Ampicillin

(Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Ampicillin)
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Disclaimer The information, ideas, and suggestions in the 4dtraveler.net blog are not intended as a substitute for professional advice. Before following any suggestions contained in this post, you should consult your personal physician. Neither the author or Word Press shall be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising as a consequence of your use or application of any information or suggestions in this blog.

Ampicillin brand names:Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen

 A.  What is ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampicillin>
Ampicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body.
Ampicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections,  bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection.
Ampicillin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

 Ampicillin has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. Until the introduction of ampicillin, penicillin therapies had only been effective against Gram-positive organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci. Ampicillin also demonstrated activity against Gram-negative organisms such as H. influenzae, coliforms and Proteus spp.  Ampicillin is part of the aminopenicillin family and is roughly equivalent to its successor, amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity. It can sometimes result in reactions that range in severity from a rash (in the case of patients that may unwittingly have mononucleosis) to potentially lethal allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. However, as with other penicillin drugs, it is relatively non-toxic and adverse effects of a serious nature are encountered only rarely.

Ampicillin is closely related to amoxicillin, another type of penicillin, and both are used to treat urinary tract infections, otitis media, uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, salmonellosis and Listeria meningitis. It is used with flucloxacillin in the combination antibiotic co-fluampicil for empiric treatment of cellulitis; providing cover against Group A streptococcal infection whilst the flucloxacillin acts against the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. Of concern is the number of bacteria that become resistant to Ampicillin necessitating combination therapy or use of other antibiotics.
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampicillin>

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B.  What is the most important information I should know about ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/mtm/ampicillin.html>
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ampicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as amoxicillin (Amoxil), carbenicillin (Geocillin), dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen), oxacillin (Bactocill), penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids), and others.

Before using ampicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Ceclor, Ceftin, Duricef, Keflex, and others, or if you have asthma, kidney disease, a bleeding or blood clotting disorder, mononucleosis (also called “mono”), or a history of any type of allergy.

Ampicillin can make birth control pills less effective, which may result in pregnancy. Before taking ampicillin, tell your doctor if you use birth control pills. Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Ampicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking ampicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Preparations
Capsules: 250 and 500 mg. Powder oral suspension: 125 and 250 mg/5mL. Powder for injection: 250 mg, 500 mg, 1g, and 2 g.

Storage
Capsules and powder should be kept at room temperature between 15 C (59 F) and 30 C (86  F). After mixing the powder with water, it can be used for up to seven days if stored at room temperature or 14 days if refrigerated. It must be shaken before each use and should be kept well-sealed.

Prescribed for
Ampicillin is used for treating infections of the middle ear, sinuses, stomach and intestines, bladder, and kidney caused by susceptible bacteria. It also is used for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea, meningitis, endocarditis and other serious infections.

Dosing
The usual oral dose range for most infections is 250 to 500 mg 4 times daily for 7-14 days. When used to treat gonorrhea, a single 3.5 gram dose (seven 500 mg capsules) is administered with probenecid (Benemid). The probenecid slows down the elimination of ampicillin so that ampicillin remains in the body longer. Food in the stomach reduces how much and how quickly ampicillin is absorbed. Therefore, ampicillin should be taken either 1 hour prior to or 2 hours following a meal for maximal absorption; however, for persons who experience nausea or stomach distress after taking ampicillin, it may be taken with meals.

Specific Ampicillin dosing information
•  Usual Adult Dose for Bronchitis: Bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours for 5 to 10 days, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Endocarditis: Enterococcal: Ampicillin 2 g IV every 4 hours plus gentamicin 1 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 4 to 6 weeks.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Gastroenteritis: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Intraabdominal Infection: 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours in combination with other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.  Duration: 10-14 days.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Leptospirosis: Moderate to severe: 0.5 to 1 g intravenously every 6 hours. Mild: 500 to 750 mg orally every 6 hours.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Peritonitis: CAPD-associated peritonitis: 250 to 500 mg orally twice daily and/or 100 to 125 mg/L exchange intraperitoneally, with or without other antibiotics depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pneumonia: Beta-lactamase negative, penicillin-susceptible: 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours, in combination with other antibiotic(s) depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: As an alternative to penicillin G: 2 g IV as a loading dose, followed by 1 g every 4 hours until delivery.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pyelonephritis: 500 mg to 2 g IV or IM every 4 to 6 hours with or without other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection. Duration: 2 to 3 weeks.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Septicemia: 1 to 2 g IV every 3 to 4 hours, in combination with other antibiotics.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Shigellosis: 500 mg orally every 6 hours for 5 days
•  Usual Adult Dose for Skin or Soft Tissue Infection: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours or 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Surgical Prophylaxis: Liver transplant: Ampicillin 1 g plus cefotaxime 1 g IV at induction, then every 6 hours for 48 hours after closure.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Typhoid Fever: Severe, fully susceptible: 25 mg/kg IV or IM every 6 hours for 10 to 14 days. Carrier state: 1.5 g orally or IV with probenecid 500 mg every 6 hours for 6 weeks. Fluoroquinolones or amoxicillin are considered the drugs of choice.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Otitis Media: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pharyngitis: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Sinusitis: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Urinary Tract Infection: Mild, uncomplicated: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours. Severe, complicated: 500 mg to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours with or without other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis: Low to moderate risk: 50 mg/kg IV or IM 30 minutes before procedure.
High risk: 50 mg/kg plus gentamicin 1.5 mg/kg, both intramuscularly or IV 30 minutes before procedure. Follow with ampicillin 25 mg/kg IV or IM, or amoxicillin 25 mg/kg orally, 6 hours after initial dose.
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Skin or Soft Tissue Infection: IV: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 12 g/day).  Oral: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 2 to 3 g/day).
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: IV: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 12 g/day). Oral: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 2 to 3 g/day).
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Surgical Prophylaxis: Liver transplant: Ampicillin 50 mg/kg plus cefotaxime 50 mg/kg at induction and every 6 hours for 48 hours after closure.

What other drugs will affect ampicillin? Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:
•  allopurinol (Zyloprim);
•  methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall);
•  probenecid (Benemid);
•  a sulfa drug (such as Bactrim or Septra); or
•  a tetracycline antibiotic such as demeclocycline (Declomycin), doxycycline (Adoxa, Doryx, Oracea, Vibramycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn, Vectrin), or tetracycline (Brodspec, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap).

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with ampicillin. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.
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C.  What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/mtm/ampicillin.html>
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ampicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as:
•  amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxicot, Biomox, Dispermox, Trimox);
•  carbenicillin (Geocillin);
•  dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen);
•  oxacillin (Bactocill); or
•  penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids, and others).

To make sure you can safely take ampicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially cephalosporins such as Omnicef, Cefzil, Ceftin, Keflex, and others), or if you have:
•  asthma;
•  kidney disease;
•  a bleeding or blood clotting disorder;
•  mononucleosis (also called “mono”);
•  a history of diarrhea caused by taking antibiotics; or
•  a history of any type of allergy.

FDA pregnancy category B. Ampicillin is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Ampicillin can make birth controll pills less effective, which may result in pregnancy. Before taking ampicillin, tell your doctor if you use birth control pills. Ampicillin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are taking ampicillin. 

How should I take ampicillin?
•  Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
•  Take the medicine with a full glass of water. Ampicillin should be taken on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating a meal.
•  To be sure this medicine is helping your condition, your blood will need to be tested often. Your liver and kidney function may also need to be tested. Visit your doctor regularly.
•  If you are being treated for gonorrhea, your doctor may also have you tested for syphilis, another sexually transmitted disease.
•  Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Ampicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.
•  This medication can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using ampicillin.
•  Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Overdose symptoms may include confusion, behavior changes, a severe skin rash, urinating less than usual, or seizure (black-out or convulsions).

What should I avoid while taking ampicillin?
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking ampicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Ampicillin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
•  fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
•  diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
•  fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
•  easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness;
•  urinating less than usual or not at all;
•  agitation, confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior; or
•  seizure (black-out or convulsions).
•  Less serious side effects may include
•  nausea, vomiting, stomach pain;
•  vaginal itching or discharge;
•  headache;
•  swollen, black, or “hairy” tongue; or
•  thrush (white patches or inside your mouth or throat).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

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D. Fish Cillin
AMAZON.COM: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps, $27.97 free S&H

Product Features
Standard pharmacy quality Ampicillin antibiotic. Labeled for use in fish tanks, in pull apart capsules for easy use – 250 mg. strength

Product Description
Fish Cillin exerts a bactericidal action on gram positive and some gram negative bacteria. Useful for control of some common bacterial diseases of fish including Aeromonas and Pseudomonsa denera and Mysobbacterial group (gill diseases & chondrococcus). Directions: Add contents of one capsule (250 mg) into aquarium for each 10 gallons of water to be treated. While duration of treatment depends on type and severity of infection, it is recommended that extended medication baths continue for a minimum of 5 days and for not more than 10 days. Discontinue treatment if no improvement is noted within 5 days.

Customer reviews:
•  Pharmacy Grade Product, January 11, 2011, By moonjogger (MI)
This review is from: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
This is an excellent product. Is all 100% sealed and is Usp grade antibiotic. Manufacturer is West-ward Pharmisuiticals of New Jersery. This very same tablet is what Walgreens and Rite aid are despensing for their Generics. OF COURSE, I was thrilled that my fish would not suffer from any kind of ill effects from any kind of odd fillers or additives that may have been added. Fish are very sensitive to any kind of changes in their enviourment. Thus I am 100 % confident in the Knowing that all are safe with this Antibiotic.
•  SAVED MY DOG’S LIFE., November 1, 2007, By LAVERN A. WOJCIECHOWSKI (Ohio)
This review is from: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
I WISH I WOULD HAVE FOUND THESE EARLIER. I lost my Scotty (12 years old and Sheppard 13 years old in 2006). The vet could not save them. It cost a lot of money and no dogs to show for it. When my Scottie’s twin sister got sick in April of 2007 I gave her four tablets a day and on the fourth day she started to eat again. This was the same time that the tainted dog food was happening. I still have her and she was 13 in July and this is November. Plus I saved hundred of dollars in vet bill and have a dog to show for it.

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See also the informative YouTube videos with, “Patriot Nurse”. The following link takes you to her discussion of the, “Top 5 Antibiotics for SHTF”:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOfthwm_v3E&feature=relmfu

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See also the book, “The Doom and Bloom(tm) Survival Medicine Handbook” (Keep your loved ones healthy in every disaster, from wildfires to a complete societal collapse), by Joseph Alton, M.D. and AMY ALTON, A.R.N.P., sold through Amazon.com

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(See also 4dtraveler article : (Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Antibiotic Uses)

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