(News & Editorial/ Mankind ramping up to fight Ebola)
A. Symptoms of Ebola typically include
Pasted from : http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/symptoms/
- Fever (greater than 38.6°C or 101.5°F)
- Severe headache
- Muscle pain
- Abdominal (stomach) pain
Symptoms may appear anywhere from 2 to 21 days after exposure to Ebola virus, although 8-10 days is most common.
Some who become sick with Ebola are able to recover. We do not yet fully understand why. However, patients who die usually have not developed a significant immune response to the virus at the time of death.
B. Michael T. Osterholm: In fear of Ebola’s breakout moment
16 September 2014, The New York Times, by Michael T. Osterholm
Pasted from: http://fullcomment.nationalpost.com/2014/09/16/michael-t-osterholm-in-fear-of-ebolas-breakout-moment/
The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has the potential to alter history as much as any plague has ever done.
There have been more than 4,300 cases and 2,300 deaths over the past six months. Recently, the World Health Organization warned that, by early October, there may be thousands of new cases per week in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Nigeria. What is not getting said publicly, despite briefings and discussions in the inner circles of the world’s public health agencies, is that we are in totally uncharted waters and that Mother Nature is the only force in charge of the crisis at this time.
Dead removal 1665 Plague vs. 2014 Ebola
Rampant Ebola fears slams African tourism … even thousands of kilometres away
KAMPALA, Uganda — Ebola is thousands of kilometres away from Kenya’s pristine Indian Ocean beaches, but the deadly disease appears to be discouraging tourism there and elsewhere in this vast continent.
Harald Kampa, a hotelier near Mombasa, says the Ebola outbreak in West Africa is hurting his business.
For two weeks in August he had no international arrivals at his Diani Sea Resort, leading him to suspect that Ebola had frightened away his clients. He noticed an improvement only after Kenya Airways canceled flights to the Ebola-hit West African nations of Sierra Leone and Liberia, action that the local tourism fraternity said was necessary to assure tourists of Kenya’s determination to keep Ebola out. KAMPALA, Uganda — Ebola is thousands of kilometres away from Kenya’s pristine Indian Ocean beaches, but the deadly disease appears to be discouraging tourism there and elsewhere in this vast continent.
Harald Kampa, a hotelier near Mombasa, says the Ebola outbreak in West Africa is hurting his business.
For two weeks in August he had no international arrivals at his Diani Sea Resort, leading him to suspect that Ebola had frightened away his clients. He noticed an improvement only after Kenya Airways canceled flights to the Ebola-hit West African nations of Sierra Leone and Liberia, action that the local tourism fraternity said was necessary to assure tourists of Kenya’s determination to keep Ebola out.
There are two possible future chapters to this story that should keep us up at night:
1) The first possibility is that the Ebola virus spreads from West Africa to megacities in other regions of the developing world. This outbreak is very different from the 19 that have occurred in Africa over the past 40 years. It is much easier to control Ebola infections in isolated villages. But there has been a 300% increase in Africa’s population over the last four decades, much of it in large city slums. What happens when an infected person yet to become ill travels by plane to Lagos, Nairobi, Kinshasa or Mogadishu — or even Karachi, Jakarta, Mexico City or Dhaka?
2) The second possibility is one that virologists are loath to discuss openly but are definitely considering in private: that an Ebola virus could mutate to become transmissible through the air. You can now get Ebola only through direct contact with bodily fluids. But viruses like Ebola are notoriously sloppy in replicating, meaning the virus entering one person may be genetically different from the virus entering the next. The current Ebola virus’s hyper-evolution is unprecedented; there has been more human-to-human transmission in the past four months than most likely occurred in the last 500 to 1,000 years. Each new infection represents trillions of throws of the genetic dice.
If certain mutations occurred, it would mean that just breathing would put one at risk of contracting Ebola. Infections could spread quickly to every part of the globe, as the H1N1 influenza virus did in 2009, after its birth in Mexico.
Why are public officials afraid to discuss this? They don’t want to be accused of screaming “Fire!” in a crowded theatre — as I’m sure some will accuse me of doing. But the risk is real, and until we consider it, the world will not be prepared to do what is necessary to end the epidemic.
In 2012, a team of Canadian researchers proved that Ebola Zaire, the same virus that is causing the West Africa outbreak, could be transmitted by the respiratory route from pigs to monkeys, both of whose lungs are very similar to those of humans. Richard Preston’s 1994 best seller The Hot Zone chronicled a 1989 outbreak of a different strain, Ebola Reston virus, among monkeys at a quarantine station near Washington. The virus was transmitted through breathing, and the outbreak ended only when all the monkeys were euthanized. We must consider that such transmissions could happen between humans, if the virus mutates.
So what must we do that we are not doing?
First, we need someone to take over the position of “command and control.” The United Nations is the only international organization that can direct the immense amount of medical, public health and humanitarian aid that must come from many different countries and nongovernmental groups to smother this epidemic. Thus far it has played at best a collaborating role, and with everyone in charge, no one is in charge.
C. UN: Nearly $1 billion needed now to stop Ebola
16 Sep 2014, AP News, by JOHN HEILPRIN and KRISTA LARSON
Pasted from: http://apnews.excite.com/article/20140916/ebola-77621ba2c5.html
GENEVA (AP) — The number of Ebola cases in West Africa could start doubling every three weeks and it could cost nearly $1 billion to contain the crisis, the World Health Organization said Tuesday.
Even as President Barack Obama was expected to announce the deployment of 3,000 American forces to help provide aid in the region, Doctors Without Borders said the global response to Ebola has been far short of what is needed. [Too little, too late?-Mr Larry]
“The response to Ebola continues to fall dangerously behind,” Dr. Joanne Liu, president of the medical charity, told a U.N. special briefing on Ebola in Geneva. “The window of opportunity to contain this outbreak is closing. We need more countries to stand up, we need greater deployment, and we need it now.”
In a report released Tuesday, WHO said some $987.8 million is needed for everything from paying health workers and buying supplies to tracing people who have been exposed to the virus, which is spread by contact with bodily fluids such as blood, urine or diarrhea. Some $23.8 million alone is needed to pay burial teams and buy body bags, since the bodies of Ebola victims are highly infectious and workers must wear protection suits.
Nearly 5,000 people have been sickened by Ebola in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, Nigeria and Senegal since it was first recognized in March. WHO says it anticipates that figure could rise to more than 20,000. At least 2,400 people have died, with Liberia bearing the brunt of the fatalities.
Recent weeks have seen a flurry of promises of aid.
In addition to the U.S. forces, the U.N. health agency said China has promised to send a 59-person mobile laboratory team to Sierra Leone that includes lab experts, epidemiologists, doctors and nurses. Britain is also planning to build and operate an Ebola clinic in Sierra Leone, and Cuba has promised to send the country more than 160 health workers.
“The question is translating these commitments into quick action on the ground,” said Dr. Unni Krishnan, head of disaster preparedness and response for the aid group Plan International.
Still, hospitals and clinics in West Africa are now turning the sick away because they don’t have enough space to treat everyone — a sure-fire way to increase the spread of the disease, which in this outbreak is killing about half of those it infects.
The United States, in particular, drew criticism last week when it promised to set up a 25-bed field hospital in Liberia to serve health care workers, both local and foreign, who become infected. Many thought the contribution was paltry, given that experts were saying Liberia needed at least 500 more treatment beds.
In addition to the troop deployment, Obama is expected to promise on Tuesday to build more than a dozen treatment centers in the afflicted region.
D. US to assign 3,000 from US military to fight Ebola
Sep 16, 12:06 AM (ET), By JIM KUHNHENN
Pasted from: http://apnews.excite.com/article/20140916/us-obama-26dacc001f.html
WASHINGTON (AP) — The Obama administration is ramping up its response to West Africa’s Ebola crisis, preparing to assign 3,000 U.S. military personnel to the afflicted region to supply medical and logistical support to overwhelmed local health care systems and to boost the number of beds needed to isolate and treat victims of the epidemic.
President Barack Obama planned to announce the stepped up effort Tuesday during a visit to the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta amid alarm that the outbreak could spread and that the deadly virus could mutate into a more easily transmitted disease.
The new U.S. muscle comes after appeals from the region and from aid organizations for a heightened U.S. role in combating the outbreak blamed for more than 2,200 deaths.
Administration officials said Monday that the new initiatives aim to: — Train as many as 500 health care workers a week. — Erect 17 heath care facilities in the region of 100 beds each. — Set up a joint command headquartered in Monrovia, Liberia, to coordinate between U.S. and international relief efforts. — Provide home health care kits to hundreds of thousands of households, including 50,000 that the U.S. Agency for International Development will deliver to Liberia this week. — Carry out a home- and community-based campaign to train local populations on how to handle exposed patients.
The officials, speaking on the condition of anonymity to discuss the plans ahead of Obama’s announcement, said the cost of the effort would come from $500 million in overseas contingency operations, such as the war in Afghanistan, that the Pentagon already has asked Congress to redirect to carry out humanitarian efforts in Iraq and in West Africa.
The officials said it would take about two weeks to get U.S. forces on the ground. [Hence around 1 October]
Sen. Chris Coons, D-Del., the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations African affairs subcommittee, applauded the new U.S. commitment. Coons earlier had called for the Obama administration to step up its role in West Africa.
“This humanitarian intervention should serve as a firewall against a global security crisis that has the potential to reach American soil,” he said.
Hardest hit by the outbreak are 1) Liberia, 2) Sierra Leone and 3) Guinea. The virus also has reached 4) Nigeria and 5) Senegal. Ebola is spread through direct contact with the bodily fluids of sick patients, making doctors and nurses especially vulnerable to contracting the virus that has no vaccine or approved treatment.
The U.S. effort will include medics and corpsmen for treatment and training, engineers to help erect the treatment facilities and specialists in logistics to assist in patient transportation.
Obama’s trip to the CDC comes a day after the United States also demanded a stepped-up international response to the outbreak. The U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, Samantha Power, on Monday called for an emergency meeting of the U.N. Security Council on Thursday, warning that the potential risk of the virus could “set the countries of West Africa back a generation.”
Power said the meeting Thursday would mark a rare occasion when the Security Council, which is responsible for threats to international peace and security, addresses a public health crisis.
U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon was expected to brief the council along with World Health Organization chief Dr. Margaret Chan and Dr. David Nabarro, the recently named U.N. coordinator to tackle the disease, as well as representatives from the affected countries.
White House press secretary Josh Earnest, responding to criticism that the U.S. needed a more forceful response to the outbreak, said Monday that Obama has identified the outbreak “as a top national security priority,” worried that it could contribute to political instability in the region and that left unchecked the virus could transform and become more contagious.
He said the administration responded “pretty aggressively” when the outbreak was first reported in March.
“Since that time our assistance has steadily been ramping up,” he said.
The Senate was also weighing in Tuesday with a hearing to examine the U.S. response. An American missionary doctor who survived the disease was among those scheduled to testify.
Four Americans have been or are being treated for Ebola in the U.S. after evacuation from Africa.
The U.S. has spent more than $100 million responding to the outbreak and has offered to operate treatment centers for patients.
While at the CDC, Obama also will be briefed about cases of respiratory illness being reported in the Midwest, the White House said. Public health officials are monitoring a high number of reported illnesses associated with human enterovirus 68 in Iowa, Kansas, Ohio and elsewhere.
After leaving Atlanta, Obama planned to travel to Florida to visit the headquarters of U.S. Central Command in Tampa, where he’ll meet with military officials about the U.S. counterterrorism campaign against the Islamic State group. Central Command overseas U.S. military efforts in the Middle East.
E. Preppers and Ebola: What You Need To Know
Pasted from: http://prepforshtf.com/preppers-ebola-need-know/#.VBk-94l0zmg
CDC. (2014, July). Retrieved 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/
Known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola HF), and there are five Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers currently known. It is a severe and many times fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates such as monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees.
1.) Humans are not the natural host for the disease, but once they have it they can pass it to other humans. Experts believe that the first person in any outbreak contacted the disease from an infected animal. Animals that can spread the disease to humans include gorillas, forest antelopes, cynomolgus monkeys and chimpanzees.
In Africa, people can become infected by handling infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead in the rainforest.
The incubation period is from 2-21 days. Males who have recovered from the disease can still transmit the virus through their semen, for up to 7 weeks after recovery from the illness.
Once someone is infected, they can spread the disease to other humans through blood, mucus, salvia and other body secretions. Typically, health care workers/care givers are the first infected when an outbreak occurs. The symptoms mimic other diseases in some cases, so it is not until advanced symptoms appear that they realize it is Ebola.
If Ebola could be detected or suspected as the cause earlier then health workers could take preventive measures to help slow or even stop the spread. [At present] You have to be in close contact with an infected person or animal to contact the disease. Contaminated needles will also spread Ebola.
Protective measures must be taken such as wearing protective clothing, gloves and face masks/shields. Bedding and clothing of a sickened person must be properly disposed of to help prevent the spread. Bodies of the deceased must be handled properly as well to prevent the spread of the disease.
2.) Humans are not considered natural hosts for Ebolaviruses, but the natural reservoir host is not entirely clear either, but it appears to be zoonotic, meaning animal-borne. Experts believe that bats are a carrier and one of the most likely reservoirs. This means the bats can carry the disease without showing any signs of the disease. They appear to have an immunity to it.
Five identified subspecies of Ebolaviruses are known to exist. Out of those five, four can cause the disease in humans.
There is the Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus) a Sudan virus (Sudan ebolavirus), the Taï Forest virus (Taï Forest ebolavirus, known formerly as Côte d’Ivoire ebolavirus) and Bundibugyo virus (Bundibugyo ebolavirus). The fifth, Reston virus (Reston ebolavirus), has caused disease in nonhuman primates, but not in humans (CDC, 2014).
3.) Symptoms that are recognizable early on, (these symptoms can be caused by other diseases as well) include: 1) severe headache, 2) fever, 3) along with joint and muscle pain, 4) weakness, 5) vomiting, 6) diarrhea and 7) severe stomach pain. 8) The disease can also cause red eyes and 9) rashes along with 10) internal as well as 11) external bleeding. 12) Hiccups are sometimes associated with the disease as well.
4.) Up to 90 percent of the people infected with Ebola die from it. Other experts put the mortality rate at between 50 and 90 percent. There is no cure (no vaccine) so supportive therapy is the only treatment. Therapy includes balancing body fluids, maintaining oxygen levels and blood pressure. Additionally most patients are treated for infections, because of impaired immune systems caused by Ebola. Because it is a virus antibiotics have no impact on Ebola.
The first Ebolaviruses species was discovered in 1976 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo near the Ebola River. Outbreaks since then have appeared sporadically.
5.) To date, Ebola has not caused diseases in the United States. However, in the 1990’s a research team in Virginia became infected with a type of Ebola (Ebola-Reston). The disease was passed from a primate, which had been imported. The disease did not cause any symptoms in the humans but was fatal to the monkey (CDC, 2014).
CDC. (2014, July). Retrieved 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/
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