo from 41 to 27 percent.
This is despite the increase in yield of agricultural land per hectare. Copenhagen on the other hand, has increased its self-provision slightly from 34 to 45 percent because its population has remained fairly constant.
“When the local capacity to supply a city declines, it becomes more dependent on the global market. As an example, Japan imported wheat from 600,000 hectares of foreign farmland to meet the demand of their capital and surrounding region in 2005. This means that large cities should now start to invest in urban agriculture especially if climate change has large effects on food production and other parts of the food chain in the future,” says John R Porter.
The study has exclusively focused on the historical and current production and not considered whether changes in land management practices can increase productivity further or whether consumers are willing to limit their intake to local seasonally available goods. It did not include citizen-based production from allotments, urban gardens etc.

Food v winter1

Scientific debate on food security and urbanization
More than half the human population lives in or near cities. That has increased global food transportation which makes up 15 percent of the global greenhouse gas emissions.Both food security and urbanization is on the program for next year’s major international conference on sustainability hosted by the IARU partnership. John Porter is organizing the session on global challenges and sustainable solutions related to food security.
“The congress will be an important event to discuss new insight in global food security and the different challenges faced by rural and urban populations. Also, we get a unique chance to stimulate the discussion with input from expertise of other disciplines, such as economy, biodiversity and health.”

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B.  Feeding Yourself Through a Nuclear, Impact, or Volcanic Winter
18 January 2013, Schemabyte.com, by scemabyte author (see website)
Pasted from: http://schemabyte.com/feeding-yourself-through-a-nuclear-impact-or-volcanic-winter/

The primary orientation of prepper gardens is disaster scenarios. Disaster scenarios such as volcanic winters, however, involve a reduction of sunlight and heat that would reduce the efficiency of gardens, if not outright destroy them. We should keep winter crops in our stockpiles and have the skills to fall back to mushroom and insect farming, should it come to that.

1816 was the “Year Without a Summer” when volcanic and solar activity combined to create freezing temperatures that caused widespread crop failures. By Giorgiogp2 (Own work)

Artificial Winters
There’s a number of ways how enough particulate matter could be injected into the atmosphere to reduce the global temperature and block out sunlight, thus affecting plant life and our crops.These kinds of things don’t necessarily have to be regional. They could impact the entire planet. If the event’s small enough, you could just pack your seed stores and hit the trail. But if it’s a big one, there’s probably nowhere to go where you’ll be much more effective than where you are.
If you’re a regular reader, you know I’m not trying to cause you to react to these threats in a fear-based way. Instead, I’m suggesting that we ensure we have the proper supplies and skills to react to them – that we prep.

In no particular order:
1. A severe volcanic eruption could create a volcanic winter. Major volcanic eruptions frequently occur; check out the timetable on wikipedia.org. 1816 was the Year Without a Summer caused by a combination of volcanic and solar activity, resulting in a severe food shortage.
2. A series of nuclear explosions could theoretically create a nuclear winter. The ash and dust in this scenario would get lifted into the stratosphere, where rain couldn’t wash it down. One of the hypotheses over on Wikipedia holds that temperatures would become colder than the Little Ice Age and would last for more than a decade from a small exchange of nuclear weapons. Per that hypothesis, a large exchange would make agriculture completely impossible.
3. The impact of a sizable asteroid or comet on earth could create an impact winter. Per that Wikipedia article, one study showed there’s a 1 in 10,000 chance a sizable rock could hit us in the next century.

TOPSHOTS-INDONESIA-VOLCANO

Three Possible Approaches to Nuclear, Impact, and Volcanic Winters
There’s three possible solutions I see for resolving this scenario.You could:
1. Wait it out. If your food stores are big enough, just bunker down and there you have it. This is ideal because it minimizes the variables, of course, if you have enough supplies.
2. Generate artificial light. If you have an alternative energy source and a hell of a lot of plant lights, you could play space station.
3. Adapt your farming.

I don’t like the first two options for the same reason, although you should certainly have some supplies to implement them as possible.

1. When your entire plan relies on stored food or technology, then your entire focus becomes protecting and rationing those resources.
2. Sufficient food or alternative energy for either proposition directly impacts your mobility and is situation dependent.
3. Significant investment is required up-front for both of those solutions, and investing in that way could mean you’re not preparing for other disaster circumstances.

After your supplies fail, only an alternative way of farming will keep you alive.

Winter Crops with Low Light Requirements
Hopefully, an artificial winter wouldn’t totally block out the light. Instead, the atmosphere would just filter out much of the sunlight. While still disastrous for most crops, there’s some that don’t need as much light and heat. The problem is that edible plants that grow well in really low light aren’t, generally speaking, the same plants that grow in cold temperatures. Even when there’s a bit of overlap, plants that grow in very low light have very low nutrition. Light is, after all, their food.Nevertheless, I’m with you on this. If there’s some light coming on down, let’s bust out our winter crops and go year-round with them.

Per organicgardening.about.com, your best bet for vegetables in the shade are:

  1. Beans
  2. Beets
  3. Broccoli
  4. Brussel Sprouts
  5. Cauliflower
  6. Leafy Greens like collards, mustard greens, spinach, and kale
  7. Peas
  8. Radishes
  9. Salad Greens like leaf lettuce, arugula, endive, and cress.
  10. Swiss Chard

Per forums.gardenweb.com, garden.lovetoknow.com, guardian.co.uk, and telegraph.co.uk, some good winter crops might be:

  1. Asparagus
  2. Beets
  3. Broad Beans
  4. Brussel Sprouts
  5. Cabbage – spring cabbage
  6. Collards
  7. Cauliflower
  8. Garlic
  9. Lettuce – lambs & winter lettuce
  10. Leeks
  11. Kale
  12. Onions, Spring Onions, Shallots
  13. Peas – english & sweet
  14. Radish
  15. Rhubarb
  16. Spinach
  17. Turnip

But that’s way optimistic. For my money, I’m sticking with the southernstates.com zone 7 recommendations.

  1. Beets
  2. Broccoli
  3. Carrots
  4. Kale
  5. Lettuce
  6. Peas
  7. Spinach

Combine that with the shady vegetable list above, you’re left with beets, broccoli, lettuce, peas, and spinach. Good thing those are all tasty. Feel free to correct me (on either recommended vegetables for low heat + low light or on the tastiness opinion) in the comments. Something else to keep in mind XS29L on survivalistboards.com‘s excellent advice of focusing on sprouting; sprouts don’t require light and, even though it’s not sustainable forever, it’s a lot better than just relying on your dried and canned stores if the skies darken.

Mushrooms 
In a “true” nuclear or volcanic winter, traditional agriculture would become completely impossible. Without greens to feed animals, farming for the most part would be annihilated until the stratosphere cleared enough to let some sunlight back in. But the trees could live on for decades because of their sugar stores and slow metabolisms. They wouldn’t produce much, if anything, but they’d still be there. That’s good, we can feed mushrooms with wood.

If you want to play Darwin, read the list of edible fungi on wikipedia.org. What we’re really talking about here, though, is mushrooms and truffles. Perhaps there’s a species of yeast that could grow on bark and the two together would be quite tasty, but if you go sucking on something like that I don’t want to know about it.

The easiest way to grow mushrooms (and the only way if you aren’t good at identifying them) is to buy a mushroom-growing kit from a company like mushbox. Making sure you pick an edible one, of course, you then take the fruited mushrooms off to a dark corner and continue to feed them substrate – and they continue to produce. Some mushrooms need light to propagate, so you need to verify that before proceeding, but the light requirements for those species that do need it is insignificant compared to plants. White, crimini, and portobello (which are just large crimini) mushrooms need complete darkness, so those are winners on that score.
Since stable mushroom colonies don’t keep producing in the winter outside and might even die if it gets too cold, the plan is to grow them indoors. Makes it easier, anyway, because they have to be kept humid as well as warm (misted once or twice a day). Since heat rises, logically the best place for your mushroom farm is going to be as high up in your house as you can go, keeping in mind that the attic might be out of the question unless you have good air circulation there. If there’s some sunlight, you could consider the greenhouse in a shady area too.
The substrate you feed the mushrooms depends on the type of the mushroom you’re growing. Check out the Mushroom Shack product page for a description of the various choices available to you like straw, logs, sawdust, compost, paper & cardboard, and other organic materials. Per ehow.com, the classic white button mushroom prefers compost. While I understand portobello is more sensitive and difficult than white mushrooms, be aware that most of the online descriptions are targeted toward professional growers. Once you get the colony going, you should be able to just feed them things like wood chips and other discards, mostly just focusing on not introducing competing fungi.

Don’t Forget the Crawlies
As long as you’re out scrounging in the wet and dark for wood to feed your mushrooms, pick up some of the other rotted stuff for your mealworms, termites, and other micro-livestock that can earn off a living off the other crap you’ll be able to find. You actually give them the worst of what you scrounge up and save the good stuff for the mushrooms.

This list of wood-attacking insects could actually be a menu for us someday.  (http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/insectid/wood-attk.php)
I won’t go too deeply into this since I just put out a post titled “Micro-Livestock: Why More Preppers Should Consider Farming Insects”, but insects are a perfect candidate for the wintry world after nuclear blasts, a meteor impact, or a large volcanic eruption.
Certainly, you can look to feed those insects to chickens or fish if you want to move further up the animal chain. And certainly, hunt and fish while it lasts.
But if it’s a long winter, and it very well could be, you can thank me for that delicious termite and mushroom stew. Save some for me.

Byte: The Scenario

  1. A change falls upon the land from a volcanic eruption, the skies darken, and the crops fail.
  2. Live off stored food and sprouted grains, expanding insect and mushroom farming capacity.
  3. Turn on the space station in your basement as you near stockpile emptying, powering your grow lights with energy from a wind turbine, modified exercise bike, or whatever else your prepper ingenuity has prepared.
  4. Revert to insects, whatever you still have that can live off bugs, and mushrooms after the stockpiles empty and the technologies fail. Talk about your Atkins diet.
  5. Survive to the day when the sky lightens and winter crops will succeed.

Resources & More Reading
Nuclear Winter – wikipedia.org
Volcanic Winter – wikipedia.org
Impact Winter – wikipedia.org
Year Without a Summer – wikipedia.org
Timetable of major worldwide volcanic eruptions – wikipedia.org
Which edible plant requires the least amount of sunlight to grow? – survivalistboards.com
Top 10 vegetables to grow over winter – telegraph.co.uk
Ten Vegetables You Can Grow Without Full Sun – organicgardening.about.com
Fresh vegetables in winter – forums.gardenweb.com
How to grow winter veg – guardian.co.uk
Best Producing Winter Vegetable Garden – garden.lovetoknow.com
Planting Fall and Winter Vegetables, Good For Nutrition and Good For Your Pocket – southernstates.com
Top 10 Vegetables to Grow Over Winter – thompson-morgan.com
Winter Garden Crops – greenhousecatalog.com
Vegetables to grow in winter: a how-to guide – permaculture.co.uk
How to Grow Truffles Indoors – ehow.com
If The Sun Went Out, How Long Would Life On Earth Survive? – popsci.com
How to Grow Edible Mushrooms in Your Backyard – tobuildagarden.com
Grow mushrooms indoors with a kit – oregonlive.com
How to Grow Portobello Mushroomshttp://growyourownmushrooms.net/
How to Grow Mushrooms in Coffee Grounds – ehow.com
Types of mushroom Substrates – mushroomshack.com
What Is the Natural Habitat for Mealworms? – ehow.com
Darkling Beetle/Mealworm Information
.

food v winter ash
.C.  What’s it like during an ashfall?
Excerpts pasted from: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/ash/ashfall.htmlWhen ash begins to fall during daylight hours, the sky will turn increasingly hazy and “dusty” and sometimes a pale yellow color. The falling ash may become so dense that daylight turns to murky gray or even an “intense blackness” such that “it is impossible to see your hand when held up close to the eye.” Loud thunder and lightning and the strong smell of sulfur often occurs during an ash fall. Furthermore, rain may accompany the ash and turn the tiny particles into a slurry of slippery mud. Most people also describe an intense quietness, except for thunder that may accompany the ash fall, giving a “deadness” to the normal sounds of life.During a heavy ash fall and for several days after, normal community and business services are typically severely limited or completely unavailable. Transportation systems are likely to be shut down or restricted—roads may be impassable or purposefully blocked, airports temporarily closed. People will be stranded away from home. Electrical power may be intermittently unavailable when conditions favor

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Problems with the natural food chain

(Survival Manual/1. Disaster/Problems with the natural food chain)

A.  Crop Disease
The Food Crisis Of 2011, Oct. 27 2010 by Addison Wiggin, contributor
Pasted from: http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2010/10/27/the-food-crisis-of-2011/

“Every month, JPMorgan Chase dispatches a researcher to several supermarkets in Virginia. The task is to comparison shop for 31 items.
In July, the firm’s personal shopper came back with a stunning report: Wal-Mart had raised its prices 5.8% during the previous month. More significantly, its prices were approaching the levels of competing stores run by Kroger and Safeway. The “low-price leader” still holds its title, but by a noticeably slimmer margin.
[The world’s population is growing  at about 83 million people each year. During the last ten years, while global grain supplies have remained below average, about 830 million people have been added. A rising number of people on a diminished resource base has already lead to political turmoil across the Middle East. Now switch ‘food’ for ‘fuel’ in the ‘use more- have less’ equation and in a couple years when we are seen on the downside of peak oil, imagine retail cost increases and gasoline prices in North America, Europe, and developed of Asia. Mr Larry]
Read more at: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_does_the_world_population_grow_each_year#ixzz1U44q6sq

Within this tale lie several lessons you can put to work to make money. And it’s best to get started soon, because if you think your grocery bill is already high, you ain’t seen nothing yet. In fact, we could be just one supply shock away from a full-blown food crisis that would make the price spikes of 2008 look like a happy memory.
Fact is,  the food crisis of 2008 never really went away.
True, food riots didn’t break out in poor countries during 2009 and warehouse stores like Costco didn’t ration 20-pound bags of rice…but supply remained tight.

Prices for basic foodstuffs like corn and wheat remain below their 2008 highs. But they’re a lot higher than they were before “the food crisis of 2008” took hold. Here’s what’s happened to some key farm commodities so far in 2010…
•  Corn:  Up 63%
•  Wheat:  Up 84%
•  Soybeans:  Up 24%
•  Sugar:  Up 55%
What was a slow and steady increase much of the year has gone into overdrive since late summer. Blame it on two factors…
•  Aug. 5:  A failed wheat harvest prompted Russia to ban grain exports through the end of the year. Later in August, the ban was extended through the end of 2011. Drought has wrecked the harvest in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan – home to a quarter of world production
•  Oct. 8:  For a second month running, the Agriculture Department cut its forecast for US corn production. The USDA predicts a 3.4% decline from last year. Damage done by Midwestern floods in June was made worse by hot, dry weather in August.

America’s been blessed with year after year of “record harvests,” depending on how you measure it. So when crisis hits elsewhere in the world, the burden of keeping the world fed falls on America’s shoulders.
According to Soren Schroder, CEO of the food conglomerate Bunge North America, US grain production has filled critical gaps in world supply three times in the last five years, including this summer…
• In 2010, when drought hit Russian wheat
• In 2009, when drought hit Argentine soybeans
• In 2007–08, when drought hit Australian wheat

So what happens when those “record harvests” no longer materialize?
In September, the US Department of Agriculture estimated that global grain “carryover stocks” – the amount in the world’s silos and stockpiles when the next harvest begins – totaled 432 million tons.
That translates to 70 days of consumption. A month earlier, it was 71 days. The month before that, 72. At this rate, come next spring, we’ll be down to just 64 days – the figure reached in 2007 that touched off the food crisis of 2008. But what happens if the U.S. scenario is worse than a “nonrecord” harvest? What if there’s a Russia-scale crop failure here at home?

“When we have the first serious crop failure, which will happen,” says farm commodity expert Don Coxe, “we will then have a full-blown food crisis” – one far worse than 2008. Coxe has studied the sector for more than 35 years as a strategist for BMO Financial Group. He says it didn’t have to come to this. “We’ve got a situation where there has been no incentive to allocate significant new capital to agriculture or to develop new technologies to dramatically expand crop output.”
“We’ve got complacency,” he sums up. “So for those reasons, I believe the next food crisis – when it comes – will be a bigger shock than $150 oil.”

A recent report from HSBC isn’t quite so alarming…unless you read between the lines. “World agricultural markets,” it says, “have become so finely balanced between supply and demand that local disruptions can have a major impact on the global prices of the affected commodities and then reverberate throughout the entire food chain.”
That was the story in 2008. It’s becoming the story again now. It may go away in a few weeks or a few months. But it won’t go away for good. It’ll keep coming back…for decades.
There’s nothing you or I can do to change it. So we might as well “hedge” our rising food costs by investing in the very commodities whose prices are rising now…and will keep rising for years to come.

“While investor eyes are focused on the gold price as it touches new highs,” reads a report from Japan’s Nomura Securities, “the acceleration in global food price is unrestrained. We continue to believe that soft commodities will outperform base and precious metals in the future.”
So how do you do it? As recently as 2006, the only way Main Street investors could play the trend was to buy commodity futures. It was complicated. It involved swimming in the same pool with the trading desks of the big commercial banks. And it usually involved buying on margin – that is, borrowing money from the brokerage. If the market went against you, you’d lose even more than your initial investment.
Nowadays, an exchange-traded fund can do the heavy lifting for you, no margin required. The name of the fund is the PowerShares DB Agriculture ETF (DBA).
There are at least a half-dozen ETFs that aim to profit when grain prices rise. We like DBA the best because it’s easy to understand. It’s based on the performance of the Deutsche Bank Agriculture Index, which is composed of the following:
•  Corn 12.5%
•  Soybeans 12.5%
•  Wheat 12.5%
•  Sugar 12.5%
•  Cocoa 11.1%
•  Coffee 11.1%
•  Cotton 2.8%
•  Live Cattle 12.5%
•  Feeder Cattle 4.2%
•  Lean Hogs 8.3%

So you have a mix here of 50% America’s staple crops of corn, beans, wheat and sugar…25% beef and pork…and 25% cocoa, coffee and cotton. It might not be a balanced diet (especially the cotton), but it makes for a good balance of assets within your first foray into “ag” investing.
The meat weighting in here looks especially attractive compared to some of DBA’s competitors, which are more geared to the grains. It takes about six months for higher grain prices to translate to higher cattle and hog prices.
You can capture that potential upside right now…and you’ll be glad you did when you sit down to a good steak dinner a few months down the line. After all, it’s going to cost you more.”
.

B.  Five Dangers to Global Crops That Could Dramatically Reduce the World Food Supply
29 Oct 2010, The Economic Collapse, by Michael Snyder
Pasted from: http://theeconomiccollapseblog.com/archives/5-dangers-to-global-crops-that-could-dramatically-reduce-the-world-food-supply

 “The world food situation is starting to get very, very tight. Unprecedented heat and wildfires this summer in Russia and horrific flooding in Pakistan and China have been some of the primary reasons for the rapidly rising food prices we are now seeing around the globe.
In places such as Australia and the African nation of Guinea-Bissau, the big problem for crops has been locusts. In a world that already does not grow enough food for everyone (thanks to the greed of the elite), any disruption in food production can cause a major, major problem. Tonight, thousands of people around the world will starve to death. So what happens if things get even worse? Many agricultural scientists are now warning that global food production is facing dangers that are absolutely unprecedented. Crop diseases such as UG99 wheat rust and the “unintended effects” of genetic modification pose challenges that previous generations simply did not have to face. The outbreak of a real, live global famine looks increasingly possible with each passing year. So are you and your family prepared if a global famine does strike?
Already, there are huge warning signs on the horizon. Just check out what agricultural commodities have been doing. They have been absolutely soaring.
A recent article on the Forbes website noted a few of the agricultural commodities that have skyrocketed during this year….

Here’s what’s happened to some key farm commodit prices so far in 2010…
• Corn: Up 63%
• Wheat: Up 84%
• Soybeans: Up 24%
• Sugar: Up 55%
Are you ready to pay 84 percent more for a loaf of bread?

[A 1 lb. loaf of multigrain wheat bread would  therefore increase in cost from about $2.78 to $5.11. Mr Larry]
You better get ready – these raw material prices will filter down to U.S. consumers eventually. So what is going to happen if the world food situation gets even tighter?
You don’t think that it can happen?

The following are 5 potential dangers to global crops that could dramatically reduce the world food supply:

1.  UG99 Wheat Rust
UG99 is commonly known as “wheat rust” or “stem rust” because it produces reddish-brown flakes on wheat stalks. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center in Mexico believes that approximately 19 percent of the global wheat crop is in imminent danger of being infected with UG99.
Ultimately, it is estimated that about 80 percent of the wheat on the globe is capable of catching the disease.
There is no known cure.
This current strain of wheat rust was discovered in Uganda in 1999 and has spread into areas of Kenya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen and Iran. It is feared that this crippling disease will spread even farther into south Asia, devastating the fertile growing regions of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
If that happens, you might as well kiss world food stability goodbye.
A recent article in the Financial Times contained an absolutely stunning quote from one prominent agricultural scientist….“You can talk about crying wolf,” says Ronnie Coffman, director of the Durable Rust Resistance in Wheat project at the University of Cornell in the US, “but it is a wolf”, he asserts, “driving across the corn fields of Kansas.”
Later on in the same article, Coffman warns that this disease could cause a devastating famine in which literally millions of people would die….“It can be absolutely devastating if environmental conditions are right,“ he says. “You can count the number of people who could die from this in the millions.”

2.  Mad Soy Disease
Mad Soy disease is spreading at an alarming rate among soy farms down in Brazil. Previously, the disease had been confined to the north part of the country, but now it has been increasingly spreading south. This disease retards the maturation of infected plants, and it has been causing yield losses of up to 40 percent. The USDA says that “there are no known effective treatments.”

3.  Verticillium Wilt
Verticillium Wilt is a fungus that prevents lettuce from absorbing water, causing it to quickly grow yellow and eventually wilt. This dangerous fungus is very hard to get rid of totally because it can stay in the soil for up to seven years.
Today, Verticillium Wilt is spreading all over Monterey County, California. Considering the fact that Monterey County produces more than 60 percent of the lettuce in the United States, that is very bad news.

4.  Late Blight
In 2009, a disease known as “late blight” attacked potato and tomato plants in the United States with a ferocity never seen before. According to a press release from Cornell University, late blight had “never occurred this early and this widespread in the U.S.” when it started showing up all over the place early last year.
Late blight begins as ugly brown spots on the stems of potato and tomato plants, and as the spots increase in size, white fungal growth develops until finally a soft rot completely collapses the stem.
This was the disease that was responsible for the Irish potato famine in the 1850s. A major new outbreak could occur without warning.

5.  Genetic Modification
While it may or may not technically be a disease (depending on how you look at it), genetic modification is having a very serious affect on crops around the globe. For example, about 10 years ago Chinese farmers began to widely adopt Monsanto’s (MON) genetically modified Bt cotton. Researchers have found that since that time, mirid bugs that are resistant to the Bt pesticide have experienced a complete and total population boom.
Today, six provinces in Northern China are experiencing what can only be described as a “mirid bug plague”. Mirid bugs eat more than 200 different kinds of fruit, vegetables and grains. Chinese farmers in the region are completely frustrated.
In the United States, a different problem is developing. The complete and total reliance of so many U.S. farmers on Monsanto’s Roundup herbicide has resulted in several varieties of glyphosate-resistant “superweeds” developing in many areas of the United States.
The most feared of these “superweeds”, Pigweed, can grow to be seven feet tall and it can literally wreck a combine. Pigweed has been known to produce up to 10,000 seeds at a time, it is resistant to drought, and it has very diverse genetics.
Superweeds were first spotted in Georgia in 2004, and since then they have spread to South Carolina, North Carolina, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri. In some areas, superweeds have become so bad that literally tens of thousands of acres of U.S. farmland have actually been abandoned.
One of the most frightening things about genetic modification is that it actually reduces that amount of crop diversity in the world. For example, if nearly all farmers start using the same “brand” of genetically modified plants that are all virtually identical, it sets up a situation where crop diseases and crop failures can cascade across the planet very easily.
Genetic variety is a very desirable thing, but today our scientists are just doing pretty much whatever they want without really considering the consequences.
It has been said many times that genetic engineering is similar to “performing heart surgery with a shovel”. The truth is that we just do not know enough about how our ecosystems work to be messing around with them so dramatically.
Can we afford to make any serious mistakes at this point? The truth is that we already live in a world that is not able to feed itself. Tonight, approximately 1 billion people across the globe will go to bed hungry. Every 3.6 seconds someone in the world starves to death, and three-fourths of those who starve to death are children under the age of five.”

 

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