(My family in history/Old world: Irish & Scottish)
During the Old Stone age, a land bridge extended between Denmark and Britain, and between Britain and Ireland. Many Pleistocene animals passed over this terrain bridge from the continent to Ireland, among which were the mammoth, hippopotamus, grizzly bear, brown bear, reindeer, the great Irish deer, red deer, wild boar, horse, fox and badger; not found in this ancient landscape were hyena, saber tooth tiger or Man.
Over the eons, the land bridge sank…
During the late Neolithic period, two peoples came by boat to settle inErin, these were;
• The long headed, light eyed and fair skinned, Northern Europeans, and
• The long headed, dark eyed and dark skinned, Southern Europeans.
From these two races was derived the bulk of the population of Erin, prior to the coming of the Gael.
The Gael or Milesians were a tall people, with long skulls and red, yellow gold or flaxen colored hair, straight noses and rosy white skin. They originally came from theNetherlands, the Elbeand Holstein and from recesses in the Baltic coast.
But the direct ancestors of the Gael, who first fought to settle in Erin, migrated from northwestern Europe to Spain, where they flourished—until the latter years in the life of a chieftain named, Breogan. And it is through Breogan that we follow the Irish and Scottish pedigree to Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I, King of England and toward the present .
[The interlacing lines of the Celtic Knot stands for “no beginning, no ending, the continuity of everlasting love and binding together or intertwining of two souls or spirits.” The Celts did not record the meanings behind the designs they recreated but scholarly speculation is that the symbols represented basic tenants of life, mankind and spirituality. The continual looping of the designs suggests themes of eternity and interconnectedness. Interwoven figures of people and animals may have represented the interdependent nature of life. Two of more knots laced together symbolized lovers, God and man, and so on. Some ancient Celtic symbols have changed in meaning over time, having been influenced by the introduction of Christianity and the influence of other cultures. Circle knot represent eternity or the eternal cycle of life, death and rebirth. Triangles represent the threefold dominion of earth, sea, and sky or God, Son, and Holy Spirit. Square knots are shield knots, symbols of protection. Interlaced animals and men represent relationship, or emphasize the interdependence of mankind and nature. <http://www.celticcolours.com/celtic-symbols-and-meanings.aspx>]
In ancient times Ireland was known to her residents as Erin.
Of Spain, had two sons, Bile and Ith.
Of Spain, had a son, named,
Golamh-The Soldier, was later in life known as Milesius.
When Golamh had grown, he wandered to Scythia and married Sreng, daughter of the king. Later he went toEgypt where he married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh (Necro II ?). Princess Scota returned to Spain with Milesius and brought with her the Stone of Scone, the pillow rock used by Jacob when he had his famous dream. This rock still remains with her descendants-the kings of Great Britain and Ireland.
The descendants of Breogan had prospered in Spain, but hard times came with a drought and famine which lasted 25 years. During this time, the families strength was being wasted against other tribes over sovereignty of Spain. The clan held council and decided to invade Erin. Golamh’s uncle, Ith, was sent to reconnoiter the island. While in Erin, the local kings became suspicious and men were sent to intercept and kill Ith before he returned to his clan inSpain.
Ith was mortally wounded just before his boat sailed, where upon he died at sea.
To avenge his death, the sons of Golamh mustered 30 ships and 900 men and sailed for Erin. Among the crew were Golamh’s Egyptian wife, Scota and their sons Eber and Heremon.
Eber landed with his ships in Kerry, in southwest Erin, fought a battle near Tralee and routed the enemy. During this battle, Scota was slain.
Genealogical Relationship of Erin’s Early Gaelic Settlers
|Breogan of Spain|
|S: Ith ↲(murdered in Erin)||↳ S: Bile ofSpain||Necro II, Pharaoh ofEgypt 610-595 BC|
|↳ S: Golamh (Milesius) +||D: Princess Scota v ↲||Zedekiah, King of Judah 619-587 BC|
|S: Eber ↲ (slain in battle)||↳ S: Heremon Eochaid +||D: Tea Tephi ↲|
|↳ S: Irial Faidh, King ofErin|
[S: =son, D: =daughter]
After several more battles, Heremon and his brother assumed a joint sovereignty over the island; Heremon taking the northern half and Eber taking the southern half. A year later, the brothers quarreled and fought a battle, during which Eber was defeated and slain.
From this time on the House of Eber and the House of Heremon have been warring over kingship of the island.
Heremon became the sole king and reigned for 15 years.
Heremon Eochaid, grandson of the Egyptian Pharoah, married Tea Tepi, who is recorded as being alive in 580 BC. Tea Tepi was daughter of Zedekiah (619-587), King of Judah.
The Gael, like the Germans of the time, did not apply themselves to agriculture. Their principle wealth consisted of flocks and herds of cows, pigs, sheep and horses.
The various grades of society were bound together by ‘stock taking.’ At each level, the inferior social class paid food rents from their livestock to the higher.
And so the with the passing generations, the people known as the Gael became part of the island population of Erin.
|Irial Faidh||Of Munster, King of Erin, reigned 11 years, his son,|
|Eithriall||King of Erin, reigned 20 years and was slain at the Battle of Raeire.|
|Prince Follam||Whose son was,|
|Tighernmas||Was a very active monarch and continually at war. During his 50 year reign, he began smelting gold and Irish clothing was first dyed purple, blue and green. He died on Hallows Eve.|
|Prince Eanbotha||Did not rule, his son was,|
|Prince Smiorguil||Did not rule, his son was,|
|Fiachafn Labhruine||King of Erin, reigned 24 years and was slain in battle.|
|Aongus Oilbhuagach||King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain in the Battle of Bealgadan by Eochaidh Mumho of Munster.|
|Prince Maoin||Did not rule, his son was,|
|Rotheachta||King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain at Cruachain.|
|Prince Dein||Did not rule, his son was,|
|Siorna Saoghalach||King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain at Aillinn.|
|Prince Oliolla Olchaoin||Did not rule, his son was,|
|Giallchadh||King of Erin, reigned 9 years and was slain by Art Imleach.|
|Nuada Fionn Fail||King of Erin, reigned 28 years and was slain by Breas, a son of Art Imleach.|
|Simon Breac||King of Erin, reigned 6 years and was slain by Sedna Innaraigh.|
|Muriadhach Bolgrach||King of Erin, reigned 4 years and was slain by Enda Dearg.|
|Fiachadh Tolgrach||King of Ewrin, reigned 7 years and was felled by Oilioll.|
|Duach Laighrack||King of Erin, reigned 10 years and was slain by Lughaidh.|
|Prince Eochaidh Buillaig||Known as Echu the Victorious and father of Ugaine. He was said to have resided atTara; however, this is uncertain, because his name does not appear in any known series of the kings ofTara.|
|Ugaine More||King of Erin. Married Ceasir Chruthan, daughterof the King of the French. He reigned 30 years and was slain by his brother.|
|Cobhthach Caolbreag||King of Ewrin, reigned 4 years and was slain at Dinnrih.|
|Prince Meilage||Was felled at the Battle of Claire.|
|Jaram Gleofath||King of Erin, reigned 7 years and was slain.|
|Conla Cruaich Cealgach||King of Erin, reigned 4 years and died atTara.|
|Oiloilla Caisfhaichlach||King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain.|
|Eochaidh Foltleatham||King of Erin, reigned 11 years and was slain. He had two sons (at least), one was Aongus Tuirimbeach, who became king of Erin, reigned 30 years and died at Tara during the year 324 BC. The other son, our ancestor was ♥ Prince Labchore. (See below)|
Tara—The Royal Home
Tara was the fortified royal home of the Ard Ri (High King) of Erin, the ceremonial and administrative seat of ancient Gaelic royal power. The remains of Tara stand on the summit and down the sides of a gently sloping, round, grassy hill, 500 feet above sea level and 200 feet from the surrounding plains. The ruins are located 26 miles northwest of Dublin and 5-1/2 miles southeast of Navah, in Meath County, Ireland.
Tara is perhaps the most famous of Irish sites, with a history going back to the Second Millennium BC to the Bronze age, then forward to its abandonment in the 6th Century AD.
Under the Gael,Tara essentially the first national Irish capital. It was here that during the inauguration of the Ard Ri that a great feast was held, through the symbolism of the feast, the king was united with his land in a ritual marriage.
The structures which can still be seen are the ramparts or defenses that surrounded and protected the royal homes and civic structures; the wooden houses have long since disappeared.
Description of Tara
The principle fortification was Rath Righ, the oval shaped structure occupying the top of the hill. Being some 853 feet in diameter on the longest axis, it consisted of two walls, one of stone and one of earth, with a ditch in between.
A visitor to the Forrad during the time of Tara’s occupation wrote, “And in what was considered the highest point of the city the king had a fair and well built castle, and in that castle he had a hall, fair and spacious, and in that hall he was wont to sit in judgment”.
Also within the ramparts of Rath Righ, is Tech Cormac (Cormac’s house), home of the king that reigned 254-277 AD; this circular rath has an extreme diameter of 244 feet.
Near the northern periphery of Rath Righ is the 66 foot in diameter and 13 foot high “Mound of the Hostages”. In ancient times there was a timber house on the 25 foot diameter flat top of this mound, in which the hostages lived. In very early times, before it took the name Mound of Hostages, it had been a prehistoric “passage grave”.
Also on the periphery of Rath Righ is a worn down 40 foot in diameter and 6 foot high “mound of the cow”, which history tells us was the grave of a celebrated, legendary cow.
To the north of Rath Righ as the Rath of Synods. Three great Christian synods are recorded as having occurred here; 1) When St. Patrick preached at this location in 433 AD, 2) When St. Ruadan pronounced the curse which caused Tara to be abandoned and 3) in 697 when Adamnan procured acceptance for the law exempting women from taking part in battles.
Outside of Rath Righ, on the north slope of the hill are the remains of the Banqueting Hall. This consists of two parallel mounds, the remnants of the side walls of the old hall, which was over 759 feet long and 46 feet wide. This banquet and convention hall was a great timber building standing 45 or more feet high and having 12 doors, it was ornamented, had carvings and was painted in a variety of colors. The interior was subdivided, with compartments partitioned off to accommodate guests according to rank and dignity. At banquets, the great company of guests were seated in exact order of dignity and priority.
The great conventions at Tarawere intended to be held every third year, but are thought to have been held less frequently. When a convention was held, provincial kings, minor kings and chiefs and the most distinguished representatives of the learned professions of law, history, poetry, medicine, etc. attended. The conventions, which also included feasts and games started about October 28 and lasted for two to four weeks and occasionally as long as six weeks. During the convention, the Provincial kings had separate houses for themselves and their retinue; there was one house with separate compartments for queens and attendant ladies. There was another house for the poets and professionals, in which they held their “sittings”.
Every day the Ard Ri feasted with his company in the great banqueting hall. The hall was also used for transactions of important business, such as making new regulations for the whole country and examining and checking the kingdoms historical records. These functions were performed by experts.
West of the Banqueting Hall is Rath Caelchon, named after a chief ofMunster, a contemporary of Corme MacArt. Caelchon died at Tara and the rath was built in commemoration of him.
The 258 foot in diameter, Rath Graine received it’s name from Princess Grainne who, according to legend, eloped with a lieutenant in her fathers army. In the location where Rat Grainne was built, there was a marsh whose water derived from Tober Well. The marsh was drained and dried prior to construction of Rath Grainne and the Fothad of Rath Grainne. South of Rath Righ is Rath Laegaire (Rath Laery), being some 300 feet in diameter, it is surrounded by two great ramparts.
West of Rath Righ is Laegh well, which signifies “calf” (calf well) the well is now dried up.
The houses of the general body of the people who lived near Tara were scattered on the slope and over the plains east of the hill.
Tara was home to many of our Gaelic ancestors. Now, over 2,000 years later, we view this home and ancient town site through photographs taken several thousand feet above where they once walked loved, slept and transacted the important business of the day. They could not have conceived of a technology which produced the cameras and aircraft that made the photographs possible. Did Conla Cruaich Cealgach ever look up through the space that would one day be the flight path of an aircraft taking photographs of his Tara? Did he feel a nebulous swirl of his descendants as they began to dimly see back through time, into his world?
Continuing the Genealogical Line of Descent
The following list compares the names of our ancestors between Ugaine More and Eochaidh Foltleatham (from the above pedigree) both in their Ango-Gaelic and Latinized versions.
|Anglo-Gaelic Version||Latinized Version|
|Ugaine More||Ugaine Mor|
|Cobhthach Caolbreag||Cobthaig Coelbreg|
|Conla Cruaich Cealgach||Conlaich|
|Oiloilla Caisfhaichlach||Elela Casiaclaig|
|Eochaidh Foltleatham (name version in preceeding list)||Echachaltlechin (name version found in the following list)|
This genealogical table continues the pedigree with Latinized spellings from a 14th Century Codex known as, The Poppleton Manuscript.
|Echachaltlechin||Father of||↱||Rothir||Father of||↱||Luigdig||Father of|
|Arandil||“||Corpe Crumpchimi||“||Fedilinthe Aislingig||“|
|Echach Muinremuir||(see below)|
In the Third Century AD, a great famine developed in the province of Munster, Erin. During this time, a man named Cairbre Riada, son of Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, led a party of is tribe to the north of Antrim (located in NE Erin) and another across the sea to Alba (Scotland).
The party landing in Alba used force of arms to obtain a settlement amongst the Pics. The people of this new settlement retained the name of their founding father and were called the Dal Riata of Alban, those which remained in North Antrim were known as the Dal Riata of Erin.
The Dal Riata of Erin lived in a territory roughly 15 miles by 30 miles in size. This territory was located on the NE seaboard of Erin, bordered by the sea on the north and east, by the Bush River on the west and the territory of Lathatna on the south.
And the decades passed…
Pedigree continued from previous list
|Eochaid Munremor||Son of Oengusahir of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, Erin. His son was Erc.|
|Erc||Of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, had three sons: Fergus, Loarn and Oengus. These sons and their extended families sailed across theNorth Channel to Alban and reinforced the settlement of the Dal Riata in a territory which had become known as Argyll.|
|Fergus Mar||Tradition says that Fergus and his 11 brothers were visited in their Irish home and blessed by St. Patrick. Fergus is the first of the royal line of Dal Riata to settle in Alban (Scotland) and is thought to be the first to adopt the Christian faith. He became chieftain of Argyll. His son was Domngart, see below.|
|Domngart||Sonof Fergus Mar. Was known to have flourished in the year 506 AD. Was chieftain of the Dal Riata in Argyll. Later in life he withdrew from the chieftainship and died in religion.|
|Gabran||Is remembered for his military expedition far to the east of Argyll, deep into Pict territory. He died about 558 AD, during the same year that his army withdrew from the land of the Picts. Having secured a position in Alban, the descendants of the Gael then reinforced and strengthened this position and finally began to expand. This was a similar multi generation, unplanned ‘strategy’ followed by the Saxons entering Briton (500AD+), the Vikings (700AD +) gaining Normandy from France, the English colonists (more Norman descendants) on the North American seaboard (1600AD +).|
|Aedan||Aedan was the first ruler of Argyll who manifested real ability and character. In 575 AD, he and St. Columba attended a convention in Drumnceat, during which the King of Erin agreed to recognize the independence of the Scottish Dal Riata and its princes. This friendly settlement and the peace which it secured resulted in an annual celebration and public procession of thanksgiving which was held every year at Drumncest down to 1646 . Aedan was ordained king by St. Columba, where upon the family line rose to become independent sovereigns. He reigned 31 years, withdrew from office about 607 and retired to religion. He died at the monastery in Kintyre during the year 608.|
|Eochaid Bunde (Eugene III)||Although he was one of Aedans younger sons, he succeeded his father to the throne. He reigned as king of Argyll for 21 years, from 607-628 AD.|
|Domnall Brecc (Donald)||Was king of Argyll from 636-642. He was apparently trying to attack a British hill site at Strathc, south of the Forth, when he was defeated and killed in battle during or about 642AD.|
|Domangart (Dongard)||Was the sole King of Argyll from 659-672. He was killed in 672, possibly in an incident during the long drawn out warfare between Aedans descendants and the family of Gartnait of Skye Isl. During the later part of the 7th Century, a military census was taken in Argyll which showed the expansion of the descendants of Erin (of those who hadmigrated to the Alban settlement of the Dal Riata inScotland. See below.)|
Military Census of Erc’s descendants in Alban during the late 7th Century
|Fergus -> Gabran||560||1490|
|Eochaid (Eugene IV)||Domangart’s son, Eochaid seems to have become king in about 695, but lost his life a year later.|
|Eochaid (Eugene V)||Upon death of Eugene IV, a man named Ferchar Foda ascended to the throne and ruled a few months. He was followed by Selbah, who ruled until 723 AD. Selback’s son Dungal became king and ruled 3 years before being outsted. In about 726, Eugene V, who was over 30 years old began to rule. With his ascension to the kingship, the Dal Riata returned to rule by the old family line. In 727, the ex king, Selback came out of retirement and fought Eugene V in an inconclusive battle. Eugene V died in the year 733 AD.|
|Aed Find (Ethafind)||Is thought to have been very young when his father died, since he is not heard of until 768. He died in 778 AD and was credited with a reign of 33 years, which means if true, that he ascended to the throne in 748. Aed Find was famous for the Dal Riata assemblies held during his reign, which possibly instituted legal reforms.|
|Prince Eochaid||Son of Aed Find and father of Alpin.|
|Alpin -The Scott||Was involved in aggressive warfare inGalloway where he died fighting the Picts. His son was, Kenneth Macalpin.|
Kenneth was regarded as having been a brave and able prince. His pedigree derived him from the Dal Riata of NE Ireland, through a line of kings in the west of Scotland for more than 300 years. He succeeded his father to the throne in 839 and was king of Argyll for two years. Also in 839, the Norsemen invaded and defeated the Picts. This afforded Kenneth the opportunity to obtain the Pictish throne, which he held in conjunction with the crown of Argyll for another 14 years. His kingdom then included the districts of Argyll and counties of Perth, Fife, parts of Forgar, Dumbaryon and Stirling, with Sconeas the chief seat of royalty.
Before about 1100 AD, the kingship was referred to as “King of the Albans”, after about 1100 AD the kingdom began to be referred to as Scotland.
Kenneth had two sons and three daughters; we are descended from his son, Constantin.
Kenneth is remembered as the destroyer of the Picts and founder of the Scottish dynasty. He died in his dun at Fortevoit on the Earn River in he year 860 AD.
Constantin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 860. He soon found himself face to face with the Norsemen. The Norse invasion of northern Alban had increased in intensity. The invaders were entering the inland areas by the multitude of coastal inlets, as they moved they ransacked everything looking for treasure, they killed the inhabitants and carried off others as slaves. Their invasions, which inflicted much suffering and confusion on the Picts, now fell on the Dal Riata.
In 877 the Norsemen invaded the country in force, entered Fife. Defeated the Dal Riata and pursued them through the country. At Inverdovet, in parish Forgan, the Dal Riata made a stand, but were completely defeated. Constatnin along with many of his followers were slain.
Donald ascend to the kingship in 889 AD. He too was forced to contend with the invasions and brigandry of the Norse, who had by this time gained possession ofCaithness, Sutherland and Ross. Donald was killed in battle in 900 AD while fighting the Norse at Dunnotter in Kincardineshire.
A few years later, in 904, King Constantin II (not our line) lead an army in an attack against the Norse at Strathern, where the Norse were defeated and their leader killed.
Upon retirement of Constantin II in 943 AD, Malcolm I, the 43+ year old son of Donald II ascended to the throne. He was a bold man and attempted to extend his power beyond the SpeyRiver, but failed. He gained territory in the region south of the Forth River, which was at the time in a state approaching disintegration. Malcolm I reigned 11 years before being slain at Fetteresso, in Kincardeshire about 954.
After Malcolm I death, a man named Indulf, son of Constantin II (not in our line) ascended to the throne where he reigned for 8 years before dying. After the death of Indulf, a contest for the crown broke out. On one side was Duff, son of Malcolm I, on the other side was Colin, son of Indulf. In a battle for the throne, Duff defeated Colin, but two years later Colin expelled Duff. Duff died shortly thereafter and Colin ended up being slain by the Britons in 971.
During the same year (971), Kenneth II, another son of Malcolm I (from which this pedigree continues) ascended to the throne.
Kenneth II immediately proceeded to throw up entrenchment’s at fordable points along the Forth River to defend against invasions from the south. He attacked the Britons at Strathclyde, then turned and launched two invasions into Northumberland.
Under his monarchy, the kingdom was slowly extended south in every direction. Meanwhile under the influence of the Church and due to other attracting affinities, the northern tribes were silently becoming a nation.
After reigning 24 years, Kenneth II was slain at Fettercairn in Kincardinshire in 995 AD.
Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II ascended to the Kingship in 1005. He began his reign by invading Northumberland but was defeated and many of his followers were slain.
Years later, in 1018, he again attacked Northumberland, and defeated their army at Tweed. Through this victory he gained Lothian and all of the territory north of Tweed River for the kingdom. Also during his reign and without serious conflict, he incorporated the kingdom of Strathclyde into the realm.
In 1031 the great Dane, Cnut, having conquered England, turned northward and met Malcolm on the boarder of their domains. Malcolm submitted to Cnut, but after Cnut’s army withdrew, Malcolms oath of allegiance dissolved. Malcolm II reigned 29 years before being assassinated on25 November 1034.
Bethoc, also known as Beatrix, was the daughter of Malcolm II and his third wife Aelguifu. Bethoc marries Crinan the Thane, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld and Lord of the Isle. Their children were Maldred and Duncan I. Son Maldred married Edith, daughter of Ughtred, Earl of Northumberland and his wife Elgiva, daughter of Aethelred II, King of England. Bethoc’s husband Crinan was slain in battle with King Macbeth in 1045, a tale which will come to light in the preceding life story of Duncan I.
Duncan ascended to the throne of Alban in 1034. He married Maud, daughter of Siward, Earl of Northunberland, who was in turn related across the generations to the Saxon line to Alfred the Great..
Duncan and Maud had four children, of whom we are descended from Malcolm III Canmore. Duncanwas a very able man, but when he ventured beyond the Spey River, his cousins, the Earl of Thorfinn and Macbeth, joined forces against him. (Macbeth was descended from Ferchar Foda), an earlier king of the Dal Riata, and thus related to the royal line. The combined forces of Duncan’s cousins were too great for his army and after a severe struggle, Duncan was slain by Macbeth near Elginin 1040 AD.
With the death of Duncan I, Macbeth claimed the throne. In 1045, Crinan, father of the late Duncan, mustered all of his followers and the opponents of Macbeth and attempted to drive him from the throne. A great battle ensued during which time Crinan was killed. To Macbeth, the crown must have now seemed more secure. However, the late King Duncan had left a wife and two sons. Duncan’s wife Maud, had the support of her father, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Siward, in an attempt to put his grandsons on the throne, mustered a large army and naval force. King Macbeth was driven north to the hill fort Dunsinnane where there occurred a severe, but inconclusive battle. Earl Siward returned home with his army.
Malcolm III Canmore (Ceann Mor=Big Head) was heir apparent and son of Duncan I.
Because of his grandfathers (Siward) campaign against King Macbeth, Prince Malcolm III gained possession of the territory between the Forth and Tweed Rivers. After gaining the support of his people, Malcolm rallied an army and met Macbeth beyond the River Dee on 15 August 1057, where Macbeth was defeated and slain.
The apparently very capable Macbeth was weakened by the effects of time and the single-minded attacks made against him. Although he was victorious in battles #1 and #2 against Duncan and Crinan, in preparing for battle #3, he was forced to flee to a fortified position and fight a defensive, inconclusive battle. With the forces that provided his continued strength weakened over time, he was then defeated and slain in the forth battle. Check…check…check…checkmate.
In 1058, Malcolm III ascended to the kinship of the Scots. At this time, Malcolm ruled bands of marauding warriors and a brutish peasantry. The people lived by barter and booty; their homes were of earth and timber behind defensive palisades.
Earlier in his life, during Macbeth’s rule, Malcolm III lived in the Anglo-Saxon royal court in Britain. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he returned the hospitality by giving sanctuary to the previously exiled royal family of the late Prince Edward the Exile, whose children were Edgar the Aetheling, Margaret and Christine.
In 1069, Malcolm married the exiled, Princess Margaret.
Malcolm was a brutal opportunist, ruthless, powerful and an intelligent warrior. He established a dynasty that forged a feudal state along the western European lines out of a northern Celtic tribal kingdom. He introduced the Motte-and-Baily Castle into Scotland from the Anglo- Saxon lands and adopted the efficient Norman military tactics.
Margaret was an excellent wife and had a large family by the King. Her influence over her husband and the people of Scotlandwere great. She softened and polished Malcolm’’ manners and taught him many important things. She was an accomplished Princess and a very religious woman. Dunfermline was her favorite place of residence and it was here that she had a hand in establishing a Benedictine monastery. She was devoted to St. Andrews, patron saint of Scotland and, established the Queensferry for pilgrims to cross the ForthRiver. She and Malcolm built St. Columbas monastery and church on the Isle of Iona.
In November 1093, Malcolm died while fighting at Alnwich Castle in Northumberland.
Margaret is reported to have died three days later, after hearing of the death of her husband and eldest son, on 16 November 1093. In her last words, she was thanking God for sending such tragedies to strengthen her soul.
Margaret’s saintliness was recognized and she was canonized in 1251 AD, she is now remembered as St. Margaret of Scotland.
With the children of Malcolm III and Margaret, the pedigree splits taking different family names only to rejoin generations later.
Henry, Prince of Scotland
In 1139 Prince Henry married Ada de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, who was a grandson of William the Conqueror, and Elizabeth de Vermandois, who was granddaughter of Henry I, King of France and his wife, Anne of Russia. Their daughter was Margaret.
Daughter of Prince Henry and Ada de Warenne, married 1) Conan IV, Duke of Britany and 2) Humphrey de Bohun IV, Earl of Hereford. Margaret and Hunphrey’’ son was Henry de Bohun, a Surety for the Magna Charta of King John. Several generations later this line produced Humphrey de Bohun VIII, who married Princess Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England. Humphrey VIII and Isabella’ great-grand daughter was Alinore de Bohun, who married Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III, king of England.
|Richard the Fearless, Duke of
|Malcolm I ↓||Alfred the Great +
|Richard the Good II ↓||Kenneth II ↓||Edward the Elder + ↓||(3) Lady Eadgifu|
|Robert I, 6th Duke of
|Malcolm II +
| (also, gens later)
|William the Conqueror ↓||Henry I, King of France +||Anne ofRussia||Bethoc ↲ +||Crinan the Thane||Siward ↲|
|(to grandson) ↓||(to granddaughter) ↓||↳ Duncan I +||Maude||↳ Edward the Exile ↓|
|William de Warenne + ↓||Elizabeth de Vermandois||↳ Malcolm III +||(2) Margaret|
|Matilda De Huntington +||St. David ↙ (son of Malcolm III & Margaret)||(2) William de Albini ↓||+ Matilda ↓ +of Scotland||(1) Henry I King ofEngland|
|(generations ↓ later)||↳ Ada de Warenne +||Prince Henry↲ of Scotland||Descendants ↓ became Fitz-Albans||Matilda the ↓ + Empress||Geoffrey Plantagenet|
|(This line ↓ descends to Richard Warren, one of my 1620 AD Mayflower ancestors.||Margaret ↲ +||(2) Humphrey de Bohun IV ↓||Henry II King of England +
|Eleanor of Aquitaine|
|John ↓ +King ofEngland||Isabelle ofAngouleme|
|↳ Henry de Bohun (Magna Charte Surety)||Henry III ↲ King of England +||Eleanor of Provence|
|(generations later) ↓||Edward I ↲ King of England +||Isabel of Castile|
|Humphrey de Bohun VIII +||Isabella ↲|
|(generations later) ↓|
|From this –> generation on, see post: Royal Grace to frontier colonist
||Alinore De Bohun +||Thomas of Woodstock (son of Edward III, King of England) ↓|
|(generations later) ↓|
|Richard Sears, 1630AD immigrant to
 The name, Erin, comes from the root which signifies fat, fruitful and perhaps with a special reference to the fertility of Irish pastures.
 Reference sources for the Irish and Scottish pedigree and historical accounts.
- The History of Ireland to the Coming of Henry II, by Authur Ua Clerigh, first publ. 1910, reissued 1970, Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY.
- A Social History of Ancient Ireland, Vol II, by P.W. Joyce, first publ. 1913 and reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, NY.
- The Hisory of Civilizatioin in Scotland, Vol I, © 1892 by John MacKintosh, Publ. by Alexander Gardner,London,Eng.
- Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
- The Scottish World © 1981 by Harry N. Abrams, Inc, NY.
 In my time, of the late 20th. Century, there are no Kings in Ireland, but northern and southern Ireland are in a state of guerilla warfare, ostensibly with religious and political differences. England has been trying to suppress the fighting, assassinations and terrorism.
 It was the duty of the High Kings of the Gael not only to command their armies in person, but to fight in the forefront of the battle, which explains why so many kings perished by the sword.
 Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
 Ibid. Ms. Anderson’s source for the list was the 14th Century Codex known as The Poppleton Manuscript. [Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms Latin 4126]
 1646 AD was the date given by the historian, Colgan, who lived in the 1600s.
 For further information regarding the Dane invasion and conquest ofEngland, and it’s effect on our family line, see the Saxon Line, in particular Aethelred II, Edmund Ironside and Edward the Exile.