Water

(Survival manual/3. Food & Water/Water)

The Rules of 3:
In any survival situation, prioritize your activities to protect yourself from the closest, most pressing element in the Rules of Three. If you are in an area with extreme temps seek to protect your core temp then look for water, if you have adequate temps/shelter and water, look for food…

Rules of Three table

3 minutes You can only live about 3 minutes without air/breathing.
3 hours You can live only about 3 hours exposed and unprotected to extreme temperatures. Hyperthermia (body core rises to about 103F-106F, and usually is slower to kill). Hypothemia  (body core declines to 87F-90F, can occur quickly if the body/clothing is wet freezing rain or submersion, then exposed to freezing or near freezing air temperatures).
3 days You can only live about 3 days without safe water.
3 weeks You can live only about 3 weeks without food.
3 months Death may follow without socialization after about 3 months.
3 years Apathy/Disinterested: May only live 3 years without an interest or goal in life

WATER

 Water should be one of your top priorities  in a survival situation, as a lack of water causes dehydration, lethargy,  dizziness, headaches, confusion, and ultimately death. Even mild dehydration  makes a survival situation even more difficult, as it reduces endurance and  impairs concentration.

Symptoms of Dehydration
a)  In the early  stages of dehydration, there are no signs or symptoms; early features are  difficult to detect, but include dryness of mouth and thirst.
b)  As dehydration increases, signs and symptoms  develop, including: thirst, restless or irritable behavior, decreased skin torpor,  dry mucous membranes, sunken eyes, and absence of tears when crying vigorously.
c)  The negative impact of dehydration saps your energy and  makes you feel fatigued. Studies  show a  rapid acceleration of this effect. At just 2% dehydration, the levels of  physical performance can decline by 5 – 10%; while at 4% or more dehydration,  the levels of physical performance can decrease by 20 – 40%. Researchers  reported that test subjects showed a decline in mental alertness, arithmetic  ability, visual perception, short-term memory and reasoning ability. These   effects were often accompanied by increased tiredness and headaches.
d)  The  message is clear. In order to prevent a reduction or decline in your mental  performance or levels of concentration, you must try to drink  enough water throughout the day. Concentration and mental performance which are very  important in your everyday life are even more so  in a survival situation. If you expect to be  efficient,  productive and stay alive in  a fearful, disorienting situation, you need to make sure your mental  performance is unaffected by dehydration. Water is vitally important in keeping  you properly hydrated for this purpose.

Symptoms of early or mild dehydration  include:
–  flushed face
–  extreme thirst, more
–  than normal or unable to drink
–  dry, warm skin
–  cannot pass urine or  reduced amounts, dark, yellow
–  dizziness made worse when you are standing
–  weakness
–  cramping in the arms  and legs
–  crying with few or no tears
–  sleepy or irritable
–  unwell
–  headaches
–  dry mouth, dry
–  tongue; with thick saliva
–  Another surprising thing about dehydration is one of the most common
symptoms – not feeling thirsty in the first place.

Some Water facts:
–  75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated. (This  probably applies to most of the world’s
population.)
–  The thirst mechanism is often so weak in the  chronically dehydrated that it is often mistaken for hunger.
–  Even MILD dehydration will slow down one’s metabolism  as much as 3% (this doesn’t sound like much but this is very significant).
–  A University of Washington study discovered that a  single glass of water eliminated midnight hunger pangs for almost 100% of  dieters taking part in a study.
–  Lack of water is the number one cause of daytime fatigue.
–  A mere 2% drop in body water can affect mental alertness and tolerance for physical activity
–  Drinking 5 glasses of water daily decreases the risk of colon cancer by 45%, reduces the risk of breast cancer by 79%, reduces the risk of bladder cancer by up to 50%.

Drinking water in an urban survival situation
If the water went off tonight, what kind of  plans do you have in place? As with everything else in your survival plans, your  water supply should be broken down into 3 phases: a short term, medium term,
and long term solution.
Short Term – this is your  bottled water. Most people have a couple cases of bottled water on hand . On a trip to the grocery store most people buy a case  or two of bottled water for guests or parties.  Some survivalist stockpile water in 35 or  55 gallon drums.
If the municipal water fails, your bottled and  stockpiled water will be used first. Bottled water is convenient, you just un-screw the top of  the bottle and the water is ready to drink. Most people like to take the easy  way out, and bottled water is about as easy as it gets.
Medium Term – this level relates to your water filters, which may include Berkey, a Katadyn Base Camp unit, or a  lightweight backpacking water filter, ie., McNett Aquamira Frontier Pro  Ultralight Water Filter or similar. Sooner or later, the filter is going to  reach its lifespan, and that is it.
Long term – means a private water well  or a bulk storage system. This could include water wells on farms, or rural  water wells where people do not get city water.
Now that we are past the three layers of  water preps,  “Where do you get extended water supplies in an  urban survival situation? Answer: local ponds, streams,  creeks, rivers, lakes, rain fall collection, ditches, bayous…

Where I live, there is a  small wooded area with a small pond.  Using my bicycle  I could ride the two mile round trip to  the pond, use a 5 gallon water container to retrieve the water, bring it back home and  run it through my Berkey water filter. It is only a few hundred feet to a normally dry stream bed  that flows for several days after every 1/2 inch+ rain.

River water – Another example, a river could be just a  few miles from your house.  Using a bicycle you could cycle to the river,  bring a five gallon container (42 lbs. filled), collect the water from the river, cycle  back home and run the water through a filter.

Rain water – Once my 65 gallon ‘rain water  storage drums’ run out of water, they could be positioned under the down spout  of a rain gutter.  But this only works if you live in an area that receives rain fall  every few weeks.  If you do not have rain barrels, use clean, lined trash  cans, or five gallon buckets.  If nothing else, refill those water  bottles that were used when the event first started.

WATERBOURNE DISEASES

As sewers fill and start to back up, people will begin doing their “business” outdoors.  The problem here, is when an area receives rain, the sewage will be washed  off and into the local streams and ponds.

Some waterborne  diseases are:

Cryptosporidium Dysentery
Giardiasis Legionellosis – Legionnaires disease and  Pontiac fever
Shigella Salmonellosis – Salmonella (mostly  foodborne)
E. Coli Hepatitis A – food and waterborne
*See symptoms and treatment for waterborne  diseases in Medical/Disease/Waterborne disease

Pathogens  from the following 4 categories  might be found lurking in waters from lakes, rivers and streams inside the U.S.
1)  Protozoa and cysts (Cryptosporidium parvum,  Giardia lamblia). Single-cell parasites; tiny (between 1 and 20 microns. A  micron is 1-millionth of a meter, or 0.00004 inch. The period at the end of  this sentence is roughly 500 microns.)
2)  Bacteria (Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, and many others). Very tiny (0.1  to 10 microns).
3)  Viruses (hepatitis A, rotavirus, enterovirus, norovirus). Exceptionally  tiny (0.005 to 0.1 micron). Caused by human waste.
4)  Occassionally, Parasitic  worms. (which are macroscopic in size and easily filtered out)

MUNICIPAL WATER STORAGE GUIDELINES

If  you choose to package water yourself, use the following guidelines:
Containers
– Use only food-grade  containers. Smaller containers made of PETE plastic or heavier plastic buckets or drums work well.
–  Clean, sanitize, and  thoroughly rinse all containers prior to use. A sanitizing solution can
be prepared by adding 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of liquid Clorox or other Household  Chlorine Bleach (5- 6% sodium hypochlorite) to one quart water. Only household  bleach without thickeners, scents, or additives should be used.
–  Do not use plastic milk  jugs, because they do not seal well and tend to become brittle over time.
–  Do not use containers previously used to store non-food products.

Water Pretreatment
If for near term use (few months), water from a chlorinated municipal water supply does not need further  treatment when stored in clean, food-grade containers.
Non-chlorinated water should be treated with household bleach, as follows: Add 1/8 teaspoon (8 drops)  liquid household chlorine bleach (5 to 6% sodium hypochlorite) per gallon (4 liters)  water being treated. Only  household bleach without thickeners, scents, or additives should be used.

Storage
–  Containers should be  emptied and refilled regularly.
–  Store water only where  potential leakage would not damage your home or apartment.
–  Protect stored water from  light and heat. Some containers may also require protection from freezing.
–  The taste of stored water can be improved by pouring it back and forth (causes aeration) between two
containers a few times before drinking.
–  For long term storage of 1 year, use household bleach to treat tap water from municipal sources. Add bleach at 1 teaspoon per 10 gallons to ensure the water  remains drinkable. Rotate the water in storage tanks annually.

PURIFICATION OF NON MUNICIPAL WATER

A.   Boiling
Boiling  is the safest and best method for purifying  running water that you’ve gathered from natural sources; it kills all the organisms in the water. It doesn’t require  any chemicals, or expensive equipment — all you need is a large pot and a good  fire or similar heat source.
–  Cloudy water should be  filtered before boiling, or add bleach. Filter the water using coffee filters,  paper towels, cheese cloth or a cotton plug in a funnel.
–  Cover the container and  bring the water to a rolling boil for one minute. Allow the water to cool with  the cover on, which further helps to disinfect the water. Boiling kills common  harmful bacteria such as Guardia and Cryptosporidium; however, this process will not remove foreign contaminants such as radiation or heavy metals.  Let the water cool before drinking.

While you may think any water will do in a  pinch, water that is not purified may make you sick, possibly even killing you.  In a survival situation, with little or no medical attention available, you  need to remain as healthy as possible. And a bad case of the runs is terribly  uncomfortable in the best of times!

B.  Pasteurization
Pasteurization kills only those organisms that cause harm to humans. The process involves heating
water to 149F for 6 to 20 minutes, or to a higher temperature for a shorter time. Cover the container while heating and allow it to cool with the cover in place, which further disinfects the water.

It has been known since the late 1880s, when Louis Pasteur conducted groundbreaking research on bacteria, that heat can kill pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes. Most people know contaminated water can be made safe by boiling. What is not well known is that contaminated water can be pasteurized at temperatures well below boiling, as can milk, which is commonly pasteurized at 71°C (160°F) for 15 seconds.

The chart below indicates the temperatures at which the most common waterborne pathogens are rapidly killed, thus resulting in at least 90 percent of the microbes becoming inactivated in one minute at the given temperature. (The 90 percent reduction is an indicator frequently used to express the heat sensitivity of various microbes.) Thus, five minutes at this temperature would cause at least a 99.999 percent (5 Log) reduction in viable microbes capable of causing disease.

Pasteurization temperatures

                                      Microbe                                                    Killed Rapidly At

  • Worms, Protozoa cysts: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba….…….… 131°F (55°C)
  • Bacteria: V. cholerae, E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella typhi; Rotovirus……140°F (60°C)
  • Virus, Hepatitis A………………………………………………………………..149°F (65°C)

Significant inactivation of these microbes actually starts at about 9°F (5°C ) below these temperatures, although it may take a couple of minutes at the lower temperature to obtain 90 percent inactivation.

C.   Distillation
The process involves boiling water and then collecting only the vapor that condenses. The condensed vapor will not include salt or most other impurities. To distill, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to
the handle on the pot’s lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.
Supplies Needed:
–  Large stockpot with lid
–  Small roasting pan rack
–  Potholders
–  Water
–  Glass bowl
–  Air tight containers

Step 1 – Preparation
First, place the small roasting pan rack  in the bottom of your stockpot. This is done to keep the bowl off of the bottom  of stock pot and above the water line. Next fill your stockpot with water  from your sink, but not so deep that it will spill over into your bowl when sitting on the rack. An inch or so below the top of the bowl will be sufficient. Place the bowl in the pot. Be sure that when you place your bowl in the pot it does not become immersed. Cover with the lid and you are ready to boil the water.

Step 2 – Boil
Turn on the stove on high and allow the water to come to a boil. Carefully check after a few minutes to be sure the steam is catching on the underside of the lid and dripping in the bowl. The lid must be tight for this to work. Continue to boil the water until your bowl has caught enough steam to bottle. Do not allow the pot to completely boil dry. You now have distilled water.

Step 3 – Cool and Bottle
The water will be very hot, and it is best to allow the pot and bowl to cool for easier handling.
Carefully remove the bowl of distilled water using potholders to be sure you don’t get burned. Pour into airtight containers for storage.
Read more: <http://www.doityourself.com/stry/how-to-distill-water-in-3-steps#ixzz1Gy06gIdI>

D.   Chlorination
Purify the water by adding liquid household chlorine bleach, ie, Clorox.
–  If boiling is not possible, treat water by adding liquid household bleach, such as Clorox or Purex.
Household bleach which is typically between 5-6% chlorine. Avoid using bleaches that contain perfumes, dyes and other additives. Be sure to read the label.
–  Place the water (filtered, if necessary) in a clean container. Add the amount of bleach according to the table below.
–  Mix thoroughly and allow to stand for at least 30 minutes before using (60 minutes if the water is cloudy or very cold).

Treating Water with a 5-6 Percent Household Liquid Chlorine Bleach Solution   

Volume of Water to be Treated Treating Long Term Municipal or Well Water:Bleach Solution to Add Treating Cloudy, Very Cold, or Surface Water:Bleach Solution to Add
1 quart/1 liter 3 drops 5 drops
1/2 gallon/2 quarts/2 liters 5 drops 10 drops
1 gallon 1/8 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon
5 gallons 1/2 teaspoon 1 teaspoon
10 gallons 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons
57 gallons (rain water tank) 5.7 teaspoons 11.4 teaspoons
Conversions: 3 tsp=1 tbsp;   12 tsp=1/4 cup;   4 tbsp=1/4 cup.1/8 cup household bleach  will maintain long term purity in 60 gal. water. ¼ cup will kill pathogens  in 60 gal. filtered surface water even if cloudy and/or very cold.1 quart household bleach  will purify about 1000 gallons of filtered surface water.


E.   Commercial filters for Camping and Emergency
Outside of boiling polluted water, commercial purification/filter devices made by companies such as Berkey, PUR or Katadyn are the best choices for treatment.
Probably the best filtering devices for survival retreats are the model where you pour water into the top and allow it to slowly seep through the media into  a reservoir on the bottom. No pumping is required.

According to the EPA there are two definitions for devices removing contaminants from water: A ‘Filter’ is referred to as a 4 Log device removing 99.99% of contaminant, while a Purifier
is a Log 7 device removing 99.99999% of contaminants.  A Log 4 filter is probably sufficient for many
conditions.

Portable filters currently on the market will provide various degrees of protection against microbes, but are generally meant to be used in conjunction with other forms of disinfection for greatest protection from pathogens.

1.  Group water filter: For small groups or just lots of water, the Katadyn® Base Camp water filter offers gravity-fed water filtration. Description:

  • 2.6 gallon water bag with roll-top and side-release buckle, closure fills quickly and hangs easily, produces up to 2.5 gallons of treated water in 15 minutes. Delivers approximately 16 oz./minute, includes a 48 inch Outlet Hose, On/Off Output Hose Valve.
  • Fill the filter from a bucket or other vessel instead of trying to use the filter bag itself to retrieve water from your source.
  • AntiClog Technology: 129 square inches of pleated 0.3  micron glass fiber media gives higher water output, and less frequent cleaning.
  • Pleated glass fiber element removes bacteria, protozoa and cysts from the drinking water; including Salmonella, Colibacillosis, Vibrio cholera, Amoeba, Schistosoma (Bilharziasis), Giardia, Cryptosporidium
  • Active Carbon Core: reduces chemicals, pesticides, unpleasant tastes, and odor from water
  • Cartridge Capacity: 200 gallons (750 liters) depending on  water quality (use of filter protector will extend cartridge life)
  • Long 48-inch output hose with on/off valve controls and  directs flow of filtered water where you need it. Hang the water bag/filter as high as possible (6 ft) and collect purified water from as low as possible below the filter to maximize the water pressure through the filter.
  • If the flow rate starts to slow down, put a liter of clean water in the bag, shake it around and dump it out to rinse the filter and pre filter from silt and debris.
  • http://www.practicaloutdoors.com/files/finalreport.pdf (pg 248)

The Katadyn Base Camp filter provides the following protection:  >6 Log against bacteria, None against virus, 3 Log against Giardia cysts and 3 Log against Cryptosporidium oocysts.  While this is a good filter, the cleaned water should be additionally treated  chemically or by boiling to achieve purity.

2.   Household water filter
Specifications of the PUR 2-Stage Cartridge Water Filter (set in the refrigerator),  only a 3 Log device (99.9%).
Pur 2-Stage Dispenser DS-1800. The PuR 2 Stage Water Dispenser provides dual filtration using a two-step process. The first step reduces lead, copper, chlorine, sediment, chemicals linked to cancer (TTHMs, Benzine), bad taste and odor. The second step uses a Pleated Microfilter that removes
99.9% microbiological cysts, cryptosporidium and Guardia. It reduces cadmium, cryptosporidium, Guardia, lead, mercury, asbestos, copper, zinc, and sediment 96 to 99.9 percent; plus lessening
chlorine levels and discoloration. PUR’s filters are made with activated carbon to reduce chlorine and sediment, and include an ion-exchange resin that helps eliminate lead and copper. For best results, filters should be changed every 40 gallons. While PUR filters rid water of many chemicals, coloration, and bad flavors, they do not soften water or remove fluoride.

Because the PUR dispenser is not large and the filter is only a 3 Log device (99.9% microbe removal rate),  in a survival situation you would need to prefilter contaminated water, possibly with a coffee filter, then purify the pre-filtered water with household bleach– prior to pouring it into the PUR
dispenser for its final filtration. The steps would be: collect polluted water, run it through a coffee filter, purify with household bleach (see water treatment table above), then pour into the PUR dispenser–then pour it into your Berkey! :-)

Remember, given the opportunity, and for  the  safest drinking water, you should  pre-filter and  purify all your collected water — prior to using a commercial water filter. ‘Bulk’ purification can include boiling or chlorination.  You don’t want to become ill with vomiting and diahhrea (norovirus induced stomach flu), or contract some other waterborne disease then either be unable to travel or know there is no medical attention available during a survival situation.

2. Household Water Purifier
Berkey water filters-  
My ‘Royal Berkey model’ is a 9-1/2 inch diameter by 24” tall, stainless steel two part, covered cylindar which stores 3 gallons water. It has a filtration rate of 4 gallons per hour with its standard 2 Black Berkey filter elements (4 elements can be used to increase water production rate). My unit has the optional 2 PF-2 Fluoride filters for Fluoride removal. The 2 Black Berkey filter elements will purify 6000 gallons water. Can handle a maximum of 12 people basic water needs. {See photo at top of page. Google, ‘Berkey Water Filters’]
The ‘Black Berkey’ purification/filter elements (a 7 Log device, 99.99999%) remove or reduce the following:
–  Pathogenic Bacteria and Cysts (E. Coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Raoltella Terrigena) – Reduced to > 99.999% (100%)
–  Viruses (MS2 – Fr Coliphage) – Reduced to >99.999%
–  Parasites – Reduced to > 99.9999%
–  Harmful or unwanted chemicals such as herbicides and pesticides
–  Chlorine – Removed to Below Detectable Limits  (99.9999999%)
–  Detergents
Organic solvents removal
–  THM’s (Trihalomethanes – Bromodichloromethane, Bromoform, Chloroform, Dibromochloromethane) – Removed to Below Detectable Limits (99.99999%)
–  MTBE’s (Methyl tert-Butyl Ehter) – Removed to Below Detectable Limits
–  Other VOC’s – Removed to Below Detectable Limits

–  Cloudiness removed
–  Silt removed
–  Sediment removed
–  Radiologicals  – Radon 222 – Removed to Below Detectable Limits
–  Nitrates & Nitrites, Greater than 95% reduction
–  Heavy metals – Greater than 95%
–  Fluoride- With PF-2 fluoride filter, Fluoride reduced greater than 95%
–  Iron
–  Foul tastes and odor

 OPTIONS FOR CHEMICALLY PURFYING WATER

There are many options for purifying the water among which are:
Polar Pure – contains iodine crystals, has an almost indefinite shelf life if kept tightly sealed, and very inexpensive per dose cost, requires measuring the dosage using the cap (which can be imprecise).
Potable Aqua – contains iodine tablets, shelf life of up to four years if properly stored – if they’ve turned a light green don’t use, moderately expensive per dose cost, easy to administer doses (two tablets per  quart of water).
Micropur MP1 – contains chlorine dioxide tablets, has a shelf life of at least four years, moderately expensive per dose cost, and comes in easy to administer doses (one tablet per quart of water).

DIY (do it yourself) water purification chemical treatment
a)  Simple household bleach (Clorox) – 2 drops per quart of water (assuming a bleach solution of 5-6% hypochlorite). You should double the dose for cloudy water. The shelf life (full strength) of household bleach is only about 6 months, so replace at least annually. Use an eye dropper
to administer low volume dosages. Clorox has a very inexpensive per dose cost. (see  table, ‘Treating Water with a 5-6 Percent Household Liquid Chlorine Bleach Solution’  above)
b)  Tincture of iodine – 5 drops per quart (assuming a 2% iodine solution), may wish to double the dose for cloudy water, almost indefinite shelf life if properly stored, must use a dropper to administer dose, modest per dose cost.

General water treatment:

  • All the above methods are effective at killing bacteria, somewhat effective against viruses, and of limited value against protozoa cysts. Cryptosporidium in particular is resistant to halogen treatments; however, it is removed by the Katadyn® Base Camp water filter.
  • Most treatments only require 30 minutes. However, very cold water (i.e., less than 40 degrees F) should be allowed to sit for 2 or more hours, or be treated with a double dose.
  • As far as taste, all will introduce some chemical taste into the water. In a very unscientific taste test of chemical treatment methods, my own family (original author) concluded that iodine-treated water was by far the worst smelling and tasting, bleach-treated was second, and water
    treated with Micropur MP1 ready-to-use tablets was the least objectionable.
  • Finally, you can add Kool-aid to treated and filtered water to improve the taste. Not only will it help to mask the chemical taste, but the ascorbic acid (vitamin C) converts the chlorine or iodine to tasteless chloride  and iodide.

Gathering Rainwater (example volumes used below)

  • 1 inch of rain per square foot = 1/2 gallon water.
  • A 10×10 tarp with 1″ rain (100sq ft x 0.5) gathers 50 gallons
  • A 10×10 tarp with 1/4″ rain (100sq ft x 0.25) gathers 12 gallons
  • A 12×14 tarp with 1″ rain can gather 84 gallons
  • A 12×14 tarp with 1/4 rain can gather 21 gal
  • With both a 10×10 and a 12×14 tarps in use and 1″ rain you could collect 134 gal, with 1/4″
    rain, 33 gallons.

Rain water is not safe as collected and should be treated by one of the methods previously described.

Homemade water prefilter
A ‘pour-though’ filtering systems can be made in an emergency. Here’s one example that will remove many contaminants:

1.  Take a five or seven gallon pail (a 55-gallon drum can also be used for a larger scale system)
and drill or punch a series of small holes on the bottom.
2.  Place several layers of cloth on the bottom of the bucket, this can be anything from denim to an old cloth table cloth.
3.  Add a thick layer of sand (preferred) or loose dirt. This will be the main filtering element, so you
should add at least half of the pail’s depth.
4.  Add another few layers of cloth, weighted down with a few larger rocks.
5.  Your home-made filter should be several inches below the top of the bucket.
6.  Place another bucket or other collection device under the holes you punched on the bottom.
7.  Pour collected or gathered water into the top of your new filter system. As gravity works its magic, the water will filter through the media and drip out the bottom, into your collection device. If the water is cloudy or full of sediment, simply let it drop to the bottom and draw the cleaner water off the top of your collection device with a straw or tube.

(If you have a supply of activated charcoal, possibly acquired from an aquarium dealer, you can put a layer inside this filter. Place a layer of cloth above and below the charcoal. This will remove other contaminants and help reduce any  unpleasant smell or taste.)

While the home made prefilter is not be the best filter method, it has been successfully used in the past. For rain water or water gathered from what appear to be relatively clean sources of running water, the system should work fine. If you have no other water source than a contaminated puddle, oily highway runoff or similar polluted source, the filter may be better than nothing, but is still not a very desirable option.

Once the system has been established and works, you must remember to change the sand or dirt regularly.

My (2) rain water storage barrels
Product Description:The Algreen Cascata Rain Water Collection and Storage System combines the timeless aesthetic elegance of ceramics with the enduring durability of modern plastics. This 65-gallon ‘rainsaver’ is  constructed from tough, roto molded plastic able to withstand extreme temperatures and will not chip, fade, or crack over time. The environmentally friendly rain barrel comes with a 6-foot garden hose with shutoff nozzle, corrosion-proof screen guard, brass spigot, and easily removable crown planter on top. It’s double-walled for supreme strength. The hose hangs neatly on the
attached hook. The rain barrel measures 24 x 46 inches.

Product Features:
–  65-gallon rain barrel with timeless looks and extreme durability
–  Made from roto molded plastic that won’t chip, crack, or fade
–  Double-walled for extra strength and durability
–  Comes with screen guard and removable crown planter
–  Measures 24 x 46 inches

Each rain barrel contains 65 gallons, with a total storage capability of 130 gallons.
For drinking water, the household needs 1 gal/person/day, or one full barrel for two people per month. The second rain barrel is for a month’s general maintenance: dish washing, occasional light laundry and sponge bathing[1].


[1]  This is why a small quantity of plastic eating utensils, paper plates, napkins and
premoistened handi-wipes should be added to your emergency food supply.

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