(News & Editorial/ Volcano 1 of 2- The danger of current volcanic activity leading to further global cooling)
A. 2013 Sets A New Record For Volcanic Eruptions: Heightens The Risk Of Worldwide Cooling
5 Dec 2013, The Daily Sheeple , by Chris Carrington
Pasted from: http://www.thedailysheeple.com/2013-sets-a-new-record-for-volcanic-eruptions-heightens-the-risk-of-worldwide-cooling_122013
In an average year, 50-60 volcanoes erupt. So far this year there have been 83, not including any eruptions when writing this article.
An extra 23-33 eruptions (so far) may not seem like much, but those extra eruptions represent a massive amount of gases and ash being blown into the atmosphere. Millions and millions of metric tonnes which can have a profound effect on life on Earth.
The ash, which contains a variety of particulate matter, reflects sunlight back away from the surface. In severe eruptions it actually prevents sunlight getting through at all, as with the Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1992. Sulfur dioxide, one of the main gases thrown up during eruptions, also decreases temperatures and millions of tons at a time can be discharged when a volcano erupts.
If this level of vulcanism continues, which at this point looks likely, then we could be heading for a drop of a couple of degrees in temperature. Again this doesn’t sound like much, but a 2°C drop is enough to alter the agricultural zone charts in some areas. Climate scientists tell us that a rise of 2°C due to anthropogenic global warming (AGW) will be a disaster for mankind, yet they never mention what a drop of 2°C can do.
The effects of such a drop would be profound, and if you add in the predicted drop in temperatures from the very long and subdued solar cycle, it looks like life is going to become very chilly indeed.
Solheim and Humlum are predicting a minimum drop of 1°C due to the solar cycle and James Marusek goes further suggesting:
We will experience temperatures that we have not seen in over 200 years, during the time of the early pioneers.
David Archibald, a climatologist, also suggests that the dip in solar activity will lower temperatures to levels we have not experienced for centuries.
Add these predictions to the effects of the volcanoes, and you have a doomsday scenario of long, bitterly cold winters and shorter, cooler summers. Crops and livestock will be affected, and famine is a real possibility, both home and abroad.
Grain stores are not full enough to last for decades of cold. The reserves would cover a year maybe two but not a decade or longer.
The Little Ice Age saw millions dying of hunger and cold, and with so many more mouths to feed now, that figure could go much higher.
Every day the global warming alarmists throw something more into the mix, some new way that positive figure climate change is going to be the death of us all. Loss of environment, loss of habitat for a species no one has ever heard of, melting ice, rising sea levels… it’s endless.
The real and immediate danger we all face is global cooling, and with the uptick in vulcanism and the down tick in activity on the Sun, the chances are we will experience it sooner rather than later.
Yet it’s never mentioned.
• I have never heard a politician say that we should be storing firewood and long-life foods and grains that we may not be able to grow in ten years time.
• I have never heard a politician say ‘we are cutting green energy taxes so you can afford to insulate your homes and fit solar and PV units’.
• I have never heard them say ‘we need to improve natural gas storage facilities and improve our electrical infrastructure so we can cope with the surge in demand that’s going to occur in the near future’.
If you have never looked at the Georgia Guidestones now would be a good time. Point one may explain why the government says nothing.
Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.
You need to think about this. You need to consider not just the usual doomsday scenarios we talk about. It’s said that if the grid goes down for good, 99% of Americans will be dead within a year. Would that figure rise if the grid goes down and we are facing bone numbing cold and famine at the same time? I suggest it would.
B. 15 Signs That The Ring Of Fire Is Waking Up As We Head Into 2013
18 Dec 2012, The American Dream, By Michael
Pasted from: http://endoftheamericandream.com/archives/15-signs-that-the-ring-of-fire-is-waking-up-as-we-head-into-2013
While most of the world has been focused on other things, the Ring of Fire has been quietly waking up. Over the past couple of months, there has been a steady string of noteworthy volcanic eruptions and earthquakes that have occurred along the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean. But because none of them have happened near a highly populated area, we really haven’t heard much about them in the news. But if activity along the Ring of Fire continues to increase, it is inevitable that a major event will happen near a major city at some point. When that happens, the entire world will be focused on the Ring of Fire once again. Most people don’t realize that approximately 90 percent of all earthquakes and approximately 75 percent of all volcanic eruptions occur along the Ring of Fire. The entire west coast of the United States sits along the Ring of Fire and a massive network of faults runs underneath California, Oregon and Washington. Fortunately, the west coast has not experienced any devastating seismic events in recent years, but scientists assure us that will change at some point. So it is important to sit up and take notice when there are reports of increasing activity along the Ring of Fire.
Unfortunately, most Americans cannot even tell you what the Ring of Fire is. The following is how Wikipedia defines the “Ring of Fire”…
The Pacific Ring of Fire (or sometimes just the Ring of Fire) is an area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km (25,000 mi) horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements.
It runs roughly along the rim of the Pacific Ocean. Coastal residents of four different continents realize that a major event along the Ring of Fire could fundamentally change their lives in a single moment.
Nearly all of the worst earthquakes in modern history have occurred along the Ring of Fire. When the Ring of Fire is very active, it is a very big deal. That is why so many people are alarmed that the Ring of Fire seems to be entering a period of increased activity.
The following are 15 signs that the Ring of Fire is waking up as we head into 2013…
#1 Mount Lokon, which is located in Indonesia, has erupted more than 800 times since July. On Monday, volcanic ash from the volcano reached heights of up to 10,000 feet.
#2 An “orange alert” had been issued for towns and villages near the Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador. On Tuesday it erupted and shot lava up to a half mile above its crater.
#3 Lava is still flowing out of the Tolbachik volcano which is located on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Anyone that has ever played the board game “Risk” knows where Kamchatka is located.
#4 Lava also continues to flow and ash also continues to rise from the Fuego volcano in Guatemala.
#5 On Tuesday, an ash plume more than 2.5 kilometers high had risen from the Paluweh volcano in Indonesia.
#6 There was an average of about 4 seismic events per hour at the Popocatépetl volcano in Mexico on Tuesday.
#7 Scientists recently discovered “one of the world’s weirdest volcanoes” on the floor of the ocean just off the coast of Baja, Mexico.
#8 Mt. Fuji (located not too far from Tokyo, Japan) has been dormant for about 300 years, but in recent months there have been increasing signs of activity there. One study recently found that a “magma chamber under the mountain has come under immense pressure“, and one prominent scientist is warning that Mt. Fuji is due for “a big-scale explosive eruption“. Authorities were alarmed when a tunnel leading to Mt. Fuji collapsed on December 2nd, killing 9 people.
#9 Scientists are now warning that there is a very dangerous build up of magma at a large number of Japan’s 110 active volcanoes.
#10 A magnitude-6.1 earthquake struck off the coast of Sulawesi, Indonesia on Monday.
#11 A magnitude-6.0 earthquake hit the New Britain region of Papua New Guinea on Saturday.
#12 A magnitude-6.5 earthquake struck the Gulf of Alaska in mid-November.
#13 A magnitude-7.3 earthquake hit Japan earlier this month.
#14 There has been a substantial increase in earthquake activity in the Long Valley caldera region of California, and authorities tell us that “magma is indeed moving down there“.
#15 Over one recent five week period, more than 170 significant earthquakes were detected in one town in Chile. That town is now being called “one of the shakiest places on earth”.
All of those events occurred along the Ring of Fire.
So why is all of this happening?
Well, there are certainly a lot of theories out there.
In the United States, a large percentage of the population is convinced that an increase in natural disasters is evidence that we are in the “last days” described in the Bible. In fact, one recent survey found that a whopping 36 percent of all Americans believe that the increase in natural disasters that we have seen in recent years is an indication that we are in the end times…
More than a third of Americans believe the severity of recent natural disasters is evidence that we are in the “end times” described in the New Testament — a period of turmoil preceding Jesus’ Second Coming and the end of the world.
“There is a significant proportion of Americans who see these phenomena through a theological lens,” said Daniel Cox, research director at the Public Religion Research Institute, which released a poll on religion and climate change on Thursday (Dec. 13) in partnership with Religion News Service.
“It’s hardly a fringe belief. It’s nearly four in 10 Americans who are embracing this,” Cox said.
The conviction is particularly strong among white evangelical Protestants (65 percent), and less common among Catholics (21 percent) and the religiously unaffiliated (15 percent).
Other Americans believe that there are other causes for all of these natural disasters, and a large number of Americans are absolutely convinced that nothing unusual is happening at all.
Video: Is a North American volcanic eruption imminent?
Click the following link: (http://www.vancouversun.com/technology/Video+North+American+volcanic+eruption+imminent/8201416/story.html)
C. Revamping the Volcanic Explosivity Index (or Tiny Eruptions Need Love, Too)
2 Jul 2013, Wired.com, by Erik Klemetti
Exxcert pasted from: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/eruptions/
Much of the discussion of volcanic eruptions tends to center on the big ones — those monstrous eruptions that really capture everyone’s attention, potentially plunging the parts of the planet into a cool spell that could last years. Those eruptions are relatively rare, coming a few times a decade for the smaller ones and a few times a century (or longer) for the real colossal blasts. It is true that those are important events to understand, especially because humanity will need to face life after a giant eruption like Tambora or Taupo someday in the future. However, all this focus on the enormous eruptions ends up leaving those “everyday” events in the cold and even if they are small, they can have a profound effect on local areas, especially if they are places that are highly frequented by tourists.
Some background on the scale of volcanic eruptions: the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI; see below) was devised as a way compare eruptions (mainly explosive eruptions) much in the same way we compare earthquake magnitude using the Richter Scale. It was developed mainly to discuss eruptions that have an impact on global climate (that is, the big eruptions). The VEI is based on the volume of volcanic tephra (debris of explosive eruptions, like ash and bombs) that the eruption produces, so VEI 0-1 eruptions produce small amounts of tephra, only ~10,000 m3 (picture a cube with ~21.5 meter / 70 foot sides) while the VEI 7-8 eruptions produce a remarkable 1,000,000,000,000 m3 (take that cube and make it 10 km / 6.2 miles on each side). A VEI 7-8 eruption is actually 10 million times more productive than a VEI 0-1, however across the Holocene (the last 10,000 years), there have been only 6 eruptions that make it into into the heady VEI 7-8 territory while there have been at least 2215 VEI 0-1 eruptions that we know of. I emphasize this idea because a VEI 0-1 eruptions leaves little to be preserved in the geologic record — maybe a mere dusting of ash or a small lava flow — so this value is minimum value for these eruptions*.
The Volcanic Explosivity Index with volumes and terminology as currently defined. Image: Table 8 from Siebert et al. (2010), Volcanoes of the World, 3rd Edition.
That being said, if you’re standing near the vent of a 0-1 explosion, well, you can still get hurt or killed. Volcanic debris is heavy and it is thrown out of the vent at high speeds, so even a small explosion can be hazardous in places where people frequent. You might notice on the VEI that these very small explosive eruptions, those under 10,000 m3 fall into the VEI 0 category, which is described as “gentle”. That is because this is where the VEI breaks down and treats all eruptions that produce small volumes of tephra (remember, explosive debris) as effusive eruptions — that is, eruptions that produce lava flows. However, this is not the case in many places. The eruption of Mayon in May 2013 was a tiny phreatic (steam-driven) explosion that was likely VEI 0 but it killed 5 climbers who were near the vent when it occurred. That would hardly be considered as “gentle”.
D. First snowstorm in 100 years hits Middle East
14 Dec 2013, EUTimes.net, by EU Times
Pasted from: http://www.eutimes.net/2013/12/first-snowstorm-in-100-years-hits-middle-east/
Icy blast: The Western Wall compound in the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel, today was covered with snow as temperatures plunge below zero.
It’s a festive scene that’s adorned countless Christmas cards… and, for once, the Holy Land actually became a snow covered winter scene.
The ancient city of Jerusalem, which normally basks in fierce heat, was dusted with a light covering of snow during a freak blizzard.
And snow fell on the streets of Egypt for the first time in 112 years as one of the worst winter storms to hit the Middle East in living memory set in.
The rare sight of pristine white precipitation greeted stunned residents of Cairo this morning who took to social media to express their shock at the unsettling weather in the usually sweltering capital.
The blizzard, which has been named Alexa, forced Jerusalem into lockdown today after more than 50cm of snow was dumped on the region.
The unusual weather system brought travel chaos and disruption to much of the region.
People had to abandon their cars and seek emergency shelter as the snowstorm brought transport to a standstill.
Police set up roadblocks on routes in and out of the ancient city.
Ben Gurion airport near Tel Aviv was shut earlier this morning and Egypt’s main ports on the Mediterranean and the Red Sea remained closed for the third straight day due to bad weather.
Israelis were told over media and public broadcasts today not to enter or leave Jerusalem and some 1,500 people were evacuated from stranded vehicles overnight, said police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld.
Three emergency centers were set up and medics treated 350 people for cold-related symptoms, Rosenfeld said. Jerusalem Mayor Nir Barkat said he asked the military for assistance.
Rare snow also fell in Cairo’s suburbs, the port city of Alexandria and a blanket of white covered St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mt. Sinai.
The cold weather was part of a storm, dubbed Alexa, which has been pounding much of Lebanon and parts of northern Syria since Wednesday, pushing temperatures below zero and dumping snow and heavy rains.
The snow has heaped another layer of misery on the already grim existence of many of the more than two million Syrians who have fled the civil war raging in their homeland.
The weather even featured in talks between visiting U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who said he was briefed on the emergency measures
Kerry, a former Massachusetts senator, said the snow made him feel ‘at home’.
‘I have heard of making guests welcome and feeling at home. This is about as far as I’ve ever seen anything go… giving me a New England snowstorm,’ Kerry said as he viewed a snow-covered Old City of Jerusalem with Netanyahu.
In the West Bank and Gaza, U.N. relief teams offered emergency services to the worst-hit communities.
In Gaza, which was experiencing its first snow in a decade, more than 500 people were evacuated from their homes, according to Hamas spokesman Ihab Ghussein.
Egypt’s state MENA news agency said the country’s two Mediterranean ports near the city of Alexandria and two ports on the Red Sea remained closed for the third day Friday.
The report quoted the head of the Alexandria port authority, Adel Yassin Hammad, as saying the decision was taken to avoid possible accidents in the ports.
Snow-covered valleys made Jerusalem look more like the Alps than the Middle East.
Public transport has ground to halt as a result of heavy snow in Jerusalem.
See also my blog article, “Volcanic Winter” at: https://4dtraveler.net/2013/06/24/disaster-volcanic-winter/