Category Archives: My family in history

John Chipman Jr. (Hon.) and Mary Skiff

(The Pilgrims & Skiff branch)

John CHIPMAN  Hon. was born on 3 Mar 1670 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; died on 4 Jan 1756 in New Port, New Port, RI; buried in New Port, New Port, RI. [John Chipman Jr. was son of Hope Howland and grandson of Pilgrim John Howland]

John CHIPMAN married Mary SKIFF in 1691 in MA. They had the following children: James CHIPMAN (b. 18 Dec 1694), John CHIPMAN (b. 18 Sep 1697), Mary (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), Bethia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), ♥ Perez CHIPMAN (b. 28 Sep 1702), Deborah CHIPMAN (b. 6 Dec 1704), Stephen (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Lydia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Ebenezer CHIPMAN (b. 13 Nov 1709).

He also married Elizabeth (Russel) (Pope) HANDLEY in 1716 at Capt. Popes home, Dartmouth, MA. They had the following children: Handley CHIPMAN* (b.31 Aug 1717), Rebecca CHIPMAN (b.10 Nov 1719). *See {D4} below.

He also married Hannah (Huxley) (Griffin) CASE in 1725 inNewport,RI.

BIRTH:  17 May 1708 John Chipman is listed in his father’s Will to receive real-estate in Barnstable, MA.{D1}

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: John’s son, Handley, by second wife, Elizabeth describes his father, saying, “My dear Father was a tall Person…my dear fathers hair reddish and he of Light complection..”{D4} [See below Handley’s brief biography of his family includinhg elder John Chipman.

1. John 1st married, Mary Skiff, about 1691: to their union were born nine children including, James, John, Mary, Bethia, Perez, Deborah, Stephen, Lydia, and Ebenezer. Mary and Bethia, also Stephen and Lydia were twins. Mary died on 12 March 1711.{D2} The family lived in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA.

2. In 1716, John married the widowed Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell: their union produced two children, Handley and Rebecca. After continuing to live several more years at Sandwich, John moved the family to Martha’s Vineyard, where they lived for seven years before Elizabeth Handley died.  Elizabeth became very ill while visiting her ex father-in-law Captain Pope in Dartmouth and died 4-5 months later, at his residence, after a long bout with Consumption. John and Elizabeth’s son, Handley, writes, “My Dear Father used to go back and forward to Visit her until about the 30 day of Jany A.D. 1725 when she departed this Life…”{D4}

The Will of Seth Pope of Dartmouthdated 1 April 1720, names “my former daughter in law now wife of Lewt John Chipman of Sandwich” and her son Handy Chipman.{D2}

3. On his last trip to visit Elizabeth before she died, John met the widow Hannah Case. Mrs. Case had just buried her husband on Martha’s Vineyard and returning to the mainland. The two took the ferry and traveled together on one horse, both going in the same direction to Dartsmouth.{D4}

About a year later, in 1725, at 55 of years of age, John married the widow Hannah Huxley Griffin Case.{D2} Soon after remarrying, John sold his property on Martha’s Vineyard and moved to Rhode Island “and Let his money to interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.” {D4}

While living in Sandwich John had been a coroner, Lieutenant, Captain, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston.

While he lived on Martha’s Vineyard he was a Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court.{D4}

“In MA he was a magistrate, a member of the general court, a justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1772. In RI, where he lived after 1727, he was first of six Associates of that colony who with the other Associates, the Governor and Philip Cortland and Daniel Horsemanden of the NY council, was a member of the Commissioners of Review appointed by royal authority, who met at Norwich, CT and decided Connecticut’s course toward the Indians.”{D3}

“About age 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying  (Hannah Case) he left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own sister (Rebecca) who had married a worthy person, a Capy Moore…”{D4}
When daughter, Rebecca, died a few years later, John went to live with his son Handley. He was given a room and kept company. “Loosing his Last wife, and Living very retire in a room much by himself, as was his own Choice, keeping his Books of Divinity by him, and pipe and Tobacco, he soon grew rater dull, and rather Melancholy, inclined to have but Little Company or Conversation, nor could he be persuaded but Seldom, to Eat any of his Meals out of his own room, where he always had a fire to himself and one or other of the family that attended upon him…”{D4}

WILL:  In his Will dated 17 Oct 1749, John Chipman mentions his sons Perces (Perez) and Handley and others in the family.{D2}

John Chipman Jr. died leaving 70 children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren behind him.

1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p. 181. Recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. “Mayflower Families In Progress – Richard Warren…”, published by General Society of Mayflower
Descendants, 1987, p. 84.
3. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
4.  A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”,
1937 Vol. XCI, Publ by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Mary  SKIFF was born on 13 Nov 1671 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; died on 12 Mar 1711 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA. Parents, Stephen Skeffe and Lydia Snow, descendant from 1620 Mayflower ancestor Richard Warren..

When Marcy died in 1711, she left her husband to care for nine children between the ages of 2 and 17 years of age.

* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America
 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
* Individual source: Mayflower Families In Progress: Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, compiled by Robert S. Wakefield and others, Published by
General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1987.


A brief history of the Chipman family written by Handley Chipman, son of  John Chipman (Jr) Hon., and his 2nd wife Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell

“[The Mayflower pilgrims] … saw them the vessel after the boat’s return came up to the place of their intended settlement and they all landed and prepared huts for to live in, but poor distressed souls they being disappointed of other vessels coming over to them for a great while to supply them with provisions and other necessities as expected

“Sundry of these poor distressed people died and all was in imanent danger of perishing, if it had not been for the Clams they found on the shores and dugg up at low tide, but it was especially from the Supp & turkeys obtained in quantities [from] the native Indians … which corn they ate and paid the Indians for the spring after as soon as they had gained acquaintance with them who had been very shy of them.

“My said Grandfather (elder) John Chipman  born 1615 Married a Daughter of the aforesaid Mr. Howland and settled at Barnstable, the next Town but one which is Sandwich, to their Said Plimouth further on the Said Cape Cod, Plimouth being being at the head of the Bay.  he my Said Grandfather was an Elder in Minister Russels Congregational Church, in said Barnstable, and if I am not mistaken removed and lived in Said Sandwich the Latter part of his Day.  He died aged 88.  He had or left 10 children of which my honored father was the Youngest.  his children generally lived to grow up and Marry and from whom proceeded a very Numerous offspring.  As my Grandfather was the only one of the name of Chipman and my Grandmother Daughter of the only one of the name of Howland in New England or any of the now States of America, so the Chipmans are all on this Continent Related as well as the Howlands, and are all of them by reason of my Grandfather and grandmothers Marriage together Related to one another, and so near that Long Since my Remembrance my dear father and the Howlands used to call Cuzzens and the Howlands was often conversant at my house and my fathers house &c.

“My Dear and Honored Deceased father John Chipman, married one Capt. Skiffs daughter of said Sandwich, by whom he had 9 children that all Lived to grow up to the years of Men and Women, from whom has sprang a very large offspring.  Their names were Sons, James, Perez, John, Ebenezer and Stephen.  The Daughters names were Bethia and Mary, twins, as was also the Son Said Stephen with the next daughter Lidia, the others name was Deborah.  They had all entered into the Marriage State and had generally Large families of Children, Except said Stephen, who had no Children by his wife, Dying Master of a Vessel young in Nevis in the West Indies.  They were mostly of more than middling size.  James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a Blacksmith as was also Ebenezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade.  They scattered much in their Settling in families.

“My dear fathers first wife dying at said Sandwich, Leaving said nine children, He some time after, it may be two years, married her that was my dear Mother, at Capt. Popes at Dartmouth, her first husband was his oldest Son, her second husband was one Capt. Russel, with whom I have been told She lived about 17 months, at Rhode Island or near there about….  She had no Child or Children that Lived by Either of these husbands.  by my dear father She had my Self, her son Handley, and my dear sister Rebecca.  Soon after her birth my dear Father removed from Sandwich to Martha Vineyard, where he lived it may be 7 years.

“Just about a year after my dear Mothers Death, my dear Father married the Said widow Case at Newport on Said Rhode Island.  She had had two husbands, one a Griffin, the other said Capt. Case.  by said Griffin She had a daughter who lived to grow up and Married my Said dear father Son Stephen, who died in Said West Indies Leaving no Child.  My Mother in Law’s maiden name was Mary Hoockey, and after my dear father had Lived with her 19 years She died also with the Consumption.  She was a Baptist.  My dear father soon after he thus Married at Rhode Island, sold his farm at the Vineyard, to one Mr. Norton for L1200, money then at s5/pr. ounce.  he removed then to Rhode Island and Let his money to Interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.

“He was when he lived at Sandwich, Crowner or Coroner, a Capt. Lieutenant, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston, as I find, by his Commission Left.  While he lived on the Vineyard he was Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, &c.

“After he removed to Rhode Island Government, he was for some time the first of the Governors Council, and was also Chief Judge of the Superior Court or court of Equity, as it was then called, and continued in said office until he was about 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying he Left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own Sister who had married a worthy person, a Capt. Moore.

“My dear and Honoured Father was born March 3d day, A.D. 1670.  He departed this Life at Newport on Rhode Island, January 4 th day, 1756, in my house, where he had lived some years, after he broke up housekeeping, he went and Lived at Capt. David Moors as aforesaid who married my own only Sister, but she dying in a few years after, he then came to Live with me.

“I would before I conclude the Pedigree of my dear fathers family just mention that I have divers times inquired after the family of the Chipmans coat of arms but never could get Intelligence of it.  And am lately informed that Ward Chipman, Esq. Solisiter General in our Neighboring Province of Brunswick Government, when he was in England a few years past, made very thorough Search after our family coat of arms, and finds we have none at all, &c.

“But the Chipmans in America are very Numerous indeed.  they are, we are, Sure all related, for they are all of them descended from my said Grandfather.  we find they are Spread even from Canso * Eastward to Virginia Westward, if not farther both ways.”

* A fishing village on the eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia.

[“A Chipman Family History,” by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, R.I., and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, composed ca. 1790, in:

Roberts, Gary Boyd; ed.  (1985).  Genealogies of Mayflower Families From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Volume I Adams-Fuller.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Handley Chipman’s statement validates the Chipmans of Virginia as authentic descendants of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman, but supporting documentation still needs to be assembled.]


Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants

John Chipman (elder) and Hope Howland

(Pilgrims families & Chipman branch)

John CHIPMAN, elder, was born in 1614 in Bryan’s-Piddle, near Dorchester, England; died on 7 Apr 1708 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA.

John CHIPMAN married Hope HOWLAND in 1646. They had the following children: Samuel CHIPMAN  Deacon (b. 15 Apr 1661), ♥ John CHIPMAN  Hon. (b. 3 Mar 1670), Elizabeth CHIPMAN (b.24 Jun 1647), Hope CHIPMAN (b. 31 Aug 1652), Lydia CHIPMAN (b. 25 Dec 1654), Hannah CHIPMAN (b. 14 Jan 1658), Ruth CHIPMAN (b. 31 Dec 1663), Bethia CHIPMAN (b. 1 Jul 1666), Mercy CHIPMAN (b. 6 Feb 1668), Desire CHIPMAN (b. 26 Feb 1673).

He also married Ruth SARGENT in 1684.

TRAVEL: Brotherless and early left fatherless, John sailed from Barnstable, Devon Co., England, in May 1631, on the Friendship, arriving in Boston, 14 July 1631.
John was the first and only one of the name, Chipman, in this country, and until 1850 there was no Chipman in this country who was not descended from him.{D2}

MARRIAGE: He first married Hope Howland, when she died, he secondly married Ruth Sargent. John Chipman lists his living children in his Will, dated 12 Nov 1702. {D1}{D2}

LIVELIHOOD: John was a carpenter and deputy.{D5} Also, “John Chipman was for successive years a selectman, then in Plymouth Colony invested with the authority of a magistrate, and was often a deputy of the court; and he with three assistants was designated to frequent the early Quaker meetings and ‘endeavor to reduce them from the errors of their wayes’.”

HOME: Plymouth in 1637, Yarmouth in 1647, and Barnstable in 1649.{D5} The elder John Chipman family homestead was located near the Barnstable Custom House. His son, Samuel, built the “Chipman Tavern” on the homestead, which then continued in the line of his prosperity until 1830.{D2}

RELIGION: On 30 Jun 1653, John joined his wife (Hope Howland) in becoming a member of the church at Barnstable. He became an Elder in Minister Russel’s Congregational Church at Barnstable.{D4}

HISTORICAL NOTE: John Chipman, son-in-law of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley signed his name (at age 58) to a Bond of Administration on the John Howland estate, dated 5 March 1672, see also Elizabeth Tilley notes. {D3}

DEATH John died at 88 years of age.{D4}

WILL: The Will of John Chipman, dated 12 Nov 1702, proved 17 May 1708, mentions his second wife Ruth and the children listed herein. An excerpt from the Will states, “It I Will and Bequeath to my Two Sons Sam and John my Whole Estate in Barnstable to them and theirs for Ever: that is to Say: That my Son Samuell shall have Two parts Thereof & my Son Jno one part or third thereof. unless my son Sam see Cause to pay his brother John seventy pounds in Lew of Sd Third part. and Samuel So Doing shall Enjoy the whole he and his heirs for Ever…” An inventory of personal belonging follows in the

1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p 181; recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem,NC.
3. John Chipman’s autograph shown in “The Mayflower Descendant”, Vol. XIII, April 1911, article An Autograph of Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland, p. 65.
4. A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”, 1937 Vol. XCI, Publ. by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
5.  Founders of Early American Families: Emigrants from Europe 1607-1657, by Meredith B. Colket, Jr. and others, 1975, publ by the General Court of the Order of Founders and Patriots in America, located in LDS Genealogical Library, 500 S. Langley, Tuscon, AZ.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Hope HOWLAND was born on 30 Aug 1629 in Plymouth, MA; died ABT 8 Jan 1683 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; buried in Lothrop Hill Burying Ground, Barnstable, MA.

MARRIAGE: Hope Howland, daughter of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley married (the Elder) John Chipman.{D1}

HOME:  In 1637 Plymouth Colony authorized the creation of three new settlements on Cape Cod, including; Sandwich, Barnstable and Yarmouth. Because the population of Plymouth Colony was too small to occupy the new settlements, outsiders were allowed, if they met some prudent conditions: 1) There could be no absentee land ownership, 2) persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, 3) individuals who were acceptable had to be “of good note.” A group migrated from Scituate to Barnstable led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisting primarily of his church members. Among them, or following very soon afterwards, were some early Plymouth residents, including two daughters of Pilgrim John Howland: Hope Howland with her husband John Chipman and family; also sister Desire Howland with her husband John Gorman and family, moved from Yarmouth to Barnstable.{D2}

BURIAL:  Hope died at Barnstable, MA. Her gravestone, which states, “interred ye body of Mrs. Hope Chipman, wife of Elder John Chipman”, is still standing in the old Lothrop Hill cemetery. Directions to Lothrop Hill cemetery: Go a mile or so west of Barnstable Center, MA., on Main Street, also known as Cape Cod’s Route 6A.{D1}
Lothrop Hill Burying Ground is on shady, rolling terrain located one half mile from the harbor. It is good to be remembered with a monument, because, “who have no memorial; who are perished as though they had never been.”{Ecclesiastics 44,9}

1. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem, NC.
2. The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb 1993, Vol. 59, “Pilgrim Suburbs On Cape Cod”, page 30-32.
Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem,NC.


Pilgrim Suburbs on Cape Cod
by Robert Thompson The Decision to  Expand to the Eastward 1637 – 1657.

Although Cape Cod was where Pilgrims first trod on American soil, the Cape remained virtually uninhabited, except by Indians, for the next seventeen years. The Pilgrims simply had not found the Cape sufficiently attractive for their settlement

But then about 1637, the Colony government suddenly reached back along the Cape, authorizing creation of three new settlements: Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth … This seemingly strange circumstance was the product of several factors: First, the Bay Colony on the Pilgrims’ northern exposure had grown tremendously – eclipsing the very modest growth of their own colony – thus
looming as a competitive threat to their own survival and potential prosperity.
Second, a “use it or lose it” perception emerged as a recognition of this situation; for Cape Cod was not only major coastal property but represented a significant portion of Colony land.
Third, since the population of Plymouth itself was deemed insufficient to render a viable migration and occupation of the entire Cape, it seemed necessary to allow outsiders to come in – subject, however to some prudent “conditions”.

Some of the “conditions” that were laid down: 1)  there could be no absentee land ownership, 2)  persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, and, 3) those individuals who were acceptable had to be persons “of good note”.

Some sixty families were involved with the migration from Saugus to Sandwich. The settlers were joined by some Plymouth and Duxbury residents, such as William Bassett Jr., James (Skiff) Skeffe … Names of Mayflower passengers are conspicuously absent. …
The early settlers of Sandwich roosted along the north shore facing Cape Cod Bay. They were allowed sections of upland to build on and sections of salt marsh for haying.

The group that migrated from Scituate to Barnstable was led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisted primarily of his church members. Among them, or very soon thereafter, were some early Plymouth residents, including the younger Samuel Fuller – Mayflower passenger -who married Lothrop’s daughter Jane. Other Barnstable residents with strong Pilgrim connection included Matthew Fuller, Samuel’s brother, and Thomas Hinkley, destined to become a colony governor: ♥ Hope Howland, daughter of Mayflower passenger John Howland and wife of John Chipman;  Desire Howland, Hope’s sister and wife of John Gorham: both families coming here from Yarmouth.

A few years after the initiation of settlements at Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth, many of the people back in Plymouth began to think about moving their town, en masse, to some other location –
having noted limitations of the land they occupied and the satisfaction of those who had moved already. Further, it became apparent that the continued migration trickle from Plymouth was eroding the Church. Many meetings were held and a committee finally appointed to study the feasibility of moving the town to a tract on the further reaches of the Cape known as Nauset. The committee reported back that a move was inadvisable because of the remoteness of the area and insufficient room for expansion. The idea of a move was then abandoned. But members of the committee went ahead and purchased land from the Nauset Indians anyway and most eventually moved there! The new town was named Eastham.

Among those who purchased land was Thomas Prence, … Nicholas Snow – family names which appear frequently in lines of descent from Mayflower passengers.

There remained a large tract between Yarmouth and Eastham which had been reserved for eventual division among the “old comers” – persons who had come from England on the first three ships.
In 1653 those who still retained rights picked up their options and a committee proceeded to lay out lots in a small portion of the area. The individuals included William Bradford, Thomas Prence,
John Howland, Nicholas Snow, William Collier, … Then for the next forty-one years there was both expansion and a great churning of properties as result of sale and resale, subdividing and re dividing, and endless land disputes. Finally, in 1694 the whole area was incorporated and given
the name Harwich. Taken from The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb. 1993, Vol.
59, No., page 30 -32.


Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants

John Howland & Elizabeth Tilley: 1620 Pilgrims

Family Line A: The Pilgrims

* John HOWLAND was born ABT 1592 in Fenstanton, Huntingdonshire, England; died on 23 Feb 1672 in Plymouth, Plymouth, MA; buried in Old Burial Hill, Plymouth, Plymouth, MA.

John HOWLAND married Elizabeth TILLEY BEF 1624 in Plymouth, MA. They had the following children: Joseph HOWLAND Captain, Isaac HOWLAND Ensign, Elizabeth HOWLAND, Lydia HOWLAND, Desire HOWLAND (b. BEF 1627), John HOWLAND Lieut. (b. BEF 1627), Jabez HOWLAND Lieut. (b. 1628), ♥ Hope HOWLAND (b. 30 Aug 1629), Ruth HOWLAND.

HISTORICAL NOTE: The Howland family began with Bishop Howland, who performed the obsequies for Mary, Queen of Scots. Queen Elizabeth granted the Howland family their Coat of Armor in 1584.{D7}
Huntingdonshire (or Fenstanton), in southern England was John’s hometown.{D8} {D12}
John Howland, who was born about 1592, came to the New World as a servant of John Carver. Since there is no record of Howland’s residence in Leyden, he is credited to London for the reason that Carver was in England for some considerable time before the sailing of the Mayflower and undoubtedly obtained the services of Howland in that city prior to departure.{D1}
John Carver came with his wife, Catherine Desire Minter, two men servants (John Howland and Roger Wilder), a maid servant and a boy (William Latham). Carver is believed to have been the son of Robert Carver and to have been baptized 9 Sep 1565, at Doncaster, Yorkshire, Eng., which is approx. 7 miles from Austerfield and next to Bently. Humility and benevolence were eminent traits in his character.{D3}

TRAVEL: While enroute to the New World the Mayflower was caught in several severe storms. During one storm, Bradford records: “…In sundrie of these stormes the winds were so feirce, and seas so high, as they could not beare a knote of saile, but were forced to hull, for diverce days togither. And in one of them, as they thus lay at hull, in a mighty storme, a lustie yonge man (called John Howland) coming upon some occasion above the grattings, was, with a seele of the shipe throwne into (the) sea; but it pleased God that he caught hould of the top-saile halliards, which hunge over board, and rane out at length; yet he held his hould (though he was sundrie fadomes under water) till he was hald up by the same rope to the brime of the water, and then with a boat hooke and other means got into the shipe againe, and his life saved; and thought he was something ill with it, yet he lived many years after, and became a profitable member both in church and commone wealthe…”.{D9, page 94}

EVENT: On 6 Dec 1620 a Third Expedition was sent ashore to find a place for the colonists to settle. Ten of the groups “principall men” were in the party, including John Tilley, Richard Warren and John Howland. They landed at Plymouth on the 11th. About midnight they heard savages make “a hideous and great crie”. Shortly after 5:00 AM while preparing breakfast there was an Indian attack “and whithall their arrows came flying amongst them”. The landing party ran to recover their arms. After a brief exchange of gunfire and arrows the Indians withdrew. This was called “The First Encounter” (a battle with the native Indians) at Great Meadow Creek.{D7}

1. During the period 1633-35, John Howland was Governors Assistant.{D7}
2. On 25 Mar 1633 John Howland was taxed 18 shillings.{D12}
3. On 27 Mar 1634 John Howland was taxed 1 pound 4 shillings. {D12}
4. During 1634, John was in command of the Kennebec trading post.

EVENT: There was a tract of land in ME, patented by the Plymouth Colony for exclusive trade. This tract extended up the Kennebec River from Cobisecontt (present day Gardner, ME) to the falls or rapids of Nequamkick (near present day Winslow, ME). In April 1634, according to his deposition: John Howland was in charge of the Plymouth colony trading post on the east bank of the Kennebec River at Cushenoc, near what is now Augusta, ME. Another trader, named John Hocking, began illegally trading up stream by the rapids, so as to intercept the Indians as they came down river. Howland took 3 men up to Hocking and ordered him to leave. Hocking refused. Soon afterwards, Howland returned with his men to remove Hocking by cutting his mooring ropes. When the Plymouth traders paddled near Hocking’s boat, Hocking came out armed with a pistol and rifle. When he pointed a gun point blank at Talbott’s head, Howland asked him not to injure the man for he was only following his orders. Hocking paid no attention but shot Talbott dead. One of Talbott’s friend in the canoe returned fire killing Hocking.{D6} One hundred twenty years later, in 1754, as a safeguard against French and Indian raids, Fort Western was built on the site of the Plymouth Colonies old trading post. The Fort was restored in 1921 and subsequently presented to the city of Augusta, ME, where upon it has become a museum.

EVENT: On 28 Jul 1640 John Winslow sold for £12, the services of indentured servant Joseph Grosse, to John Howland for 5 years.{D12}

1. In 1641 John Howland was Deputy to the General Court.{D7}
2. 5 Mar 1657 John Howland traded Christopher Winter “one half of the great Land” in the Township of Marshfield, including both upland and meadow with all the housing upon the land, for a farm called “the Govrs farm”, in the Township of Barnstable. The latter contained 90 acres of upland and 12 acres of meadow.{D5}
3. 1 Apr 1661 John Howland (of Plymouth), Abraham Peirse (of Duxburrow) and five others (all from the jurisdiction of Plymouth), bought a tract of land from Quachatasett Kesepett and Webcawett Doe, Indian Sagamores, for £50.00.{D4}

EVENT: John Howland and his son, Joseph, built farms at Rocky Nook in Kingston, the next town. When John’s house burned, he came into Plymouth to live with his son Jabez (at the ‘Howland house’, which still exists in 1994, see photgraph below) while he rebuilt the Rocky Nook farm which burned again some years later.{D11}  [Photo at left, excavation of  John Howland house on the Rocky Nook farm.]

WILL: Written 29 May 1672: “…Item I Will and bequeath unto my Deare and loving wife Elizabeth howland the use and benifitt of my now Dwelling house in Rockey nooke in the Township of Plymouth aforsaid, with the outstanding lands, That is uplands and meddow lands …Item I give unto my Daughter hope Chipman twenty shillings…” Therefollow four pages of personal, household inventory both itemized and valued.{D10}

The Jabez Howland House is the only existing house in Plymouth  where Pilgrims actually lived. The original 17th century two-story timber framed house consisted of the porch, hall and hall chamber. John Howland and his wife, Elizabeth Tilley Howland spent their winters here with their son Jabez and his family.  After John’s death at age 80, and the fire that destroyed their Rocky Nook farm, Elizabeth lived here until 1680 when Jabez sold the house. It was a private residence until 1912  when it was purchased for a museum.
In the 1940’s extensive work was done to bring it back to  its original appearance. Today the museum houses fine period furniture as well as artifacts from archeological digs at the Rocky Nook homes of John and Elizabeth and their son Joseph’s farm. [Photo right: Jabez Howland house.]

BURIAL: John Howland’s grave marker on Burial Hill, Plymouth, MA, reads: “Here ended the Pilgrimage of John Howland who died February 23, 1672-3 aged above 80 years. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Tilley, who came with him in the Mayflower Dec 1620. From them are descended a numerous posterity. He was a godly man and an ancient professor in the wayes of Christ. Hee was one of the first comers into this land and was the last man that was left of those that came over in the shipp called Mayflower that lived in Plymouth.”{D2}

1. The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers by Charles Edward Banks, The Grafton Press Publishers, NY., p. 65.
2. Pilgrim Guide to Plymouth Massachusetts, by William Franklin Atwood, 1940, Paul W. Bittinger, Plymouth, MA, P. 22.
3. The Truth About the Pilgrims by F.R. Stoddard, 1952, published by the General Society of Mayflower Descendants.
4. The Mayflower Descendant, 1914, Vol XVI, article Plymouth Colony Deeds.
5. Ibed, Vol. XII, article Plymouth Colony Deeds, p. 81.
6. Ibed, Vol. II, article Depositions, p. 10.
7. Colonial Families of the United States of America, Vol. VII, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1966, pages 224-225.
8. The Mayflower Quarterly, August 1992, Vol. 58, No. #3, pg. 254.
9. Bradford’s History of Plymouth Plantation 1606 – 1646, reproduced.
10. The Mayflower Descendant, 1910, Vol. II, page 70. “John Howland’s Will and Inventory” as recorded in the Plymouth Colony Will and Inventories, Vol. III, Part I, pages 49 to 54.
11. The Mayflower Quarterly, Nov 1993, Vol. 59, No. #4, pg. 283.
12. Plymouth Colony: Its History and People 1620- 1691 by Eugene A. Stratton, 1986, publ by Ancestry Publishing, Salt Lake, UT

* Elizabeth TILLEY was born in ABT 1607 in England; baptized in 1608 in Henlow, Bedfordshire, England; died on 31 Dec 1687 in Swansea, Bristol, MA; buried in Swansea, Bristol, MA.

HOME: Elizabeth’s family was from Henlow, Bedfordshire, England.{D1} She was baptized at Henlow in 1608.{D5}

EVENT: Her parents, John and Elizabeth, died the first winter in America of the “General Sickness” leaving but one known child, Elizabeth, who married John Howland.{D6}

MARRIAGE: In 1623, at age 16 years, Elizabeth Tilley married ♥ John Howland at Plymouth. Their marriage produced eight children including, Desire, John, Jabez, Hope, Joseph, Isaac, Elizabeth and Lydia.{D4}

HISTORICAL NOTE: Elizabeth’s signature (at age 67) is found on a Bond of Administration of her deceased husbands estate, dated 5 Mar 1672.{D3} [Below: Signatures of John and Elizabeth Howland.]
WILL: The Will of Elizabeth Tilly-Howland was signed by her hand on 17 Dec 1686. The estate was left primarily to her children. Her daughter Hope Howland -Chipman died 3 years earlier. (married to elder John Chipman)

DEATH: Wednesday 21/31 December 1687. Elizabeth died at the age of 79 years, at Swansea, MA., in the house of her daughter Lydia, wife of James Brown.{D2}

1. The Mayflower Quarterly, Vol. 54, November 1988, p. 285.
2. Ibed, Vol. III, 1901, p. 54, article Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland’s Will. The Will is recorded in the Bristol Co., MA, Probate Records, Vol. I, p. 13-14.
3. The location of Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland’s autographs are discussed and shown in The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. XIII, April 1911, article An Autograph of Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland, p. 65.
4. Colonial Families in the United States of America, Vol. VII, Genealogical Publishing Co., Baltimore, 1966, pages 224-225
5. The Mayflower Quarterly, August 1992, Vol. 58, #3, pg. 254.
6. The English Ancestry and Homes of the Pilgrim Fathers, by Charles Edward Banks, The Grafton Press Publishers, NY.


Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage

Old World: The Normans

(My Family in History > Old World: The Normans)

Living in Norway, Sweden and Denmark were people of two different cultures. To the west were the Getic pheasants who were enterprising, independent and diverse, living in timber houses on sheltered fjords. To the east and on the open coast lived the Scythian chieftains, in stone houses. Their cult of Odin believed that honor was awarded for bravery alone—the Scythians ruled the tenant and thrale of the Scandinavian population.
[Image at left, samples of the Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

At the time there was occurring an improvement in the northern climate.

The fusion of these divergent cultures under an improved climate were conditions for hybrid enterprise and rapid technical evolution. During the first eight centuries of the Christian era, Scandinavia began to receive immigrants; Roman iron workers came in, Roman ship builders and seamen arrived. Iron axes removed forests and agriculture spread deep inland. Fighting men went to serve in the Byzantine forces. Returning, they brought not only gold and silver, but other free and slave craftsmen, who made tools, weapons and jewelry. The Scandinavians planned their homes and camps with precision using Roman foot measure. They learned how to build ships for sail on the open sea. These ships, which reached up to fifty tons, were keeled, masted and carried square sails. The new ships opened up the unknown ocean for exploration, trade, piracy and colonization.

Without doctrinal guidance, the Vikings soon followed the same path on the watery fringes of the Roman Empire, which the Muslim Arabs were pursuing on the desert fringe. It was a path of enslavement, polygamy and hybridization. The Viking saga was to continue for four centuries, from around 700 to 1100 AD.

By 700 AD, the Vikings had set up settlements in Ireland. In the 800s they turned to attacking England, an equitable tradition which continued for two hundred years. By the 900s, they began to switch from attacking the poorer, more primitive northern areas of Europe to the richer lands of France.

In the Ninth Century, scarcely 150 years before the birth of William I (The Conqueror), the Vikings were over running England and France.

In France, 30,000 to 40,000 Norse soldiers, led by Rollo had taken over the Lower Seine and besieged Paris. A great battle ensued in which 7,000 of the invaders died at the hands of the  United Forces of France. However, not long after this, Rollo dictated the terms of peace to the weak Frankish king, Charles the Simple, and subsequently took possession of a great part of the province of Neustria—which became Normandy.

Rollo was recognized at the court of Rouen, a legitimacy that introduced him to the developing feudal system that was emerging from the decay of Charlemagne’s empire. His heirs expanded his holdings, won the title of Duke, they rebuilt abbeys destroyed by their ancestors. By taking French wives, the invaders learned to speak French, to write Latin and embrace the Carolinian concepts of law. Yet, they retained their Viking vigor and independence of spirit. By the time the Norman conquest of England, the Normans would number about one million, about half of England’s population, but they would be pent up on a strip of land one forth the size of England.

Without losing their knowledge of the sea, they acquired an understanding of the horse, with its harness and stirrups. It was this hybridization of a heavily armed man on horseback that would later win the Battle of Hastings for the Normans.

The uniting of the barbaric Scandinavia with the civilized Frank was to produce in the Norman nobility a notable capacity to govern. The Norman nobles weredistinguished by their graceful bearing and insinuating address, by their skill in negotiation and a neutral eloquence, but their chief fame was derived from their military exploits from the prodigies of their discipline and valor.

Being entirely new to the business of government, they were completely dedicated to exploiting the abilities of others; they were calculating, single minded, aggressive and ruthless. Without any ideas of their own they used, without prejudice, all races and classes of men to serve them; which countered the established civilized way and religious education of the time.

The greater Norman barons, including William I (the Conqueror) were of Norwegian blood, representatives of the dispossessed royal families of the twenty two ancient kingdoms of Norway, who had been deprive of their domains by the conquests of Harold Harfager. The descendants of the early kings of the North and the Merovian barons of France are found at present among the Norman people of England and North America.[1]
[Image below right, Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

Here then are but a few hardy branches on a very large genealogical tree.

Line of Norman Descent [2]:

Hrolf, Duke of the Normans
William Longsword
Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy
Richand the Good, Duke of Normandy
Robert the Magnificent, 6th Duke of Normandy
William I, 7th Duke of Normandy

William I –The Conqueror

William I was born about 1027 AD in Normandy, France to Robert I and the “lovely Arlette”. His father, Robert I, surnamed, “The Devil” was 6th Duke of Normandy, died 1035. It was written of William that ”…he was begotten of Arlette, a Mediterranean furriers daughter, of Falise, to whom his father was attracted by her beauty as he observed her washing clothes in a stream” It was also written that Arlette was the daughter of Fulbert of Falise, a chamberlain in the Castle Falise, which was home of Robert I.

[Image, Left William I coin, Right William I portrait]

As the years passed, William was made a chamberlain in his fathers court. It was the hybridizing union between the Scandinavian noble and the working class French which developed in him a combination of military, literary and artistic talent. In time, William succeeded his father and became 7th Duke of Normandy.
Around 1051 and about 24 years old William married his fifth cousin, the 4 foot 2 inch tall, Matilda.
Matilda was daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, a descendant of Alfred the Great (849-901AD,England) and Charlemagne (747-814 AD). They produced four sons and six daughters, among which was Henry I.
[Photo at right, Falise castle, Normandy]

During these times, the Norman cities were flourishing in building, religion, philosophy and armaments. But in the countryside, there was unemployment, the people were reduced to subsistence, large families gathered around the hearth, for whose keep the father could not provide.
The land was cut up into small quillets or ‘feeding farms’ that were too small to feed a family…unease prevailed. The spirit of adventure was turning pilgrims into crusaders, while the Norman feat of arms made them conquerors of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily. During this period, the growing Duke William had influence from England to Anselm.
Meanwhile, England stagnated and her king, Edward the Confessor, died without heir on January 5, 1066.

[Image below left: Wood carving from the middle ages thought to be Mathilda, wife of William I.]

On April 24, 1066 a “star with hair” appeared in the skies and shown with exceeding brightness. To many of the time, this (Halley’s Comet) portended a great change in some kingdom.

The English crowned Harold Dgodwinson, their king, but William contested, claiming that King Edward had named him his successor. At age 39, William recruited his feudal levies; mercenaries from all parts of France,Flanders and the Norman territories in Italy. With his army, William sailed across the English Channel on September 27 to confront the English.

In the early morning hours on Saturday, 14 October 1066, William rode out to meet King Harold on the low rolling hills of Hastings. The English stood watching as there approached a great Norman van, with bowmen in front, followed by infantry in armor and finally the mounted knights, As the Normans looked, there across the field stood a wall of shields 600 yards long and 10-12 men deep. With the terrible sound of trumpets, the armies came together…by four o’clock in the afternoon the battle was over, Kind Harold was dead and the Normans had won.

William was crowned King of England on Christmas day 1066 at the Church of St. Peter-Westminister Abby.
Defeating various internal rebellions two years later earned William I the name—The Conqueror.

William introduced the feudal system of land tenure based on military service, so that every acre of land was registered and held by someone for some form of service. The country was divided into 700 Baronies or great Fiefs, which were controlled by the noblemen or barons. These baronies were further subdivided into  a total of 60,000 Knights Fees. Each Knights Fee consisted of three to five small farms. On the average then, each military commander of baron controlled about 86 Knights Fees or around 342 small farms. Each of the fighting men who provided all their own military equipment, the knights, were awarded three to five farms.

In his latter years, William’s success was disturbed. During 1079, at age 52, his eldest son Robert II wounded him during a quarrel. This prompted William to write in his Will: “I grant unto my son, Robert, for that  he is my first begotten and hath already received homage of all  the barons of his country, that honour given cannot be again undone, but yet without rule of his government, for he is a foolish proud knave and to be punished with cruel misfortune.” 

This proved prophetic, for in 1096, Robert II pawned Normandy for 10,000 marks to his brother Rufus, in order to raise money for the First Crusade. In 1106 when returning to England, Robert II was captured by his brother Henry I at Tinchebra. He was then imprisoned for the rest of his life at the castles Bristol and Cardif, where he died.

During 1987, at age 60 and heavy with fat, William attacked and burned Mantes, Francein a campaign against the French. As William rode down the steep streets of Mantes, his horse slipped, stumbled and fell among the debris. William was thrown against the saddle and suffered a fatal rupture. He died near Poen on September 9, 1087 an hour after sunrise and was buried at Caen.

An account of William I from William of Malmesbury, “Historian Anglorum”.
“He was of just stature. Ordinary corpulence, fierce countenance; his forhead was bare of hair; of such strength of arm, that it was often a matter of surprise, that no one was  able to draw his bow, which himself could bend when his horse was on a full gallop; he was majestic whether sitting or standing, although the protuberance of his belly deformed his royal person; of excellent health so that he was never confined with any dangerous disorders, except at last; so given to the pleasures of the chase, that as I have said before, ejecting the inhabitants when at liberty from other vocations, he might there pursue his pleasures.
Other written descriptions of his appearance which describe him as, burly and robust with a guttural voice.

His anxiety for money is the only thing of which he can deservedly be blamed. This he sought all opportunities of scraping together, he cared not how; he would say and do some things and indeed almost anything, unbecomming to such a great majesty, where the hope of money allured him. I have here no excuse to offer, unless it be, as one has said that ’of necessity he must fear money, whom many fear’.”

Henry I

Descended from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
Robert I    +    Arlette Baldwin, Earl ofFlanders
          William  I                               + Matilda of Flanders
                                                    Henry I

Henry was born in Selby,Yorkshirein 1068, two years after the Battle of Hastings to William I and Matilda.

During this time, Englandwas coming out of a period of stagnation. The literate and educated class was being rapidly expanded by immigration. These people were intellectually employed to restoring England with the Roman world, which resulted in rapid technological development. With a national premium on education, Henry was educated and earned the surname, “Beauclerk,” for his scholarship.

Henry’s eldest brother, Robert II, assumed the throne upon William’s death in France. As you may recall, Robert had wounded his father during a quarrel, and pawned Normandy to help finance the First Crusade. During Robert’s absence in the holy Land, Henry was crowned king at Westminster Abbey on 5 August 1106. When Robert II returned from the Crusade to redeemNormandy, he was defeated by Henry at the Battle of Tinchebrai and subsequently imprisoned.

[Image at right. Statues of Henry 1 and Matilda fo Scott from the fron of Rochester Cathedral]

Henry’s court became the center of law making as he created the beginnings of a civil administration. Chroniclers wrote of him, “Good man he was and there was a great awe of him. In his days no man dared harm another.”, to wit he further earned the title, “Lion of Justice”.

Henry consolidated his relations with the Saxons on 11 November 1100, by marrying Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotts.
Matilda of the Scotts, was born in 1082, married Henry at age 21 and died 1 May 1118 at age 39 years. Matilda was a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne.

You may recall that Henry’s mother, Matilda, daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders was also a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne, so certain literary and other predisposition’s toward strategic planning were again bred back into the line, as had been the general social custom amongst Getic nobility since Classical times. These predisposition’s were to show up in their daughter Matilda (Maude) and later in their grandson, Henry II.
[Image at left, Matilda of the Scotts.]

Although his father’s martial fidelity was unique in Norman annals, Henry, by his marriage united the Norman, Saxon and Scottish royal houses. And by his liaisons, he attached himself to every race, Norman, Saxon and Welch and every social class in his kingdom.

His illegitimate children included nine sons and eleven daughters

On one hand the offspring spread through the Norman baronage, on the other they influenced the growth of learning of the Learned Class.

On 25 November 1120, calamity struck as William, Richard and Mary, three of his legitimate heirs drowned in the Whiteship.

Henry I was intelligent, educated and amorous, but he was also brutal and calculating. He is thought to have murdered one brother, blinded another and to have blinded two granddaughters.
Henry died 1 December 1135 at St. Denis,Normandy at age 67 years and was buried at Reading.

Account of Henry I from William of Malmesbury’s , Historia Anglorum
“He was of middle stature: His hair was black, but scanty near the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy; he was facetious in proper season, nor did multiplicity of business cause him to be less pleasant when he mixed in society. Not prone to personal combat, he verified the saying of Scopio Africamus, ‘My mother bore me to a commander, not a soldier’., wherefore he was inferior to no king of modern time; and as I may almost say, he clearly surpassed all his predecessors in England and preferred contending by counsel, rather than by the sword. If he could, he conquered without bloodshed; if it was unavoidable, with as little as possible. He was free, during his whole life, from impure desires; for, as we have learned from those who were well informed, he was led by female blandishments, not for the gratification of incontinency, but for the sake of issue; nor condescended to casual intercourse, unless where it might produce that effect; in this respect the master of his natural inclinations, not the passive slave of lust. He was plain in his diet, rather satisfying the calls of hunger, than surfeiting himself by variety of delicacies. He never drank but to allay thirst; execrating the least departure from temperance, both in himself and in those about him. He was heavy to sleep, which was interrupted by frequent snoring; His eloquence was rather unpremeditated than labored; not rapid, but deliberate.”

Matilda the Empress

Descended   from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
William I     +    Matilda ofFlanders Malcolm III
              Henry   I                                  + Matilda ofScotland
                                                      Matilda (the Empress)

Matilda was born to Henry I and Matilda of Scotland in the year 1102. On 3 April 1127, at age 25, she was given in marriage by her father to Jeffrey Plantagenet, who was Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and son of Fulk V, the Crusade king of Jerusalem.
Geoffrey was born on 24 August 1113 and was fifteen years old at the time of his marriage, ten years younger than Matilda.

Geoffrey (the Fair) was reputed to be handsome, clever and eccentric. He had a tradition of wearing a sprig of broom (plana genista) in his cap. This plant was used on occasion as a badge and became the nickname for the family line—the Plantagenet’s.
[Image at right, Empress Matilda.]

Matilda was in Normandy with Geoffrey when her father, Henry I dies. His cousin Stephen, who was also in France, hurried back to England and claimed the throne. Matilda was ambitious and as unamiable as her father and was not going to give up the throne without a fight. In 1139, she and her half brother, Robert, Earl of Glouchester, raised an army and invaded England. Stephan was captured and was proclaimed “Lady of the English” on the battlefield. However, as she entered London, the prosperous citizens therein drove her out, subsequently her half brother was captured by Bishop Henry of Winchester. After exchanging prisoners, she returned to Normandy.

Several years later, another campaign was launched that ended in total disaster. Matilda retired to Normandy never to return.

During their twenty three years together, Matilda and Geoffrey produced three sons, of which we are descended from Henry II.

When their son, Henry II was seventeen years old, Geoffrey began transferring his power and influence to the boy. One responsibility was to pay homage to King Louis VII of France, so Geoffrey  and Henry rode to Paris. While in the royal French court, Henry met Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine (Louis VIII’s wife) who would later become his wife.

After paying homage to the king for the great fief of Normandy, Geoffrey and young Henry rode homeward in the scorching days of late summer. On the way, Geoffrey decided to take a swim in a cold river, that evening he was sweating and shivering. A few days later, on 7 September 1151, Geoffrey died at age 39 years.

[Image at left, Geoffey of Anjou, founder of the House of Plantagenet]

Matilda died sixteen years later on 10 September 1169 at age 65 years, during the thirteenth year of the reign of her son Henry II, king of England.

The Crusades
The intrusion of the Vikings and their descendants into all parts of Europe by the end of the 11th Century had done little to soften the war like temper of the military governing class. They were constantly employed in raids, wars and insurrection. Western Europe was beginning to bristle with fortifications and their territories were under attack by pagan and infidel armies.

Under Pope Urban II, a Council of the Church was convened on 27 November 1095. Pope Urban II exhorted his Christian brothers to give up fighting one another and take up arms against the Arabs and Turks.

Large bodies of warriors of all ranks from the feudal hierarchy set forth with the cross as their emblem, to set free the Holy Places for the worship of Christian pilgrims.

In 1128, Baldwin II, a veteran of the First Crusade and king of Jerusalem, sent his constable to Louis VI of Franceto choose a baron who could succeed him as king. Louis VI advised Baldwin to offer his daughter and crown to Fulk V.

Fulk V was great baron in France, being Count of Anjou and Maine, he was as powerful as the king himself. Fulk had recently married his son Geoffrey Plantagenet to Matilda the heiress of England. (Matilda was daughter of Henry I and Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III ofScotland). Fulk V had also been to the Holy Landto a pilgrimage in 1120.

Fulk V accepted the proposal and on 2 June 1129 the short coarse red haired man of forty married the young and lovely Melisende, daughter of Baldwin II. Fulk became King of Jerusalem and ruled from 1131 to 1142. He realized that he was king of a country which only existed by means of its army, an army numerically too weak even for a country which enjoyed peace on all its frontiers.

Peace is a temporal thing, the wars grew and the European invaders were slowly pushed back and out of theMideast. In the early 1300s, the Crusades were all but exhausted. The last remnant of this activity was terminated in 1348 when the Bubonic Plague, carries by Black Ship Rats were brought from China, taken from Mecca by pilgrims to Palestine and from there to the Italian trading fleet and on to Europe.

Henry II

Henry I     +     Matilda ofScotland Fulk V
      Matilda (the Empress)                 + Geoffrey of Anjou- Plantagenet
                                                    Henry   II

Henry II was born 5 March 1132 AD to Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet at LeMans, Normandy. It should be pointed out that as we refer to Henry as Henry II, that this was his official titled name, he was personally known as Kurt Mantel.

Henry II had bright reddish gold hair, gray eyes, freckles, a muscular build and a majesty of presence. He inherited his father’s violent temper and intellectual vivacity, but not his striking good looks; superficially, he was less attractive, but he could charm both men and women if he chose. His neck was somewhat thrust forward from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square. His frame was stocky with a pronounced tendency toward corpulence, due to nature rather than overindulgence. He taxed his body with excessive hardship, seldom at rest, always standing so he often wore out the whole court. He enjoyed hunting, horseback riding, traversing wastelands, penetrating forests and climbing mountains.

[At right: Tomb effigy of Henry II, Plantagenet]

During Medieval times, the marriage of great persons were arranged to provide political alliances and unite kingdoms of fiefs, indeed marrying for love was contrary to the customs of the age. With this in mind, recall that during late August, Henry and his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet had been to the French royal palace to pay homage for the great fief of Normandy. While staying at the royal court, Henry met Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen and wife to Louis VII, King of France. In early September, Geoffrey died, leaving Henry II a powerful baron in France and contender to the English throne. Eleanor did not like her husband, Louis VII and was granted a divorce by him.

On18 May 1153, Henry II married Eleanor.

Eleanor, born in 1123 was heiress of Aquitaine, Pointers and Toulouse. The consolidation of Henry’s domains in France-by marriage-was considered the boldest political stroke of the age.

Meanwhile, King Stephan’s son, Eustace was heir apparent, but soon after ravaging Archbishop Theobald’s estates, he suddenly fell sick and died.

Henry pressed King Stephan to be named his successor, Stephan accepted his nephew on the condition that he would be allowed to remain King of England for the rest of his life.

One year later, on25 October 1154, Stephan died.

[At left: Tomb effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine.]

Immediately, Henry, his wife Eleanor, Henry’s brothers and many Lords set sail across the storm tossed English Channel. On 19 December 1154, Archbishop Teobald placed the English crown on Henry II head in a ceremony at Westminster Abby.

During Henry’s reign, he ruled an empire that stretched from the Arcticto the Pyrenees, though he was a Frenchman, with foreign speech. He introduced a legal reform which replaced the old method of “Trial by ordeal”, by a “trial by jury”. He also forbade the issue of coinage by any other than the royal mints.

Henry and Eleanor produced eight children among whom were  the three sons: 1) Henry, who died rather young, 2) Richard, who became known as “Richard the Lionhearted” of the Third Crusade and 3) John, (our ancestor) against whom the fabled Robin Hood fought.

Henry’s personal life was full of tragedy.
1)  His sons were rebellious and waited for his death.
2)  When he was around forty years old, he had Eleanor imprisoned in Woodstock Castle (she was over fifty at the time), where upon he pursued his unquenchable lust for his inseparable concubine, the beauteous, Rosemund Cifford.
3)  Then too, there was a man, Thomas Becket, a clerk of humble birth who rose to be Henry’s great friend and minister. Desiring more control of the church, Henry appointed Thomas Becket to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. Having been given this great position, Thomas regarded his first duty to the Church and resisted the Kings proposals. It is not known whether Becket’s subsequent assassination on 29 December 1170was planned or was the result of hasty words spoken by the Henry, while in anger.

After losing a battle against the King of France, who was allied with his sons, Richard and John, Henry was utterly numbed by his misfortune. His physical condition rapidly deteriorated. On 5 July, Henry was obviously dying when he received word that his son John had disappeared to join his fortunes with brother Richard and the French King. On 6 July, Henry died at Chinon, France. Some of his servants stripped his corpse after it had been ceremoniously laid in the Chapel of Chinon. One of Henry’s bastard sons covered the naked corpse with a riding cloak, found a crown, scepter and ring ( possibly from a religious stature) then carried the body to Fonteurault for burial.

Eleanor outlived Henry II by fifteen years, dying on3 March 1204; she was also buried at the Abby of Fonteurault.
An account of Henry II from Sir Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was somewhat red of face, and broad breasted; short of body and therewithal fat, which made him use much exercise, and with little meat. He was commonly called Henry Shortmantle, because he was the first that brought the use of short cloaks out of Anjou into England. Concerning endowments of mind, he was of a spirit in the highest degree generous; which made him often say, that all the world suffice not to a courageous heart. His custom was to be always in action; for which cause, if he had no real wars, he would have feigned; and would transform forces either into Normandy or Brittany, and go with them himself, where by he was always prepared of an army; and make it a schooling to his soldiers, and to himself an exercise. To his children he was both indulgent and hard; for out of indulgence he caused his son Henry to be crowned King in his own time; and out of hardness his younger sons to rebell against him. He was rather superstitious than not religious; while he showed more by his carriage toward Becket being dead than while he lived. His inconstancy was not so much that he used other women besides his wife, but that he used the affianced wife of his own son. He married Eleanor, daughter of William Duke ofGuienne, late wife of Lewis the  Seventh of France. Some say King Lewis carried her onto the Holy land, where  she carried herself not very holy, but led a licentious life; and; which is the worst kind of licentiousness, in carnal familiarity with a Turk.”

John (Lackland)

Matilda (The Empress) + Geoffrey Plantagenet William  Duke ofGuienne
                            Henry II                    + Eleanor of Aquitaine

John was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166 at Oxford, England.

He grew to a height of five foot five inches, which was not short by the standards of his century; he was a stout man and his stockiness increased with age. His effigy, thought to be a genuine likeness, shows a face in which cunning, humor and strength of will are forcefully represented. He possessed the same diabolical temper as other previous members of his family and was given to violent affections and violent hates. What John lacked in majesty, he put on good display, he spent vast sums on rich clothes and loaded himself with jewels. John replaced his brother, Richard (the Lionhearted) on the  throne, where he was crowned king on Assention Day, 27 May 1199 in Westminster Abby.
[Image at right: Tomb effigy of John Lackland]

In 1200 AD John had his childless marriage to Havisa of Gloucester annulled. He then married the young Isabelle of Angouleme on 30 August 1200. This marriage broke a political alliance that was forming between the powerful house of Angouleme and Lusignan.
Isabelle was born in 1188 making her 12-13 years old at the time of her marriage. Henry III was their first of six children.

In 1207 AD, Pop Innocent III intervened in the election of a new Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to recognize the Papal appointment, because he objected to the Popes interference. The Pope then placed England under an Interdict in which; 1) the dying were refused Last Rights, 2) the dead had to be buried in unhallowed ground, 3) church marriages ceased, and 4) sermons were preached outdoors. This state of affairs continued for six years. Then John confiscated the property of the clergy who refused to celebrate the Mass.In 1209, the Pope excommunicated King John. The  king held out for two more years, but fearing a Pope backed French invasion,  he surrendered his kingdom in 1213.

A few days later, he received the kingdom back on the condition that he and his successors hold England and Ireland as a “feudatory” of the See of Rome for 1000 marks of silver.

[Image at left: Tomb effigy of Isabelle of Angouleme]

It was not unusual for kings to issue written declarations that they intended to keep the customs and laws as handed down by their ancestors. The Magna Charta was in such a tradition, it defined a number of feudal liberties and set limits to the use of royal power. It was not a document forced upon a reluctant monarch, by aunited kingdom. It was only after ages, when liberty had a fuller meaning, that the  Magna Charta came to symbolize, as an acceptable precedent, the spirit of the  United States Constitution.

John had a weakness for pretty women, which he treated with generosity and kindness. In his dealings with people he could be genial and generous, or he could be suspicious and sadistic. He had a knack of endowing the most solemn occasions with an element of farce.

John died at Newark-on-Trenton 19 October 1216, at the age of 49. He had been traveling up to 50 miles a day in a campaign against rebel nobles, and then attending to government business at night. After a meal of peaches and new cider, he came down with dysentery. His fever was aggravated by the loss of his personal belongings. The men in charge of transporting his belongings had taken a short cut over the sands of the Wash and were subsequently overwhelmed by the tide.

After John’s death, Isabelle remarried. Later still, she took vows in the monastery at Fontervault, where she died in 1246 at age 58 years.

An account of John, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
He was of stature indifferent, and something fat, of a sour and angry continence, and concerning his conditions, it may be said, that his nature and fortune did not well agree; for naturally he loved his ease, yet his fortune was to ever be in action. He won more of his enemies by surprise than by battle, which shows he had more of lightning in him than thunder. He was never so true of his word as when he threatened, because he meant always as cruelly as he spoke, not always as graciously; and he that would have known whet it was he never meant to perform, must have looked upon his promises. He was neither fit for prosperity nor adversity; for prosperity made him insolent, and adversity dejected; a mean fortune would have suited best with him. He was all that he was by fits; sometimes doing nothing without deliberation, and sometimes doing all upon a sudden; sometimes very religious, and sometimes scare a Christian.
His insatiableness of money was not so much that no man knew what he did with it, gotten with much noise, but spent in silence. He was but intemperate in his best temper, but when distempered with sickness, most of all, as appeared at his last when being in fever he would needs be eating of raw peaches, and drinking of sweet ale. If we look upon his words we must needs think him a worthy prince, but if  upon his actions, nothing less; for his words of piety were very many, as hath been shown before, but as for his actions, he neither came to the crown by justice, nor held it with honor, nor left it in peace. Yet having many good parts in him, and especially having his royal posterity continued to this day, we can do no less than honor his memory.”

Henry III

Henry   II     +     Eleanor ofAquitaine
                 John                         + Isabelle of Angouleme
                                             Henry   III

Henry III was born to John and Isabelle on 10 October 1207 at Winchester.
He succeeded to the throne at age 9 years, when his father John, died. He was crowned King of England on 28 October 1216.

With the death of John, those barons who had rallied to Louis of France instantly returned their allegiance to the English crown. A sense of nationality was becoming strong; remember, the English nobility were of Norman and French extraction and they had strong ties with their families on the continent.

Henry III was precociously clever and handsome, apart from a drooping eyelid (which his son Edward I inherited). He never lost a simple boyish delight in friendship, in beautiful things and grand occasions. He was also unable to keep his word, would not take advice and would to concentrate on one subject at a time. After 1232, Henry acted as his own chief secretary, chief justice and treasurer, as a result the  business of government became hopelessly disorganized.

[Image at right: Tomb effigy of Henry III]

On 14 January 1236at age 28 years, Henry married Eleanor of Provence. Eleanor was born in 1217 and was 20 at the time of their marriage. They produced ten children, amongst which was Edward I.

Provence was historically a region in S.E. France bordering the Mediterranean Sea. After the marriage, Henry further upset the barons by surrounding himself with Eleanor’s uncles and employing these foreigners as counselors and ministers. He was a spendthrift, especially where his wife’s many relations were concerned.

Henry stood for absolutism in a time when the essential forces in the country were trying to impose checks in royal power. In 1265, all the elements of future Parliament were brought together: Lords, county members (2 knights from each county) and borough members (2 citizens from each city). And so the first Parliament was summoned.

[Image at left: Sculpture of Eleanor of Provence]

Henry III confirmed the Greater Charter which heralded the transformation of feudal usage into national law respected by the king.

During his reign, Henry III rebuilt Westminster Abby with soaring arches and graceful windows, all in honor of Edward the Confessor.
Henry died 16 November 1272 and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Eleanor died nineteen years later on 24 January 1291.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was of stature but mean, yet of a well compacted body, and very strong; one of his eyelids hanging down and almost covering the blacks of his eye. For his inward endowments, it may be said, he was wiser for a man, than for a prince; for he knew better how to govern his life than his subjects. He was rather pious than devout, as taking more pleasure in hearing masses than sermons, as he said to the King of France, he had rather see his friend once than hear from him often. His mind seemed not to stand firm upon its basis, for every sudden accident put him into passion. He was neither constant in his love, not in his hate; for he never had so great a favorite whom he cast not into disgrace, nor so great and enemy whom he received not into favor. An example of both which qualities was seen in his carriage toward Hubert de Burgh, who was for a time his great favorite, yet cast out afterward in miserable disgrace, and though no man held in greater hatred, yet received afterward into grace again.
He was more desirous of money than honor, for else he never would have sold his right to the two great dukedoms of Normandy and Anjou to the king of Francefor a sum of money. Yet he was more desirous of honor than quietness, for else he would never have contended so long with his barons about their charter of  liberty, which was upon the matter, but a point of honor. His most eminent virtue, and that which made him more eminent, as being rare for princes, was his continency.”

Edward I

John     +      Isabelle ofAngouleme
     Henry   III                         + Eleanor of Provence
                                      Edward   I

Edward I was born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence on 17 June 1239 AD atWestminster.
Edward I had reddish hair, a long hooked nose, flashing eyes and muscular limbs, because of his tall, 6 foot 2 inch height, he was nicknamed “Long shanks”. His personality stands out by the variety of his achievements, his wise choice of counsels, his mastery of law, his skills in war and his passionate interest in castle building and town planning. He had a supple, but conservative mind. He also inherited the choleric temper and vindictive cruelty so prevalent in his family.
During October 1254, at age 15, he married Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Leon. This marriage bore thirteen children; however, only five daughters and one son (Edward II) survived Eleanor.

[Image at left: Statues of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile]

When his father, Henry III died, Edward was away in the Holy lands on the Seventh Crusade. Returning toEngland, he was crowned King on 19 August 1272 at Westminster Abby. Coming to the throne at age 33 years., he brought a wide education in the art of ruling.

Edward I regulated the amount of land that could be held by the Church, for as landowners, clerics had not been paying their proportion of the kingdoms taxes. He further agreed that no tax should be raised without the consent of Parliament. Note, that the first Parliament was held in 1265 and only a generation later, this organization had the power of consent over taxation!

Edward was serious about the work of administration and believed that the king should live according to, and not above the law.

In 1275, the English Jews were forbidden by law to lend money at interest, by 1278 a number of these people we accused of debasing the currency and were hanged. In 1290, there was a total expulsion of the Jewish population—they did not return to England in any number until 1655.

In 1278, an ancestor from another line of our family, John DeWarrene, had dealings with Edward I. “John DeWarrene, Earl of Surrey stood before a panel of commissioners of Edward I, they asked, “By what right do you hold these lands?” and thrust forward a bundle of documents describing his vast estates. John glowered at the panel, and then, from behind his back produced a rusty old sword and threw it on the table. “Here are my title deeds!”, he cried, ”My ancestors came over with the Conqueror and won their land with this, and with it will keep them from anyone who tries to take them from me”. He turned and stalked out of the room.”
In 1290 AD, after the age of forty, Eleanor of Castile died.
During 1296, King Edward sent John DeWarrene to Scotland as his governor.

In 1299, Edward remarried and was wed to Margaret, sister to King Philip IV of France. At the same time, Edward I son, Edward II, married King Philips daughter, Isabella.

Edward led four military expeditions against the Scots, which earned him the nickname, “Hammer of the Scots”. While on yet another expedition to Scotland, Edward as an old man was being carried on a litter when he died. Edward died on 7 July 1307 at Burgh-on-the Sands near Carlisle. He was buried in Westminster Abby with others in the family line.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was tall of stature, higher than ordinary men by head and shoulders, and there of  called Longshanks; of a swarthy complexion, strong of body but lean; of a comely favor; his eyes in his anger, sparkling like fire; the hair of his head black and curled. Concerning his conditions, as he was in war peaceful; so in peace he was warlike, delighting especially in that kind of hunting, which is to kill stags or other wild beasts with spears. In continency of life, he was equal to his father; in acts of valor,  far beyond him. He had in himself two wisdoms, not often found in any single; both together, seldom or never: an ability of judgment in himself, and a readiness to hear judgment of others. He was not easily provoked into passion, but once in passion, not easily appeased, as was seen by his dealing with the Scotts, toward whom he showed at first patience, and at last severity. If he be censured for his many taxations, he may be justified by his well bestowing them: for never a prince laid out his money to more honor of himself, or good of his kingdom. His great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing; for of four sons which he had by his wife Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have out lived him; and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born.

Edward II

Henry III    +    Eleanor ofProvence Ferdinand  III
           Edward I                       + Isabel of Castile
                                         Edward II

Edward II was born to Edward I (Longshanks) and Queen Eleanor of Castile on 25 April 1284 AD at Caernarvon,Wales.

Edward grew to be a strange man, a mixture of vigor and effeminacy. He took no interest in the affairs of the kingdom and surrounded himself with unworthy friends. His character was in complete contrast to that of his father, he was feckless, lazy, and extravagant; passionately interested in the breeding of horses and dogs and happy in the company of grooms. He loved music and stage plays, but was quite unfit to be a monarch.

In 1299, at the age of 15, Edward II married Isabel, daughter of Louis IV, King of France. Their union produced two sons and two daughters. One son became Edward III.
[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward II.]

The twenty three year old Edward II was with his father on a military campaign against Scotland when the elder Edward died. As Edward lay dying, he asked the younger Edward to continue on with the army and defeat the Scots, before they became stronger. Young Edward II promised to see the battle through, but after his father died he returned to London and disbanded the army.

Edward II was crowned King of England in 1307 at Westminster Abby.

Years later, after the Scots had retaken nearly every English castle in their country, Edward gathered an army of 100,000 men.
Even though the English outnumbered the Scots 2 to 1, the English were slaughtered. You see, Edward spent his heavily armored troops in an attack across a bog. Just beyond the bog, the Scots had dug trenches and covered these with brush so as to stop cavalry. His heavily armored men were then caught in a bog and in the trenches as a hail of Scottish arrows and spears cut them down. Then a wave of Scots descended from their hill position with swords and battle axes to decimate their tattered ranks. So terrible was the defeat that Edward II panicked, broke his camp and fled from the field, leaving the army to its fate.

In 1324 Edward failed to pay homage for his territories in France where upon they were declared forfeit and subject to French rule.

During these times: The population of the English kingdom had risen from about 2 million in 1066 to around 4 million. The population was scattered in villages across a wild and wooded land. Among these villages were the stone manor houses of the well to do, which were some 200 years old and of course the castles of the very rich. Salt was precious and its possession marked the line between persons of high and low degree. In the early 1300s the invention of gunpowder reached England from China. By 1326, the earliest recorded gun, a  vase shaped metal mortar was drawn in a manuscript.
[Image at right, statue of Isabella of France, wife of Edward II]

By 1327, Queen Isabel was openly living with Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Edward II chief enemy. Together, Isabel and Mortimer overwhelmed Edward’s forces and persuaded Parliament to depose Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III. Parliament approved and Edward II was imprisoned at Berkley Castle, where he was half starved and horribly murdered on 22 September 1327 at age 43. Edward II was buried at Gloucester Cathedral.
For the next three years, Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabela were political “guardians” of England, ruling through Edward III.

An account of Edward II, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“Thus was King Edward murdered, in the year 1327, on 22 of September. He was known to be of good and courteous nature, though not of the most pregnant wit. And albeit in his youth he fell into certain light crimes, and after by the company and counsel of evil men, was induced into more heinous vices, yet it was thought that he purged the same by repentance. He had surely good cause to repent his former trade of living, for by his indiscreet and wanton misgovernance, there were headed and put to death during his reign (by judgment of law) to the number of 28 barons and knights.

All these mischief’s and many more happened not only to him, but also to the whole state of the realm, in that he wanted judgment and prudent discretion to make choice and sage and discreet counselors, receiving those in favor, that abused the same to their private gain and advantage, for which they only sought, in so much that by their covetous rapine, spoil, and immoderate ambition, the hearts of the common people and nobility were quite estranged from the dutiful love and obedience which they ought to have showed to their sovereign.

But now to make an end of the life as well as the reign of King Edward the Second, I find that after he was deposed his kingly honor and title, at length the brought him back again in a secret manner unto the castle of Berkeley, where whilst he remained the Queen would send unto him courteous and loving letters with apparel and other such things, but she would not once come near to visit him, bearing him in hand that she durst not, for fear of the people’s displeasure, who hated him so extremely. How beit, she with the rest of her confederates had laid a plot of their device for his dispatch, though by painted words she pretended a kind remorse to him in his distress.

Where upon when they saw that such practices would not serve their turn, they came suddenly one night into the chamber where he lay in bed fast asleep. And with heavy featherbeds or a table being cast upon him, they kept him down and withal out into his fundament an horn, and through the same they thrust up into his body a hot spit through the pipe of a trumpet a plumber’s instrument of iron made very hot, the which passing up into his entrails, and being rolled to and fro, burnt the same, but so as no appearance of any wound or hurt outwardly might be once perceived. His cry did move many within the castle and town of Berkeley to compassion, plainly hearing him utter a wailful noise, as the tormentors were about to murder him, so that diverse being awakened there with prayed heartedly to God to receive his soul, when they understood by his cry what the matter meant.”

Edward III

Edward I     +     Isabel ofCastile Louis IV King ofFrance
              Edward II                         + Isabel, French Princess
                                              Edward III

Edward III was born to Isabel, the French princess and Edward II in 1312 at Windsor Castle.

In 1327, when Edward III was 15, his father was forced to abdicate the throne by  Queen Isabel, her lover Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and a consenting Parliament. Later that year, Edward II was murdered and the young Edward III crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.

For the nest three years Edward III was a figurehead, while the power of the throne was wielded by Mortimer and Isabel. The young Edward had a very different nature than his father; he rebelled against the tyranny of Mortimer. In 1330 while staying at Nottingham Castle, the 18 year old King gathered his trusted followers. They crept up to the room of his mother and her lover, Mortimer, entered and arrested them at sword point.

[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward III]

Roger Mortimer was tried, found guilty of organizing the murder of Edward II and was immediately hanged. Isabel was honorably confined at Rising Castle for the rest of her life, where she died.

Edward was tall and handsome, with bright golden red hair and penetrating eyes. He had charming manners, a ready wit, extraordinary energy and determination.

Edward married his second cousin, Philippa of Hainault, on 24 January 1328 at York.
Philippa was described as, “tall and upright, wise, gay, humble and pious, liberal and courteous, adorned in her time with all noble virtues, beloved of God and mankind.” Their marriage produced twelve children, consisting of seven sons and five daughters. We are descended from their seventh son, Thomas Plantagenet,  who was also known as, Thomas of Woodstock.

Edward III set about reviving the glories of his grandfather Edward I (Longshanks). He renewed the rift with Scotland and defeated the Scots in 1333.
He was a realist sovereign and a good administrator; taxes came in freely, especially when waging popular war.
He made the  use of the longbow compulsory on all small landowners, at the same time making it illegal to play tennis, bowl, skittles and other games. Learning archery became the only national pastime. In 1346, with prosperity at home, Edward III landed in France with 1000 ships, 4000 knights and 10,000 English and Welsh bowmen. And thus began “The Hundred Years War”.

[Image at right, tomb effigy of Philippa of Hainault.]

At the onset of the war, the English and French viewed each other differently. The English hated the French, due to ancestral memories which dated back to the “Conquest”; however, the French did not hate the English. Because of the attitude of his countrymen, the French king could not muster taxes from his indifferent villagers.

The English won battle after battle with their well trained archers which used the long bow. The long bow, a relatively new weapon, stood over seven feet tall and had a range over 300 yards. It’s arrows could penetrate chain mail or sheet armor and the archers could shoot six arrows per minute, making it more efficient than the crossbow. And so by using his men, “encased in steel” as shock troops and a large compliment of long bow archers, Edward beat the French.

In one of the earliest battles, at Ciecy, the French outnumbered the English 3 to 1. When the French knights and infantry assaulted the English archers, they were simply slaughtered.

In 1346, Edward’s eldest son, The Black Prince, stood with eight thousand troops against a French army of eighty thousand soldiers. At the end of the battle, eight thousand French troops were killed and Poitiers had fallen to the English—such was the power of the long bow.
[Drawing at left, Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III and  Philippa of Hainault, from which my family line descends]

Later, in 1358 the English captured the important coastal city of Calais, which remained under English control for 200 years.

Before long, the French army refused to fight the superior English longbow in the open and so retired to their strongholds. Since the English were not equipped for siege warfare, they wandered around the countryside and campaigns became long drawn out affairs.

In 1347, Bubonic Plague broke out inEurope. During 1349, plague reduced the English population from 4 million to 2.6 million. Labor became scare, workers demanded higher wages, prices went up…
During 1348, Edward founded “The Order of the Garter”, which consisted of two groups of twelve knights. This was the most famous order of Chivalry.
On 15 August 1369, Philippa died of dropsy. After her death, a terrible decline took place in the character of the king.

In his old age, Edward III became senile. He died 21 June 1377, at age 65 in Richmond. He died deserted by his friends and despised by his people, who had forgotten his former greatness. Edward III was buried at Westminster Abbey.

An account of Edward III, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“This king, besides his other gifts of nature, was aided greatly by his seemly personage. He had  a provident wit, sharp to conceive and understand: he was courteous and gentle, a man of great temperance and sobriety, of body well made, of a convenient stature, as neither of the height nor lowest sort: of face fair and manlike, eyes bright and shinning and in age bald, but so it was rather a seemingliness to those his ancient years than and disfiguring to his visage; in knowledge of martial affairs very skillful, as the enterprise and worthy acts by him achieved do sufficiently witness.

Examples of bounteous liberality, and great clemency he shewed many; so that in manner he alone amongst all other kings was found to be one, subject to none, or at least to very light and small faults. But yet he was not void of evil haps: for whereas, during the term of forty years space he reigned in high felicity, and as one happy in all doings; so in the rest of his time that followed, he felt a wonderful change in fortune. For such is the state of this world, seldom doth prosperity continue, and guide the stern of our worldly doings. For in the first years of his reign, after he once began to govern of himself, he recovered that which had been lost in Scotland, buy great victories obtained against his adversaries, subduing the country on each hand, so that he placed governors, bestowed offices, lands and livings in that realm at his pleasure.

But finally the thing that most grieved him, was the loss of that most noble gentleman, his dear son Prince Edward (The Black Prince),in whom was found all parts that might be wished in a worthy governor.  By this and other mishaps that caused to him now, in his old years, might seem to come to pass for a revenge of his disobedience showed to his father in usurping against him, although it might be said, that he did it by constraint, and through the advice of others. But whether remorse here of, or of his other offenses moved him, it may seem that the consideration of this world’s mutability, which he tried in full, caused him to have in mind the life in the world to come, and therefore of a  pure devotion founded in the church and college of Saint Stephan at Westminster, and another at Cambridge called ‘King’s Hall’.”

An account of Philippa of Hainault: report made by Bishop Stapleton on the prospective bride of Edward III, 1319. From the book, Every One A Witness-The Plantagenet Age.
“Inspection and Description of the Daughter of the Count of Hainault, Philippa by name.
The Lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, bewix blue-black and brown. Her head is clean shaped; her forehead high and broad, and standing somewhat forward. Her face narrows between the eyes, and the lower part of her face is still more narrow and slender than the forehead. Her eyes are blackish brown and deep. Her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and also flattened, and yet it is no snub nose. Her nostrils are also broad, her mouth fairly wide. Her lips somewhat full, and especially the lower lip. Her teeth which have fallen and grown again are white enough, but the rest are not so white. Her lower teeth project a little beyond the upper; yet this is but little seen. Her ears and chin are comely enough. Her neck, shoulder, and all her body are well set and unmaimed; and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover, she is brown of skin all over, and much like her father; and in all things she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us. And the damsel will be of age nine years [3] on St. Johns day next to come, as her mother saith. She is neither too tall nor too short for such an age; she is of fair carriage, and well taught in all that becometh her rank, and highly esteemed and well beloved of her father and mother and all her meinie, in so far as we could inquire and learn the truth.”

[1] The Norman People, Originally published 1874, London, England, reprinted by The Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD 1975.
[2]  Reference sources for the generations William I, “The Conqueror”, through Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III.
•   The Royal Heraldry of England by J.H. and R. V. Pinches, © 1974, Charles E. Tuttle Co., Rutland, VT.
•   The Age of Chivalry, by The National Geographic Society, © 1969
•   The Crowned Lions-The Early Plantagenet Kings by Caroline Bingham, © 1978, David and Charles London,England
•   The Crusades by Zoe Oldenborg, © 1966, Random House Inc.
•   The Hollow Crown by John Barton and Joy Law, © 1971, Hamish Hamilton, Ltd.,England.
•   Americans of Royal Descent by Charles H. Browning, J. B, Lippincott Co.,Philadelphia,PA.
[3] Philippa of Hainault married Edward III nine years after the ‘Inspection and Description’ was made, when she reached approximately 18 years of age.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Normans

Old World: The Saxons

(My family in history/Old world: The Saxons)

More than a thousand years before the birth of Christ, Phoenician seamen were enduring a four month, coast hugging voyage, in return to their lands with valued tin ingots, from the remote Cassiteridees Islands—islands which were located somewhere near Spain.
Over the centuries, commerce continued and increased between southern Europe and these islands, as navigators returned with tin, lead, slaves, skins, a superior bred of hunting dog, some gold and silver and an inferior grade of pearls.
To the Greeks, this distant land and its metals became an object of scientific inquiry. Aristotle, the first Greek historian to mention the British Isle by name, said they consisted of Albion and Ierne (Ireland).

The people of the ancient British Isle belonged to the same great national family as those found in Gaul and Belgium, all were Celts. The Franks and Britons were tied together intellectually by the common religion of Druidism.

On 26 August 55 BC, as part of an expansion of the Roman Empire, Caius Julius Caesar landed in Britain with infantry of the 7th and 10th Legions. After several close battles and the subsequent submission of the British tribes, the Roman Legions withdrew.
A hundred years passed during which time British imports and exports passing through Gaul, had a small tax levied on them by Rome; however, the islands were not occupied by the Roman military.
In 43 AD, the Roman Emperor, Claudia sent four legions to Britain which thoroughly subdued the tribes and began a military occupation that was to last nearly four centuries.
Just prior to 406 AD, the Roman legions withdrew from Britain to reinforce garrisons in Gaul. With the occupying force gone, Britain suffered increased invasions from Picts (Scotland) and (Scots) Ireland.
[At left: Concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 400AD]

The beleaguered Britons appealed to the Consul commanding the Roman forces in Gaul, for protection, but none was forthcoming; whereupon, the Britons defended themselves and drove the invaders from their territory. After their victory, the Britons fell upon one another in a civil war.

The civil war was followed by a pestilence and yet another series of barbarian raids. Pict and German raiding was occurring all along the east coast and Saxon piracy was spreading into the English Channel.
Before the end of the 4th Century, irregular units of German soldiers and probably their communities were being given licensed settlements along the east coast as protection against northern invaders.
[At left: Archaeological concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 4th-5th Century AD]
Between 446 and 454, a British tyrant extended an invitation to the Saxons to settle in the south of the country and form a coastal defense of the land. Three ships companies of Saxons came and were soon followed by a larger force. Eventually a dispute over their relations developed and the Saxons revolted, their militia ravaged the island to the western sea. Towns of the provinces they raided, were destroyed, and life in southern Britain became utterly unbearable, finally the mercenaries returned to their own country.
East of Britain, across the North Sea was Jutland (now known as Denmark). The northern portion of Jutland was occupied by a people known as the Jutes, while in the southern portion of the peninsula lived the Angles.

Below the Angles, along the neck of the peninsula lived the Saxons. By the 3rd Century AD the expanding Saxon territory in Europe extended southwest to the Weser River. Further south, extending from the Ems River to as far down the coast as the Rhine, were a people known as the Frisians.
The Frisians and Saxons shared a common form of language, so that when either appeared in Britain, they were commonly described under the wider and vaguer name—Saxon.
The Saxon, Angles and Jutes were a confederation of people collectively caller Suevi. The Suevi were associated with six other small nations in a cult that worshipped the Mother Earth Goddess Nerthus, whose sanctuary was on an island neighboring Jutland.
During the early part of the 6th Century, the Suevi began a migration to Britain where they encountered other people from their confederation and religion, people who had previously been invited to settle in Britain to form a coastal defense. Among those who came was a Saxon earldorman (Chieftain) named Serdic. Cerdic is an ancestor on the Saxon line of this family tree and a key figure in bringing Anglo-Saxon rule to the British Isle.
What follows then is part of our family heritage. [1]

Traditional forefathers of the Gewissae Race  And Saxon Ancestry of the Kings of Wessex, England
Woden Whose son was
Baeldaeg  “
Elesa Whose son was
Cerdic, The Saxon

Cerdic, The Saxon
In the year 495 AD, the Saxon ealdorman Cerdic and his son Cynric, landed with five ships on the southern coast of Hampshire, England. Reaching land, Cerdic posted his Saxons in a close order of battle before the ships, where they maintained their ground against repeated attacks by the islanders, until the approach of night. Having secured a position on land, Cerdic founded a settlement and went on to fight the Britons at Sharford.
It is most probable that through war or negotiation, Cerdic made himself Lord of the West Saxon settlements and distributed his followers among the existing settlers.
In 508 Cerdic and Cynric killed the British King Natauleod along with 5000 of his soldiers.
In 519 Cerdic became the first recorded King of the West Saxons and ancestor to the royal English line. Cerdic ruled for fifteen years until his death in 534 AD.

Cynric, son of Cerdic ascended to the throne upon his father’s death in 534. During the year 552 AD, Cynric fought the Britons at Old Sarum and put them to flight. Thus began the westward expansion of the kingdom of Wessex.
Cynric had four known children, of which this branch of the family tree descended from Ceawlin.
Having ruled for twenty six years, Cynric died in the year 560 AD – sixty five years after landing in Britain with his father.

Ceawlin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 560. Ceawlin had one known son, Cuthwine.
In 577, Ceawlin and son Cuthwine captured the cities of Gloucester, Cireucester and Bath which brought West Saxon rule to the western sea.
The center of the powerful West Saxon kingdom of the late 6th Century laid in a region immediately south and west of the Middle Thames River.
In his day, the Holy Pope Gregory sent them baptism and Columba the Mass Priest came to them”.
In 591 the Saxons slaughtered a great number of Britons at Wanborough. Soon afterwards, Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom where he died in 593 AD.

Continued pedigree by generation:

Cuthwine Father of Cutha. “AD 577. This year Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought with the Britons, and slew three kings…and took from them three cities, Gloucester,   Cireucester, and Bath.”  Cuthwine did not rule and was killed in battle during the year 584.
Cutha Cutha did not rule,he was the father of Ceowald.
Ceowald Father of Cenred. His brother King Cynegis was baptized in 635 by Bishop Birinus at Dorchester. Ceowald visited Romein 688. He did not rule.
Cenred Father of King Ina and Ingild. Was Under King of Sussexin 692.
Ingild Father of Eoppa and brother of King Ina of the West Saxons. Ingild died during the year 718AD.
Eoppa Eoppa   did not rule, he was father of Eafa.
Eafa Eafa   did not rule, he was father of Eahlmund.
Eahlmund “AD 784. At this time reigned Elmund,   King of Kent,   the father of Egbert…” Eahlmund   granted land inKent   to the Abbot of Reculver.
Egbert Egbert   was the representative of an ancient dynasty whose line had passed through a couple centuries of relative obscurity. The story of Egbert and his   descendants follow, below.

Egbert was born in the year 775AD.
King Offa of Mercia, with the approval of Charlemagne, exiled Egbert for three years (beginning in 789) in Frankish territory.
Egbert married Lady Raedburga. Their union produced two children. Of which we are descended from Aethelwulf. The male line of kings, from Egbert to Edward the Confessor and the female line has persisted to present time.
Egbert united the Seven English kingdoms by annexing Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Essex and Merciato the already expanded Wessex. He also formed the basis of English resistance to further Danish invasion. Egbert was king of Wessex from 802-827 and the first king of all ofEngland from 827-836. He died after19 November 839.
[Image at left. King Egert grandfather of Alfred the great.]



                                          Eahlmund Oslac,  Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf
                                                Egbert           + Lady Raedburga

Aethelwulf [2]  married Lady Osburh, their son and heir was Alfred (The Great). Lady Osburh was described as a “most pious woman, noble in mind and noble in race”. She was daughter of Oslac, a great nobleman of Jute descent, and Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf. Lady Osburh’s line of descent reached back to Cerdic The Saxon’s nephews.
Aethelwulf reigned as Under King of Kent for several years prior to his father’s death in 839, then ascended to the kingship of the chief kingdom. He seemed to have been a religious and unambitious man for whom politics were an unwelcome consequence of his rank. In 855, after reigning for 16 years, he undertook a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent 12 months. On the return trip to England, he stayed at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks, from early summer to autumn 856. Aethelwulf died 13 January 858. [Image standing at right, Aethelwulf)

Alfred The Great

Egbert   +    Lady Raedburh Oslac,   Royal Cup Bearer
Aethelwulf                                 + Lady Osburh
                                      Alfred The Great

Alfred was born at Wantage, Berkshirein 849 AD.
He had a natural intellectual curiosity stimulated by the experience of two journeys to Rome before he was seven years old. He was surrounded in his youth by the influences of a cultivated home where he learnt to know and value the national treasure of folk song. This developed in him the appreciation, love and taste for beauty, but he was never satisfied with the life of a  young West Saxon noble.
In 868 at age 19, he married Lady Ealhswith (Alswitha), daughter of Earl Aethelred. Their marriage produced five children, of which my family descended from both Edward and daughter Aelfthryth. Son, Edward, became the next King of England in this line.
Daughter, Aelfthryth, married Baldwin II, Count of Flanders. Aelfthryth and Baldwin were ancestors of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William The Conqueror.
Alfred’s son-in-law, Baldwin II, was a descendant of Charles, Duke of Ingelheim, a son of Charlemagne and his wife, Lady Juliana. Alfred ascended to the throne ”after Easter in 871” and was crowned in Winchesterat age 23 years.
Much of Alfred’s reign was spent fighting the invading Norsemen or Danes. Out of necessity, he built a small number of large, 60 oar ships with high sides. There vessels, which were twice the size as the enemies, were used to engage and defeat the Danes while they were still at sea.
He was a scholar- and kept a notebook “in his bosom” in which he jotted down prayers, genealogy and other information ‘he may need for future use’. He invented the lantern for his personal use to offset the problem of candles blowing out while he was trying to read.

Alfred wrote or compiled the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which was the first written history in any modern language. During his reign, he founded the British navy, organized the militia, compiled a code of laws, built schools and monasteries and invited scholars to live at his court. He was a good scholar and translated many books.

No other king of the Dark Ages explored the literature of Christian antiquity to explain;
•  The problem of fate and free will.
•  The ordering of the world.
•  The ways in which a man comes to knowledge
He was an ambitious man and for all his idealism he was determined to leave some material traces of his passage through the world. Alfred wrote, “It has ever been my will to live worthily while I lived, and after my death to leave them that should come after me my memory in good works.”
His mind seems to have been more constructive than creative. His scientific spirit and intense desire for knowledge, combined with the instinct, for applying knowledge to practical ends.

Alfred wrote, “No man can prove his full powers, his ‘craft’, nor ‘direct and steer’ authority without tools and materials…These are a king’s materials and the tool with which he governs: he must have a well peopled land; he must have men of prayer, “bedesmen” and men of war and men of work…without these tools no king can prove his full powers (craft). For his materials also, he must have sustenance for the three orders, his tools…land to dwell in, and gifts, and weapons, and meat, and ale, and clothes and what ever else the three orders need. Without these he cannot keep the tools, and without these tools he cannot do any of those things which he has been bidden to do.”

All to him was symbolical—the sea and the shipping, the starry sky at night. The common incidents of rural life and the routine at court. His imagination was quick and vivid, but his intellectual powers were, probably richer and fuller than his emotional capacity. He speaks much of friendship, but little of earthly love. He touches highly on passion only when he faced and contemplated the mysteries of the spiritual world.

He believed that a life without knowledge and reflection was unworthy of respect.
After thirty years of rule, Alfred died on 28 October 901, his wife Ealhswith died about 905AD.

Edward The Elder

Aethelwulf   +   Lady Osburh Earl   Aethelred
                         Alfred   (The Great)       + Lady   Ealhswith
                                                Edward   (The Elder)

Edward was born in 875 [3]. He was married three times producing fifteen children. In 919, he was married to (3) Lady Eadyifu (Elgiva), daughter of Sigehelm, Earl of Kent. We are descended from their son, Edmund I and their daughter, Egiva, who married Charles III of France.

Edward conquered and annexed Danish colonies on the island, thereby enlarging the English kingdom to twice the size it had been under his father, Alfred.
He died at Fardon on Dee,17 July 924, after putting down an uprising of Meracins and Welsh. Lady Eadgifu died many years later in 961. [Image at right Edward the 1st, The Elder]

Edmund The Magnificent

Alfred   + Lady Ealhswith Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                                 Edward   (The Elder)      + Lady   Eadgifu
                                                     Edmund (The Magnificent)

Edmund was born during the year 920 AD. He married Lady St. Alfgifu, a union which produced two children of which we are descended from their son Edgar.
Edmund succeeded his brother to the throne in the autumn of 939, at age 18. During his short reign he proved to be both warlike and politically effective.
Edmund was killed in May 946 at age 26, having been on the throne only seven years. His death occurred while he was defending his steward against a criminal who had returned from banishment. [Black and white image at right, Edmund the Magnificent]

Edgar  The Peaceful

Edward   +   Lady Eadgifu Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                       Edmund (The Magnificent)      + Lady   St. Alfgifu
                                                   Edgar (The Peaceful)

Edgar was born in the year 943. He was married three times and produced four children. His second marriage in 965 was to Lady Ealfthyth (Elfrida) who was born in 945, daughter of Ordgar, Earl of Devon. Their union produced a son named Aethelred, whom we are descended from.
Edgar did not rule until 959. During his reign he maintained a state of peace which had been established in England by earlier kings.
He ruled that the kingdoms coinage bear the name of the moneyer responsible for its quality and the name of the place it was struck.
Edgar gave unreserved support to the men that were creating the environment of a new English culture, by transformation of English monastic life.
He deferred coronation until 873, when he was thirty years old in order to reach the full maturity of mind and conduct. He used prominent churchmen in the Coronation ceremony and for the solemn anointing, thus began the continuous history of the English Coronation. The coronation and anointing by religious leaders created in the kingship a corporate body with certain rights and privileges, which were to have continuity throughout the monarchy.
After Coronation, Edgar sailed to Chester where six kings promised to serve him by sea and land. As a symbol of their fealty, the six kings and five princes rowed him on the DeeRiver from his palace to the Church of St. Johns and back again while he held the rudder.
Edgar-The Peaceful died two years later on 8 July 975, His second wife Ealfthryth survived him and died in 1000 AD.

Aethelred II – The Redeless

Edmund   I   +   Lady St. Alfgifu Ordgar, Earl ofDevon
                            Edgar   (The Peaceful     + Lady   Ealfthryth
                                            Aethelred II-The Redeless

Beginning with Aethelred’s generation, this old West Saxon royal line was to experience problems, which would continue until the male line expired.
King Edgar had two sons. His eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward was born to his first wife, Aethelflaed, in 962. His next surviving son, Aethelred II, my ancient ancestor, was born to his second wife Ealfthryth in 968. When King Edgar died on 8 July 975, his eldest son Edward, then thirteen years old, ascended to the throne.
Almost three years later, on 16 march 978, at age 16, the young King Edward rode to his younger brother’s home for a visit. The household servants came into the courtyard to greet him, but as he dismounted they fell upon him and stabbed him to death. Aethelred II was only ten years old at the time of his brothers murder and it is not believed that he had any knowledge of, or a hand in the conspiracy.
Aethelred II ascended to the throne, was crowned a month later and began his reign in an atmosphere of suspicion which destroyed the prestige of the crown for his entire life.
In 985 he married Lady Alflaed, daughter of Thored. We are descended from their son Edmund Ironside  as well as from Aethelred’s daughter Elgiva.
Aethelred II behaved like a man who was never quite sure of himself, he was ineffective in war, his acts of spasmodic violence and air of mistrust from his nobles suggest a weak king.

On one St. Brice Day (November 13), he ordered all the Danish men in England to be killed. This was clearly an impossible order to carry out because in over a third of England, most of the towns were primarily peopled by Danes, there were also many Danes living throughout the rest of the country. However, in some towns the slaughter was carried out, this fratricide was not to be soon forgotten by the English Danes. During the purge, Gunwhild, the sister of King Swein of Denmark, and a hostage in England, was put to death.
King Swein launched an attack against England to revenge his sister’s death. The English Danes backed King Swein and the English nobles would not rally to Aethelred II because of mistrust.
In 992, the English land and sea forces were assembled in hopes of engaging the Danish invasion. However, the English earldorman to whom the militia was entrusted, sent word to the Danes then absconded from the army the night before the battle should have been fought.
King Swein kept attacking without pause.
By 1010AD, there was not an English leader who was willing to assemble an army, but each fled as best he could.
The rein of Aethelred II—The Redeless (Redelss meaning, the Unwisely Counseled) was an age of degeneracy marked by feebleness and treachery among its leaders.
Aethelred II died 23 April 1016 in London as the Danish army and navy closed in on the city.

Edmund Ironside

Edgar   +    Lady Ealfthryth Thored
                        Aethelred   II                 + Lady   Alfflaed
                                                Edmund Ironside

Edmund was born during the year 989.
He married Ealdyth, widow of Sigeferth of Denmark. They produced two sons, we are descended from their son Edward.
Edmund was in London with his father when the harried King died. Edmund succeeded to the English throne at age 27, on 23 April 1016. As the Danish army and navy put London to siege. After a time, the Danes began to run out of the necessary supplies required for a siege, where with they began to withdraw from London. With the Danes ranks broken, Edmund swept out of the city and defeated the siege army.
A short while later, in another battle, not far from London his army was defeated and Edmund became a fugitive. Unlike his father, Edmund was a popular person, the people backed him and he was able to put together another army.
After a successful campaign against nobles who were giving allegiance to the Danes, he was given the subkingdom of Wessex, while the rest of the country was to be under Danish control.
On St. Andrews Day (30 November), Edmund was murdered by an assassin.

Edward – the Exile

Aethelred   II    +    Lady Alfflaed Thored
                     Edmund Ironside             + Lady Sigeferth
                                              Edward the Exile

Edward was born during the year 1016, the same year that his grandfather died and his father was assassinated. Upon Edmund’s death, Cnut the Dane began eliminating the royal family. Baby Edward and his brother were whisked away to hide in Hungary where Cnut’s agents could not reach them.

Edward-The Exile, Prince of England lived essentially his entire life in favor at the Royal Court of Hungary, where he married Agatha daughter of Henry II, King of Hungary. They produced three children, 1) Edgar the Aetheling, 2) Margaret (my ancestor) and 3) Christia, who became a nun.

In 1054 King Edward the Confessor sat on the throne of England, he was old and his life of asceticism had left him no children as heirs to the throne. During this same year Edward the Exile was cleared for his return to England to assume the throne. Prince Edward remained in Hungary for two more years with his life long friends and relatives before returning in 1056. Soon after returning, in 1057, but before he had come to the royal court, Edward the Exile died. His son Edgar- The Aetheling, was too young to be considered as a possible successor to King Edward the Confessor.
Meanwhile, when King Edward the Confessors health failed, Harold Hardrada, who conceived himself heir to Cnut’s Kingdom became governor of England.
On 5 January 1066, Edward the Confessor died. The next day, Harold was crowned King of England. Harold ruled England from 6 January until his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, when the English army was defeated by the Norman’s—led by William I – The Conqueror.


Edgar, King of England  ↓ Richard I- Duke of Normandy, whose children were Emma and Richard II ↓
1) Lady Afflead + Aethelred II-The Redeless +↙                               ↘ 2)   Emma Richard II, Duke of Normandy  ↓
Edmund Ironside Edward the Confessor Robert I- The Magnificent ↓
Edward the Exile (no heirs) William I- The Conqueror   ↓ + Matilda of Flanders
        Margaret   + ↓   Malcolm III-King of Scotts ↙          Henry   I-King of England  (age 32)
          Matilda of Scotland (age 21) +  Henry I

* Matilda of Scotland married Henry I- King of England–this pedigree descends through the Norman line as follows below.

Margaret was born in 1045 AD.
In 1068-69, at about age 23, Margaret married Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scotts. Malcolm was born in 1031 and was King for 35 years, from 1058 to 1093. Their union produced a daughter, Matilda of Scotland .
Malcolm III was killed 13 November 1093. His wife Margaret, a very religious woman dies three days later on 16 November 1093.
[Color image at right, St. Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile and wife of Malcom III King of Scotts.

Matilda of Scotland
Matilda of Scotland, grew and married Henry I- Beauclerk, King of England and son of William I-The Conqueror. Their marriage tied the Norman and English lines together and from this we are descended.
[At left, Matilda daughter of Margaret and Malcolm III, wife of Henry I.] This genealogy is continued in (My family in history/Old World: The Normans)

[1] References:
•  A History of England Under the Anglo Saxon Kings, first pub. 1845 by J. M. Lappenburg, Kennikat Press, NY. In two volumes.
•  Anglo-Saxon England by F. M. Stenton, 3rd Edition, © 1971, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
•  An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England by Peter Hunt Blair © 1959, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
•  Alfred the Great: Maker of England by B. A. Lees © 1915, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, NY
[2] Ancient English names prefixed with “Ethel”, signified the honorary title of “noble.”
[3] The fashion of keeping birthdays does not appear to have been observed in the 9th Century. It mattered little when or where a ruler was born, on the other hand it mattered a great deal who his father was and if he came from royal stock.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Saxons

Old World: Irish & Scottish

(My family in history/Old world: Irish & Scottish)

During the Old Stone age, a land bridge extended between Denmark and Britain, and between Britain and Ireland. Many Pleistocene animals passed over this terrain bridge from the continent to Ireland, among which were the mammoth, hippopotamus, grizzly bear, brown bear, reindeer, the great Irish deer, red deer, wild boar, horse, fox and badger; not found in this ancient landscape were hyena, saber tooth tiger or Man.

Over the eons, the land bridge sank…

During the late Neolithic period, two peoples came by boat to settle inErin, these were;

•  The long headed, light eyed and fair skinned, Northern Europeans, and
•  The long headed, dark eyed and dark skinned, Southern Europeans.

From these two races was derived the bulk of the population of Erin, prior to the coming of the Gael.

The Gael or Milesians were a tall people, with long skulls and red, yellow gold or flaxen colored hair, straight noses and rosy white skin. They originally came from theNetherlands, the Elbeand Holstein and from recesses in the Baltic coast.

But the direct ancestors of the Gael, who first fought to settle in Erin, migrated from northwestern Europe to Spain, where they flourished—until the latter years in the life of a chieftain named, Breogan. And it is through Breogan that we follow the Irish and Scottish pedigree to Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I, King of England and toward the present [2].

[The interlacing lines of the Celtic Knot stands for “no beginning, no ending, the continuity of everlasting love and binding together or intertwining of two souls or spirits.”  The Celts did not record the meanings behind the designs they recreated  but scholarly speculation is that the symbols represented basic tenants of life, mankind and spirituality. The continual looping of the designs suggests themes of eternity and interconnectedness. Interwoven figures of people and animals may have represented the interdependent nature of life.  Two of more knots laced together symbolized lovers, God and man, and so on. Some ancient Celtic symbols have changed in meaning over time, having been influenced by the introduction of Christianity and the influence of other cultures. Circle knot represent eternity or the eternal cycle of life, death and rebirth. Triangles represent the threefold dominion of earth, sea, and sky or God, Son, and Holy Spirit. Square knots are shield knots, symbols of protection. Interlaced animals and men represent relationship, or emphasize the interdependence of mankind and nature. <>]

In ancient times Ireland was known to her residents as Erin.[1]

Of Spain, had two sons, Bile and Ith.

Of Spain, had a son, named,

Golamh-The Soldier, was later in life known as Milesius.

When Golamh had grown, he wandered to Scythia and married Sreng, daughter of the king. Later he went toEgypt where he married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh (Necro II ?). Princess Scota returned to Spain with Milesius and brought with her the Stone of Scone, the pillow rock used by Jacob when he had his famous dream. This rock still remains with her descendants-the kings of Great Britain and Ireland.

The descendants of Breogan had prospered in Spain, but hard times came with a drought and famine which lasted 25 years. During this time, the families strength was being wasted against other tribes over sovereignty of Spain. The clan held council and decided to invade Erin. Golamh’s uncle, Ith, was sent to reconnoiter the island. While in Erin, the local kings became suspicious and men were sent to intercept and kill Ith before he returned to his clan inSpain.

Ith was mortally wounded just before his boat sailed, where upon he died at sea.

To avenge his death, the sons of Golamh mustered 30 ships and 900 men and sailed for Erin. Among the crew were Golamh’s Egyptian wife, Scota and their sons Eber and Heremon.

Eber landed with his ships in Kerry, in southwest Erin, fought a battle near Tralee and routed the enemy. During this battle, Scota was slain.

Genealogical Relationship of Erin’s  Early Gaelic Settlers

Breogan of Spain
S: Ith             ↲(murdered in Erin) ↳   S: Bile ofSpain Necro II, Pharaoh ofEgypt  610-595 BC
↳ S: Golamh (Milesius)  + D: Princess Scota v  ↲ Zedekiah,  King of Judah 619-587  BC
S: Eber  ↲  (slain in battle) ↳ S:   Heremon Eochaid  + D: Tea Tephi  ↲
                        ↳  S: Irial Faidh, King ofErin
                ↳  Eithriall

[S: =son, D: =daughter]

Heremon Eochaid
After several more battles, Heremon and his brother assumed a joint sovereignty over the island; Heremon taking the northern half and Eber taking the southern half. A year later, the brothers quarreled and fought a battle, during which Eber was defeated and slain.

From this time on the House of Eber and the House of Heremon have been warring over kingship of the island.[3]

Heremon became the sole king and reigned for 15 years.

Heremon Eochaid, grandson of the Egyptian Pharoah, married Tea Tepi, who is recorded as being alive in 580 BC. Tea Tepi was daughter of Zedekiah (619-587), King of Judah.

The Gael, like the Germans of the time, did not apply themselves to agriculture. Their principle wealth consisted of flocks and herds of cows, pigs, sheep and horses.

The various grades of society were bound together by ‘stock taking.’ At each level, the inferior social class paid food rents from their livestock to the higher.

And so the with the passing generations, the people known as the Gael became part of the island population of Erin.

Irial Faidh Of Munster, King of Erin, reigned 11 years, his son,
Eithriall King of Erin, reigned 20 years and was slain at the Battle of Raeire.
Prince Follam Whose son was,
Tighernmas Was a very active monarch and continually at war. During his 50 year reign, he   began smelting gold and Irish clothing was first dyed purple, blue and green.  He died on Hallows Eve.
Prince Eanbotha Did not rule, his son was,
Prince Smiorguil Did not rule, his son was,
Fiachafn Labhruine King of Erin, reigned 24 years and was slain in battle.
Aongus Oilbhuagach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain in the Battle of Bealgadan by   Eochaidh Mumho of Munster.[4]
Prince Maoin Did not rule, his son was,
Rotheachta King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain at Cruachain.
Prince Dein Did not rule, his son was,
Siorna Saoghalach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain at Aillinn.
Prince Oliolla Olchaoin Did not rule, his son was,
Giallchadh King of Erin, reigned 9 years and was slain by Art Imleach.
Nuada Fionn Fail King of Erin, reigned 28 years and was slain by Breas, a son of Art Imleach.
Simon Breac King of Erin, reigned 6 years and was slain by Sedna Innaraigh.
Muriadhach Bolgrach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and was slain   by Enda Dearg.
Fiachadh Tolgrach King of Ewrin, reigned 7 years and was felled by Oilioll.
Duach Laighrack King  of Erin, reigned 10 years and was slain by Lughaidh.
Prince   Eochaidh Buillaig  Known as Echu the Victorious and father of Ugaine. He was said to have resided atTara; however, this is uncertain, because his name does not appear in any known series of the kings ofTara.
Ugaine   More King of Erin. Married Ceasir Chruthan, daughterof the King of the French. He reigned 30 years and was slain by his brother.
Cobhthach   Caolbreag King of Ewrin, reigned 4 years and was slain at Dinnrih.
Prince   Meilage Was  felled at the Battle of Claire.
Jaram   Gleofath King of Erin, reigned 7 years and was slain.
Conla   Cruaich Cealgach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and died atTara.
Oiloilla   Caisfhaichlach King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain.
Eochaidh   Foltleatham King of Erin, reigned 11 years and was slain. He had two sons (at least), one was Aongus Tuirimbeach, who became king of Erin, reigned 30 years and died at Tara during the year 324 BC. The other son, our ancestor was           ♥ Prince Labchore. (See below)


Tara—The Royal Home
Tara was the fortified royal home of the Ard Ri (High King) of Erin, the ceremonial and administrative seat of ancient Gaelic royal power. The remains of Tara stand on the summit and down the sides of a gently sloping, round, grassy hill, 500 feet above sea level and 200 feet from the surrounding plains. The ruins are located 26 miles northwest of Dublin and 5-1/2 miles southeast of Navah, in Meath County, Ireland.

Tara is perhaps the most famous of Irish sites, with a history going back to the Second Millennium BC to the Bronze age, then forward to its abandonment in the 6th Century AD.

Under the Gael,Tara essentially the first national Irish capital. It was here that during the inauguration of the Ard Ri that a great feast was held, through the symbolism of the feast, the king was united with his land in a ritual marriage.

The structures which can still be seen are the ramparts or defenses that surrounded and protected the royal homes and civic structures; the wooden houses have long since disappeared.

Description of Tara
The principle fortification was Rath Righ, the oval shaped structure occupying the top of the hill. Being some 853 feet in diameter on the longest axis, it consisted of two walls, one of stone and one of earth, with a ditch in between.

Inside Rath Righ, are two side by side mounds, which were the Forrad and Tech Cormac. The Forrad having two ramparts and two ditches was a place of public meeting and a judgment seat.

A visitor to the Forrad during the time of Tara’s occupation wrote, “And in what was considered the highest point of the city the king had a fair and well built castle, and in that castle he had a hall, fair and spacious, and in that hall he was wont to sit in judgment”.

Also within the ramparts of Rath Righ, is Tech Cormac (Cormac’s house), home of the king that reigned 254-277 AD; this circular rath has an extreme diameter of 244 feet.

Near the northern periphery of Rath Righ is the 66 foot in diameter and 13 foot high “Mound of the Hostages”. In ancient times there was a timber house on the 25 foot diameter flat top of this mound, in which the hostages lived. In very early times, before it took the name Mound of Hostages, it had been a prehistoric “passage grave”.

Also on the periphery of Rath Righ is a worn down 40 foot in diameter and 6 foot high “mound of the cow”, which history tells us was the grave of a celebrated, legendary cow.

To the north of Rath Righ as the Rath of Synods. Three great Christian synods are recorded as having occurred here; 1) When St. Patrick preached at this location in 433 AD, 2) When St. Ruadan pronounced the curse which caused Tara to be abandoned and 3) in 697 when Adamnan procured acceptance for the law exempting women from taking part in battles.

Outside of Rath Righ, on the north slope of the hill are the remains of the Banqueting Hall. This consists of two parallel mounds, the remnants of the side walls of the old hall, which was over 759 feet long and 46 feet wide. This banquet and convention hall was a great timber building standing 45 or more feet high and having 12 doors, it was ornamented, had carvings and was painted in a variety of colors. The interior was subdivided, with compartments partitioned off to accommodate guests according to rank and dignity. At banquets, the great company of guests were seated in exact order of dignity and priority.

The great conventions at Tarawere intended to be held every third year, but are thought to have been held less frequently. When a convention was held, provincial kings, minor kings and chiefs and the most distinguished representatives of the learned professions of law, history, poetry, medicine, etc. attended. The conventions, which also included feasts and games started about October 28 and lasted for two to four weeks and occasionally as long as six weeks. During the convention, the Provincial kings had separate houses for themselves and their retinue; there was one house with separate compartments for queens and attendant ladies. There was another house for the poets and professionals, in which they held their “sittings”.

Every day the Ard Ri feasted with his company in the great banqueting hall. The hall was also used for transactions of important business, such as making new regulations for the whole country and examining and checking the kingdoms historical records. These functions were performed by experts.

West of the Banqueting Hall is Rath Caelchon, named after a chief ofMunster, a contemporary of Corme MacArt. Caelchon died at Tara and the rath was built in commemoration of him.

The 258 foot in diameter, Rath Graine received it’s name from Princess Grainne who, according to legend, eloped with a lieutenant in her fathers army. In the location where Rat Grainne was built, there was a marsh whose water derived from Tober Well. The marsh was drained and dried prior to construction of Rath Grainne and the Fothad of Rath Grainne. South of Rath Righ is Rath Laegaire (Rath Laery), being some 300 feet in diameter, it is surrounded by two great ramparts.

West of Rath Righ is Laegh well, which signifies “calf” (calf well) the well is now dried up.

The houses of the general body of the people who lived near Tara were scattered on the slope and over the plains east of the hill.

Tara was home to many of our Gaelic ancestors. Now, over 2,000 years later, we view this home and ancient town site through photographs taken several thousand feet above where they once walked loved, slept and transacted the important business of the day. They could not have conceived of a technology which produced the cameras and aircraft that made the photographs possible. Did Conla Cruaich Cealgach ever look up through the space that would one day be the flight path of an aircraft taking photographs of his Tara? Did he feel a nebulous swirl of his descendants as they began to dimly see back through time, into his world?

Continuing the Genealogical Line of Descent
The following list compares the names of our ancestors between Ugaine More and Eochaidh Foltleatham (from the above pedigree) both in their Ango-Gaelic and Latinized versions.[5]

Anglo-Gaelic Version Latinized Version
Ugaine More Ugaine Mor
Cobhthach Caolbreag Cobthaig Coelbreg
Milage Moalgi
Jaram  Gleofath Erero
Conla Cruaich Cealgach Conlaich
Oiloilla Caisfhaichlach Elela Casiaclaig
Eochaidh Foltleatham (name version in preceeding list) Echachaltlechin (name version found in the following list)

This genealogical table continues the pedigree with Latinized spellings from a 14th Century Codex known as, The Poppleton Manuscript.[6]

Echachaltlechin Father   of Rothir Father   of Luigdig Father   of
Labchore Their Mogalanda
Firaibrig Rosiu Conore
Firanroid Siu Echdachrida
Ferroid Dedaid Fiacracheathmail
Fircechairroid Iair Achachantoit
Oengusaturuug Elela Achircir
Firmara Eogami Find Fece
Fiachra Etersceuil Cruithinde
Elela Armi Conarremoir Senchormaic
Feradaig Admoir Uamnaich
Forgo Eorbre Fedilinther
Manine Dare Dornmoir Dengusabuiding
Arandil Corpe Crumpchimi Fedilinthe Aislingig
Rom Ellatig Oengusaphir
Echach Muinremuir (see   below)

In the Third Century AD, a great famine developed in the province of Munster, Erin. During this time, a man named Cairbre Riada, son of Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, led a party of is tribe to the north of Antrim (located in NE Erin) and another across the sea to Alba (Scotland).

The party landing in Alba used force of arms to obtain a settlement amongst the Pics. The people of this new settlement retained the name of their founding father and were called the Dal Riata of Alban, those which remained in North Antrim were known as the Dal Riata of Erin.

The Dal Riata of Erin lived in a territory roughly 15 miles by 30 miles in size. This territory was located on the NE seaboard of Erin, bordered by the sea on the north and east, by the Bush River on the west and the territory of Lathatna on the south.

And the decades passed…

Pedigree continued from previous list

Eochaid Munremor Son of Oengusahir of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, Erin. His son was Erc.
Erc Of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, had three sons: Fergus, Loarn and Oengus. These sons and their extended families sailed  across theNorth Channel to Alban and reinforced the settlement of the Dal Riata in a territory which had become known as Argyll.
Fergus Mar Tradition says that Fergus and his 11 brothers were visited in their Irish home and blessed by St. Patrick. Fergus is the first of the royal line of Dal Riata to settle in Alban (Scotland) and is thought to be the first to adopt the Christian faith. He became chieftain of Argyll. His son was Domngart, see below.
The territory of the Dal Riata in Alban seems to have lain in Kintyre and the southern part of Argyll, and in Cowal on the other side of Lock Fyne. This area is about 50 to 75 miles NNE of the northeast coast ofErin. The “chief place” of the Dal Riata in Alban was the fortress of Dunadd, which was located on a rocky height in marshy ground and which commanded the narrow neck of land that is (in 1985) approximately the location of the Crinan Canal.
Domngart Sonof Fergus Mar. Was known to have flourished in the year 506 AD. Was chieftain of the Dal Riata in Argyll. Later in life he withdrew from the chieftainship and died in religion.
Gabran Is remembered for his military expedition far to the east of Argyll, deep into   Pict territory. He died about 558 AD, during the same year that his army   withdrew from the land of the Picts. Having secured a position in Alban, the   descendants of the Gael then reinforced and strengthened this position and   finally began to expand. This was a similar multi generation, unplanned  ‘strategy’ followed by the Saxons entering Briton (500AD+), the Vikings  (700AD +) gaining Normandy from France, the English colonists (more Norman descendants) on the North American seaboard (1600AD +).
Aedan Aedan was the first ruler of Argyll who manifested real ability and character. In 575 AD, he and St. Columba attended a convention in Drumnceat, during which the King of Erin agreed to recognize the independence of the Scottish Dal Riata and its princes. This friendly settlement and the peace which it   secured resulted in an annual celebration and public procession of   thanksgiving which was held every year at Drumncest down to 1646 [7]. Aedan was ordained king by St. Columba, where upon the family line rose to become independent sovereigns. He reigned 31 years, withdrew from office about 607 and retired to religion. He died at the monastery in Kintyre during the year 608.
Eochaid Bunde (Eugene III) Although he was one of Aedans younger sons, he succeeded his father to the throne. He reigned as king of Argyll for 21 years, from 607-628 AD.
Domnall Brecc (Donald) Was king of Argyll from 636-642. He was apparently trying to attack a British hill site at Strathc, south of the Forth, when he was defeated and killed in   battle during or about 642AD.
Domangart (Dongard) Was the sole King of Argyll from 659-672. He was killed in 672, possibly in an incident during the long drawn out warfare between Aedans descendants and the family of Gartnait of Skye Isl. During the later part of the 7th   Century, a military census was taken in Argyll which showed the expansion of  the descendants of Erin (of those who hadmigrated to the Alban settlement of the Dal Riata inScotland. See   below.)

Military Census of Erc’s descendants in Alban during the late 7th Century

Family   of: Houses Men
Oengus 430 645
Fergus -> Gabran 560 1490
Loarn 420 1120
Pedigree continued from above
Eochaid (Eugene IV) Domangart’s son, Eochaid seems to have become king in about 695, but lost his life a year later.
Eochaid (Eugene V) Upon death of Eugene IV, a man named Ferchar Foda ascended to the throne and ruled a few months. He was followed by Selbah, who ruled until 723 AD. Selback’s son Dungal became king and ruled  3 years before being outsted. In about 726, Eugene V, who was over 30 years old began to rule. With his   ascension to the kingship, the Dal Riata returned to rule by the old family   line. In 727, the ex king, Selback came out of retirement and fought Eugene V in an inconclusive battle. Eugene V died in the year 733 AD.
Aed Find (Ethafind) Is thought to have been very young when his father died, since he is not heard of until 768. He died in 778 AD and was credited with a reign of 33 years, which means if true, that he ascended to the throne in 748. Aed Find was  famous for the Dal Riata assemblies held during his reign, which possibly instituted legal reforms.
Prince Eochaid Son of Aed Find and father of Alpin.
Alpin -The Scott Was involved in aggressive warfare inGalloway where he died fighting the Picts. His son was, Kenneth Macalpin.

Kenneth Macalpin
Kenneth was regarded as having been a brave and able prince. His pedigree derived him from the Dal Riata of NE Ireland, through a line of kings in the west of Scotland for more than 300 years. He succeeded his father to the throne in 839 and was king of Argyll for two years. Also in 839, the Norsemen invaded and defeated the Picts. This afforded Kenneth the opportunity to obtain the Pictish throne, which he held in conjunction with the  crown of Argyll for another  14 years. His kingdom then included the districts of Argyll and counties of Perth, Fife, parts of Forgar, Dumbaryon and Stirling, with Sconeas the chief seat of royalty.

Before about 1100 AD, the kingship was referred to as “King of the Albans”, after about 1100 AD the kingdom began to be referred to as Scotland.

Kenneth had two sons and three daughters; we are descended from his son, Constantin.

Kenneth is remembered as the destroyer of the Picts and founder of the Scottish dynasty. He died in his dun at Fortevoit on the Earn River in he year 860 AD.

Constantin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 860. He soon found himself face to face with the Norsemen. The Norse invasion of northern Alban had increased in intensity. The invaders were entering the inland areas by the multitude of coastal inlets, as they moved they ransacked everything looking for treasure, they killed the inhabitants and carried off others as slaves. Their invasions, which inflicted much suffering and confusion on the Picts, now fell on the Dal Riata.

In 877 the Norsemen invaded the country in force, entered Fife. Defeated the Dal Riata and pursued them through the country. At Inverdovet, in parish Forgan, the Dal Riata made a stand, but were completely defeated. Constatnin along with many of his followers were slain.

Donald II
Donald ascend to the kingship in 889 AD. He too was forced to contend with the invasions and brigandry of the Norse, who had by this time gained possession ofCaithness, Sutherland and Ross. Donald was killed in battle in 900 AD while fighting the Norse at Dunnotter in Kincardineshire.

A few years later, in 904, King Constantin II (not our line) lead an army in an attack against the Norse at Strathern, where the Norse were defeated and their leader killed.

Malcolm I
Upon retirement of Constantin II in 943 AD, Malcolm I, the 43+ year old son of Donald II ascended to the throne. He was a bold man and attempted to extend his power beyond the SpeyRiver, but failed. He gained territory in the region south of the Forth River, which was at the time in a state approaching disintegration. Malcolm I reigned 11 years before being slain at Fetteresso, in Kincardeshire about 954.

Kenneth II
After Malcolm I death, a man named Indulf, son of Constantin II (not in our line) ascended to the throne where he reigned for 8 years before dying. After the death of Indulf, a contest for the crown broke out. On one side was Duff, son of Malcolm I, on the other side was Colin, son of Indulf. In a battle for the throne, Duff defeated Colin, but two years later Colin expelled Duff. Duff died shortly thereafter and Colin ended up being slain by the Britons in 971.

During the same year (971), Kenneth II, another son of Malcolm I (from which this pedigree continues) ascended to the throne.

Kenneth II immediately proceeded to throw up entrenchment’s at fordable points along the Forth River to defend against invasions from the south. He attacked the Britons at Strathclyde, then turned and launched two invasions into Northumberland.

Under his monarchy, the kingdom was slowly extended south in every direction. Meanwhile under the influence of the Church and due to other attracting affinities, the northern tribes were silently becoming a nation.

After reigning 24 years, Kenneth II was slain at Fettercairn in Kincardinshire in 995 AD.

Malcolm II
Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II ascended to the Kingship in 1005. He began his reign by invading Northumberland but was defeated and many of his followers were slain.

Years later, in 1018, he again attacked Northumberland, and defeated their army at Tweed. Through this victory he gained Lothian and all of the territory north of Tweed River for the kingdom. Also during his reign and without serious conflict, he incorporated the kingdom of Strathclyde into the realm.

In 1031 the great Dane, Cnut, having conquered England[8], turned northward and met Malcolm on the boarder of their domains. Malcolm submitted to Cnut, but after Cnut’s army withdrew, Malcolms oath of allegiance dissolved. Malcolm II reigned 29 years before being assassinated on25 November 1034.

Princess Bethoc
Bethoc, also known as Beatrix, was the daughter of Malcolm II and his third wife Aelguifu. Bethoc marries Crinan the Thane, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld and Lord of the Isle. Their children were Maldred and Duncan I. Son Maldred married Edith, daughter of Ughtred, Earl of Northumberland and his wife Elgiva, daughter of Aethelred II, King of England.  Bethoc’s husband Crinan was slain in battle with King Macbeth in 1045, a tale which will come to light in the preceding life story of Duncan I.

Duncan I
Duncan ascended to the throne of Alban in 1034. He married Maud, daughter of Siward, Earl of Northunberland, who was in turn related  across the generations to the Saxon line to Alfred the Great..

Duncan and Maud had four children, of whom we are descended from Malcolm III Canmore. Duncanwas a very able man, but when he ventured beyond the Spey River, his cousins, the Earl of Thorfinn and Macbeth, joined forces against him. (Macbeth was descended from Ferchar Foda), an earlier king of the Dal Riata, and thus related to the royal line. The combined forces of Duncan’s cousins were too great for his army and after a severe struggle, Duncan was slain by Macbeth near Elginin 1040 AD.

With the death of Duncan I, Macbeth claimed the throne. In 1045, Crinan, father of the late Duncan, mustered all of his followers and the opponents of Macbeth and attempted to drive him from the throne. A great battle ensued during which time Crinan was killed. To Macbeth, the crown must have  now seemed more secure. However, the late King Duncan had left a wife and two sons. Duncan’s wife Maud, had the support of her father, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Siward, in an attempt to put his grandsons on the throne, mustered a large army and naval force. King Macbeth was driven north to the hill fort Dunsinnane where there occurred a severe, but inconclusive battle. Earl Siward returned home with his army.

Malcolm III
Malcolm III Canmore (Ceann Mor=Big Head) was heir apparent and son of Duncan I.

Because of his grandfathers (Siward) campaign against King Macbeth, Prince Malcolm III gained possession of the territory between the Forth and Tweed Rivers. After gaining the support of his people, Malcolm rallied an army and met Macbeth beyond the River Dee on 15 August 1057, where Macbeth was defeated and slain.

The apparently very capable Macbeth was weakened by the effects of time and the single-minded attacks made against him. Although he was victorious in battles #1 and #2 against Duncan and Crinan, in preparing for battle #3, he was forced to flee to a fortified position and fight a defensive, inconclusive battle. With the forces that provided his continued strength weakened over time, he was then defeated and slain in the forth battle. Check…check…check…checkmate.

In 1058, Malcolm III ascended to the kinship of the Scots. At this time, Malcolm ruled bands of marauding warriors and a brutish peasantry. The people lived by barter and booty; their homes were of earth and timber behind defensive palisades.

Earlier in his life, during Macbeth’s rule, Malcolm III lived in the Anglo-Saxon royal court in Britain. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he returned the hospitality by giving sanctuary to the previously exiled royal family of the late Prince Edward the Exile, whose children were Edgar the Aetheling, Margaret and Christine.

In 1069, Malcolm married the exiled, Princess Margaret.

Malcolm was a brutal opportunist, ruthless, powerful and an intelligent warrior. He established a dynasty that forged a feudal state along the western European lines out of a northern Celtic tribal kingdom. He introduced the Motte-and-Baily Castle into Scotland from the Anglo- Saxon lands and adopted the efficient Norman military tactics.

Margaret was an excellent wife and had a large family by the King. Her influence over her husband and the people of Scotlandwere great. She softened and polished Malcolm’’ manners and taught him many important things. She was an accomplished Princess and a very religious woman. Dunfermline was her favorite place of residence and it was here that she had a hand in establishing a Benedictine monastery. She was devoted to St. Andrews, patron saint of Scotland and, established the Queensferry for pilgrims to cross the ForthRiver. She and Malcolm built St. Columbas monastery and church on the Isle of Iona.

In November 1093, Malcolm died while fighting at Alnwich Castle in Northumberland.

Margaret is reported to have died three days later, after hearing of the death of her husband and eldest son, on 16 November 1093. In her last words, she was thanking God for sending such tragedies to strengthen her soul.

Margaret’s saintliness was recognized and she was canonized in 1251 AD, she is now remembered as St. Margaret of Scotland.

With the children of Malcolm III and Margaret, the pedigree splits taking different family names only to rejoin generations later.

Matilda was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret in the year 1082. After the death of her parents, she  and her young brothers and sisters fled Scotland to the English court. Meanwhile, back in Scotland, Matilda’s Uncle Donald and her half brother Duncan struggled for control of the   kingdom. On 11 November 1100, at about age 18, Matilda, Princess of Scotland married Henry I, King of England, son of William I-The   Conqueror. Matilda second married William de Albini, Earl of Arundell and  Buckingham, which led to her becoming an ancestor to the Fitz-Alans, Earls of   Arundell.

St. David:
David was born to Malcolm III and Margaret in the year 1080. He, like his younger sister, Matilda, fled to the English court upon the death of their parents. His elder brother became  King of Scots and thereupon made David the Earl of Strathclyde- a holding in southernScotland.  David greatly added to his properties by narrying Matilda de Huntington,   daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland. She was also grandniece of William the Conqueror and the wealthiest woman in England. Their son was Henry, Prince of Scotland. David inherited the Scottish crown in 1124 and continued to develop an Anglo-Norman feudal system. He granted small estates to his knights and large tracts of land (fiefs) to his powerful friends who swore allegiance to him. He established the See of Glasgow and revived eight Bishoprics. Continuing his patronage of the Church   of Rome, he founded monasteries and abbots.His wife Matilda de Huntington died in 1131 and David died inCarlisle in 1153.

Henry, Prince of  Scotland
In 1139 Prince Henry married Ada de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, who was a grandson of William the Conqueror, and Elizabeth de Vermandois, who was granddaughter of Henry I, King of France and his wife, Anne of Russia. Their daughter was Margaret.

Daughter of Prince Henry and Ada de Warenne, married 1) Conan IV, Duke of Britany and 2) Humphrey de Bohun IV,  Earl of Hereford. Margaret and Hunphrey’’ son was Henry de Bohun, a Surety for the Magna Charta of King John. Several generations later this line produced Humphrey de Bohun VIII, who married Princess Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England. Humphrey VIII and Isabella’ great-grand daughter was Alinore de Bohun, who married Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III, king of England.

Richard the Fearless, Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm   I   ↓ Alfred the Great      +
Lady   Ealhswith
Richard   the Good II ↓ Kenneth  II   ↓ Edward the    Elder  +   ↓ (3) Lady Eadgifu
Robert  I, 6th Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm II +
Aelgifu (generations  later)
 (also, gens later)
William the Conqueror ↓ Henry   I, King of France  + Anne   ofRussia Bethoc    ↲   + Crinan the Thane Siward      ↲
(to   grandson) ↓ (to granddaughter)       ↓ ↳ Duncan I + Maude ↳ Edward the Exile   ↓
William de  Warenne  +   ↓ Elizabeth   de Vermandois ↳   Malcolm III + (2) Margaret
Matilda      De   Huntington + St. David  ↙ (son of Malcolm III & Margaret) (2) William de Albini    ↓ +  Matilda        ↓ +of  Scotland (1) Henry I    King ofEngland
(generations   ↓ later) ↳  Ada de   Warenne + Prince   Henry↲ of  Scotland Descendants   ↓ became   Fitz-Albans Matilda   the   ↓ + Empress Geoffrey   Plantagenet
(This line      ↓ descends to Richard Warren, one of my 1620 AD Mayflower ancestors. Margaret    ↲   + (2)   Humphrey de Bohun IV      ↓ Henry II      King of England +
Eleanor of Aquitaine
John             ↓ +King   ofEngland Isabelle   ofAngouleme
↳   Henry de  Bohun (Magna Charte Surety)          Henry III        ↲         King of England + Eleanor   of Provence
(generations   later) ↓ Edward I ↲    King of England + Isabel of Castile
Humphrey de Bohun VIII     + Isabella        ↲
(generations   later) ↓
From this   –> generation on, see post: Royal Grace to frontier colonist
Alinore  De   Bohun + Thomas of Woodstock (son of Edward III, King of England) ↓
(generations   later) ↓
Richard Sears, 1630AD  immigrant to


[1] The name, Erin, comes from the root which signifies fat, fruitful and perhaps with a special reference to the fertility of Irish pastures.
[2] Reference sources for the Irish and Scottish pedigree and historical accounts.

  • The History of Ireland to the Coming of Henry II, by Authur Ua Clerigh, first publ. 1910, reissued 1970, Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY.
  • A Social History of Ancient Ireland, Vol II, by P.W. Joyce, first publ. 1913 and reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, NY.
  • The Hisory of Civilizatioin in Scotland, Vol I, © 1892 by John MacKintosh, Publ. by Alexander Gardner,London,Eng.
  • Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
  • The Scottish World © 1981 by Harry N. Abrams, Inc, NY.

[3] In my time, of the late 20th. Century, there are no Kings in Ireland, but northern and southern Ireland are in a state of guerilla warfare, ostensibly with religious and political differences. England has been trying to suppress the fighting, assassinations and terrorism.
[4] It was the duty of the High Kings of the Gael not only to command their armies in person, but to fight in the forefront of the battle, which explains why so many kings perished by the sword.
[5] Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
[6] Ibid.  Ms. Anderson’s source for the list was the 14th Century Codex known as The Poppleton Manuscript. [Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms Latin 4126]
[7]  1646 AD was the date given by the historian, Colgan, who lived in the 1600s.
[8] For further information regarding the Dane invasion and conquest ofEngland, and it’s effect on our family line, see the Saxon Line, in particular Aethelred II, Edmund Ironside and Edward the Exile.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: Irish & Scottish

The ancient family

A prologue to European genealogy
by Mr. Larry
(Category: My family in history/Old World: The ancient family)

Like paratroopers from a distant age yet to come, the snowflakes fell. Each winter found these icy invaders in new territory, further and further south of their northern homeland. At first the snow quickly melted, and then it stayed– pressing deeper into the Spring, arriving earlier in the Fall.

In the northern regions and on the lower mountain slopes, it had become permanently entrenched. In the valleys and on the plains the summer’s temperatures became perceptibly cooler. Now herds of wildlife were moving south, only to be replaced by reindeer. The old trees were showing stress, many of their limbs barren during the summer; yet around their once sheltered trunks grew the hearty saplings of a different type of tree, ones that thrived in cooler, drier clime.

The sky was gray for much of the Fall and the great snow blitz which was inexorably leading to a Glacial Age, was underway.

Fifty Years Later

It was a cold, dark and uncertain time. Huddled together for security and warmth, The People comfort and console one another as they sit in a rudely constructed shelter against a cliff wall. It is late summer and already there is snow in the southern mountains. The elders recalled from their youth, a time when the snow level remained high on the mountains until mid winter. Game had been plentiful throughout the year, but that had all changed and the change could not be understood. Now, every Spring and Fall they had to move their families to the southern edge of the new hunting territory, a process that carried them farther and farther from their familiar northern mountain plains. Each Spring the game would not come as far north and each summer the herds seemed to move away earlier.

And so The People moved with the seasons, but as they proceeded south, they were unable to escape from the increasing cold.

Inside their bivouac and wrapped in skins, they could feel the cold air that came down from the mountain ice fields. Tomorrow they would abandon this shelter and move south for several more days before looking for a cave and building a winter camp.

As sleep covered their bodies, their minds roamed in dream. Some dreamed of warm bone marrow, others of the juicy summer berries which had been so hard to find this year, but all dreamed of getting away from the cold that seemed to follow them south all their lives.

On the European plains that had previously carried extensive Oak forests, the conversion to Poplar, then too Birch and finally to Tundra occurred within a period of about one hundred years. The change from interglacial warmth to glacial times occurred in less than two hundred years….and the Wűrm Glacial Age began.

20,000 Years Later

During the Ninth Millennium, BC, the environment was rapidly and severely modified by a change in climate. Those areas most profoundly affected were the territories bordering the last major glaciation and northern Africa.

In mid Europe, the periglacial and recently uncovered glacial fields quickly developed mixed Oak forests. This region, now growing richer in flora and fauna, constituted a marked improvement for human settlement.
By 8000 BC, the melting Scandinavian ice cap had uncovered the southern Baltic and this body of water was fresh water lake.

The European climate continued to moderate. By 6500BC the Post Glacial Period is considered to have begun; however, at the time there were still many bulky glaciers in the mountain valleys of the north.

Following the shrinking glacial fields and the Mastodon, as they retreated toward the north and east was a breed of Man whose ancestors had been trapped in Europe for the duration of the Ice Age. The  Neanderthal followed the Mammoth, the European Bison, the Saber tooth Tiger and Cave Bear out of Europe and into Extinction. He was bright, but too few in number, rigid in his diet and ways to adapt to the warmer climate with its changing flora and fauna.

For tens of thousands of years, the northern families of Man had been living on the vast lush, pluvial Saharan plains as their ancestral European homes were subjugated to the onslaught of the Wűrm Glacial Age. But now, the glaciers had receded; the European landscape was becoming extensively covered with forest.

And as the northern climate warmed, the rain belts abruptly shifted away from northern Africa toward Europe.

The greatly curtailed rainfall confronted the North African human population with sharply worse conditions. The land was becoming drier, the grass scantier and the grass eating animals fewer. These conditions could only be met by migration or a dramatic readjustment in Man’s way of life. So, The People moved in search of new hunting grounds; however, most were unsuccessful, perishing from either lack of food or in combat with other tribes of Men for control of diminishing hunting grounds.

Over time, the Saharan populations split into groups, moving south east and north. Of the tribes moving north, our family descended from those which skirted the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, continued north across the Caucus, between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea to settle in the steppes of eastern Europe.

As these men move north, it should be realized they knew nothing of receding glaciers or rain belts. They had no glimmering conception that each was a generation in a family that was successful, migrating or perishing locally.

[15,000 year old cave drawings, Altamira Cave, Altamira, Spain. The paintings depict bison, boars, and horses, leaping and plunging across the cave ceiling; they are perhaps the most beautiful cave paintings anywhere.]

In these distant reaches of time, before recorded history, men were part of historical events on so grand a scale that they can be referred to only as statistical masses, but not as isolated individuals. In reality, relatively few people followed the rain belts north and these moved so slowly between generations, that they were probably unaware they were moving.

And the children of The People settled in the steppes of Eastern Europe.

Hand in hand with the disappearance of the continental ice sheet and the mountain spawned glaciers was a reduction in the large herds of herbivorous animals, which were being replaced with the more scattered, less abundant and more agile deer, wild boar and numbers of smaller animals.

By 8000 BC, Man took a step forward from the nomadic life of hunting and fishing to a life based somewhat on agriculture. He was beginning to domesticate animals, to live in small settlements, in communities and to gather if not cultivate cereal crops.

Arriving in the Caspian Steppes, The People found wild sheep which had a wild distribution ranging from central Asia to southeast Europe.
By 6500 BC, the sheep were domesticated, providing meat, milk and wool, and becoming the main agent for the pastoral expansion of these people. [Above left: Neolithic tools,  ca 8000 BC]

Around 6000 BC, Western Europe was invaded by warm, moist air, Mixed Oak forests became even more extensive as the climate which had kept Europe cool since the glacial retreat, changed. The forests broke up human settlements, creating small isolated bands. The herds of grass eating animals almost disappeared and the successful Paleolithic way of life, in which men were still primarily big game hunters and nomads, was replaced by a way of life where man was a gleaner, fisherman or hunter of small game in wooded terrain.

From roughly 6000 BC to 2500 BC, the climate provided plentiful rainfall for the east European grassland steppes. The herdsmen flourished as the grasslands supported greater numbers of domesticated livestock, which in turn supported larger families.
[Above right: Replica of Neolithic Danubian house, ca 5000BC]

About 4000 BC, when the climate was moister than even now, The People of the northern steppe region had become fairly well settled into a Neolithic culture. They lived in wattle and daub huts often grouped in a circle and occupying a defensive site. Their subsistence was derived from growing cereals, breeding cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, pigs and hunting and fishing.

[Concept painting: Neolithic farming, ca 4000BC]

Just prior to 3000 BC, there were three broad varieties of men living in the West, these were:

the Northern Flatlanders, Highlanders and the Southern Flatlanders. These men had slightly different physical features and broad cultural differences as seen in the following table.

Varieties of Man living in the West just before 3000 BC.

Northern Flatlanders Highlanders Southern Flatlanders
Long heads Round heads Long heads
Long boned Stocky boned Less tall, slight bones (about 5 feet tall)
Lighter: eye, hair and complexion Darker: eye, hair and complexion
Inflected Indo European language Agglutinative language Inflected Semite language
Pastoral Gardeners Pastoral
Patriarchal Matriarchal Patriarchal
Sky worshipers Fertility gods, Earth worshipers Weather gods, storm worshipers
Herders of cattle and sheep Herds of antelope, camel and asses
Wore long hair and beards Closely cropped hair, no beards
Became European and North American Anglo Became Orientals Became Arabs

The geographic region of the Northern Flatlands is bordered on the south by a west to east spine of mountains which extend from the Pyrenees, through the Swiss Alps, the Apennines, the Balkan highlands and on to the  Himalayas. The eastern boarder is 80º East Longitude. The northern boarder lies south of the Netherlands. The heart of the Northern Flatlands lies in a region just north of and extending from the black Sea to the Caspian Sea.

The moist Atlantic climate which entered the continent about 6000 BC, prevailed in Europe and China for over 3000 years, but around 2500 BC it too began to give way. A warmer and drier Sub Boreal period settled across the continent for 1500 years, from 2500 BC til 1000 BC.

As the Steppe dried, the grass became scantier, supporting smaller herds. Nature exerted pressure on The People to either have smaller families, live poor lives or migrate.

Coincident with the drying of the grasslands, there occurred two major inventions which would eventually propel The People out of the Steppe:

1)  Living wild on the plains and having a natural distribution which extended from the tundra, across the Eurasian steppes to the forests, were horses. Horses were first domesticated on the Caspian steppes around 2250 BC. AT first they provided meat, milk and were used for haulage, but soon they were to be ridded in war.

The first traces of nomadic herdsmen began to show up around 2300 BC. These men spoke the Inflected Indo-European language and lived in felt tents supported by a light frame work.

As nomadic pastoral societies began to spread, signs of rank and wealth began to appear.

2)  By 2200 BC, the Copper Age had arrived on the Steppes. The invention of the battle ax and its use by the mounted nomadic herdsman began to establish these Aryan peoples as a local governing class. Small groups with great mobility began attacks against the peasant cultivators and settled peoples to the west.

3) The men that made the new metal, the new tools and the new weapons, in turn created opportunities for yet other kinds of men. The men that adopted these new tools and weapons were highly mobile herdsmen who lived in a land that was becoming drier and drier.

As time passed they became warrior herdsmen.

Around 1800 BC, these Bronze Age invaders now known as the Getic Nations, broke out of the drying Northern Flatlands, from an area north of the Caspian Sea. The first wave of these peoples moved into central Europe and India.

Six hundred years later, around 1200 BC, another wave swept out of the Northern Flatlands.
The Massa-Getae seem to have been the rear guard of the Getic Nations. Having developed and Iron Age technology over the centuries, these invaders exploded out of that area of the northern Balkans into central and Western Europe. As they migrated west toward the Atlantic, various groups spun off to form the nations of Classical History.

During the migration, interbreeding occurred between the Getae and the indigenous populations, but the ruling caste did not at all diverge from their warlike temper.

The invaders were held together by their military strength, which was derived from a combination of warriors and weapons and by a hierarchical priesthood. The royal kinsmen constituted a great family, it was they who held the highest offices and who married into other royal families. In the time of the XVIII Egyptian Dynasty, around 1450 BC, the foundation had been laid for international royal caste which has continued to some degree until the present. [Above: Bronze age swords.]

The Getae moved west. Near the Danube River, the Thracians settled. The migration turned north occupying southern Poland, and then turned west spinning off the Germanic nations. Part of the Germanic branch continued west and settled in northern France (Gaul).
Now, the main body of the Getae advanced north along the Vistula river, giving rise to the Vandals and Lombard’s. Expanding toward the west they left the Saxons and Angli. The migration continued from the shores  of the Baltic Sea into Scandinavia, settling Sweden, Norway and Denmark (Historically known as Jutland). Here the Aryans found themselves in an almost empty world and thus avoided hybridization,  while maintaining the stability and purity of their speech. They may have been the first settlers of this area, as it’s thought that the Lapps and Finns came in afterwards from Asia.

References from prehistory through the ‘Ancient Lines of Familial Descent ‘

  • The Dawn of Civilization, edited by Stuart Piggot, © 1967, McGraw-Hillbook Co.;
  • The Evolution of Man and Society by C,D,Darlington, © 1969, Simon andSchuster,NY;
  • The Evolution of Civilization by Carrol Quigley, © 1961, The Macmillan Co.;
  • The Weather Conspiracy by The Impact Team, © 1977 Ballantine Books, NY;
  • The Face of the Earth by G.H. Dury, © 1959,England.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Ancient family

The Jacob Seybert family, Part 2: Fort Seybert

[Continued from The Jacob Seybert family: Coming to America]

Part 2: From the events at Fort Seybert to the defeat of the NW Indian Confederation.

 Wednesday, 28 April 1758:  On this fateful morning, a fog lay upon the land shrouding South Fork Valley.  The immediate presence of the approaching Shawnee war party was unsuspected.
Eastward from the stockade, the ground fell rapidly to the level of the river bottom.  At the foot of the slope was a damp swale through which flowed a stream that was crossed by a log bridge.  A few yards beyond this was a spring which supplied water for the fort[1]. In the early morning hours a woman walked there for water and was unaware that an Indian, supposedly Killbuck himself, was hiding under the log bridge.

About this time, Sarah Dyer-Hawes,  the wife of Peter Hawes (deceased), went out with a servant boy named Wallace to milk some cows.  While following a path which today leads toward the circa 1910 Post Office (south of the fort), they were surprised by two Indians and captured.  Mrs. Hawes was said to have had a pair of sheep shears in her hand and to have attempted to stab one of the Indians.

William Dyer[2] had gone out to hunt earlier that morning and was waylaid by the Indians near the fort.  He had time to fire his weapon, but his flintlock refused to prime.  As he drew back the hammer for a second trial he was pierced by several musket balls fired by the Indians. William fell dead and the cocked flintlock dropped from his grasp, where it lay on the forest floor until decay of the stock separated lock and barrel.  Mr. J. Clem Miller, (son of William C. Miller), has in his possession a rusty flintlock with its hammer cocked that was found west of the fort. He believes it may have been in the hands of William Dyer when he was killed.

The gunfire alerted the fog shrouded settlement.[3] With the presence of the enemy now known, Nicholas, the 15 year old son of Captain Jacob Seybert, took station in the upper floor of the blockhouse.  From his elevated position, he mortally wounded an Indian, who raised his head from behind the ledge of rocks under the brow of a hill, one hundred yards eastward, in the direction of the spring.[4]

At this time a horseman was riding toward the fort, but hearing the gunfire and knowing something was wrong, he spread the alarm among the more distant settlers.

Presently, Chief Killbuck, who was leading the war party, walked into a clearing by the fort and called for a truce.  He called on the defenders to surrender the fort, threatening no mercy if they did not, but good treatment if they did. Killbuck had good reason for using deceit in an attempt to take the fort.  It was not a great distance from Fort Seybert to the more heavily populated regions of the Shenandoah Valley.  White reinforcements would certainly be coming, so time was an important element.

Jacob listened to the deceitful parley.

Although there were about forty persons in the fort, there were very few men amongst them.  Most of the men from Dyer Settlement had gone across the Shenandoah Mountain on business a day or so before, among them Matthew Patton, Michael Mallow and Andrew Trumbo.  Also, several families had fled the valley in fear that very morning.
Regardless, it is doubtful that Fort Seybert ever had a strong garrison.  Whether the fewness of adult men or a shortage of supplies, especially ammunition, had anything to do with Jacob’s decision is not known, but Jacob yielded to the demands of the enemy, which also included turning over what money and other valuables the defenders had.[5]

Just before the gate was opened, Nicholas Seybert took aim at Killbuck and was squeezing the trigger when the gun muzzle was knocked downward; the ball only raised the dust at Killbuck’s feet.
(Accounts differ as to whether Jacob or another man, Robertson, deflected the gun.)  In finding that
surrender had been decided upon, Nicholas was so enraged he attempted to use violence on his father, Jacob.
The gate was opened, and the savages rushed in.
Killbuck dealt Jacob a blow in the mouth with the pipe side of his tomahawk, knocking out several of his teeth.  Instantly the whites realized the horror of their situation and saw the inevitable doom which awaited them.  In a false moment of security, they had trusted the promise of savages and now were about to pay for the folly with their lives.  Nicholas did not surrender, but was taken prisoner by being overpowered.
When the settlers were secured and led outside, the fort was burned.  A woman named, Hannah Hinkle, bedfast at the time, perished in the flames.
The man, Robertson, had hid himself and as soon as the Indians withdrew, he hurried to the river, followed a bluff to conceal his tracks and made his way over the Shenandoah Mountain.[6]

According to Keister family tradition: When the Indians poured into the fort and the settlers found they were to be massacred, they broke and ran.  During the confusion, Hannah Dyer Keister hid with two small children and one infant among large rocks about 200 yards from the fort and remained there during the slaughter.  The boulders being huge, could hide several people amongst them easily.  Today the place where she hid is called Galloping Run.

The war party took their prisoners up the slope toward South Fork Mountain, where they stopped on a hillside about a quarter mile to the west of the burning fort.  After some discussion, the Indians separated their captives into two groups and seated them in rows on two logs.  The row on one log was for captivity; the other was for slaughter.  Those to be killed were tied hand and foot.  On a signal, the doomed persons were tomahawked and scalped.  Their bleeding bodies left where they fell.  Sarah Dyer-Hawes fainted when she saw her father sink below the blow of his executioner.[7]

Tomahawks continued to fall killing the already wounded Jacob Seybert, age 41 years; his wife Mary Elizabeth Theiss, age 37 ; Jacob’s mother Johanna (about 65 years old); and others.[8]

Suddenly, James Dyer, a tall 14 year old boy, broke away and ran ahead of several pursuing warriors to a thicket on the river a half mile to the east.  He was recaptured.
Of the thirty settlers captured within the fort, only eleven were spared.

Among the remaining captives were the children of Jacob and Mary Seybert:  Nicholas, age 15 years; ancestor Margaret, age 12; Catherine, 10; Elizabeth, 9; Henry, 7; and  George, 5.
The other surviving captives included James Dyer, Mrs. Sarah Dyer Hawes, Mrs. Jacob Peterson, pregnant Mrs. Mallow, and Miss Henever.

The Indians’ reason to spare the captives was to adopt them and, thereby, strengthen the tribe.  They wanted young men who would make valiant warriors and strong young women who could help the squaws do work.  They did not want old people, weaklings or cowards.  They preferred brunettes to blondes because they  more closely resembled the Indian complexion.
The Wallace boy’s blonde scalp was later seen by Sarah Hawes at the Indian village.

By now, it was past noon.
The war party, with their eleven remaining captives and their wounded comrade on a improvised litter, began climbing South Fork Mountain.  (Their route can be followed on the Pendleton County Map.)  The settler’s surrendered valuables, which included a half bushel of silver and gold coins[9],  had been collected in an iron kettle that carried on a pole between two braves.  As the trudging up the east slope of the South Fork Mountain became more burdensome and fear of pursuit made faster travel more advisable, the two Indians fell behind the group and hid the valuables.  It is doubtful that they returned to claim the treasure, as this was their last known visit to the area.  One of the women, Mrs. Mallow, had a crying baby.  To quiet it, an Indian seized the child and stuck its neck into the forks of a dogwood sapling and let the tree fly back.  The baby died.
The war party followed a pathway, still known as Indian Trail, which crosses South Fork Mountain through Dean’s Gap and the Deer Run area.  By nightfall they had reached Greenawalt Gap, having come about nine miles north of the smoldering Fort Seybert.
It was here that the Indian, which Nicholas Seybert had shot in the head, died of his wound.  He was buried 500 feet up the steep mountain side in a cavern.  Until 1850 or so, portions of the skeleton were still to be seen in the cave.
The next morning the group continued past the site of the burned Fort Upper Tract and through Germany Valley.[10]  Their second night’s encampment was at the mouth of Seneca River.
The party traveled without pursuit or mishap.  After a journey of nine days the band of Shawnee and their captives reached the Indian villages near Chillicothe, Ohio.[11]

The next day after the massacre at Fort Seybert, a relief party led by Captain Brock, undoubtedly notified by Robertson, arrived at the smoldering ruins.  It was too late to do anything, except bury the slaughtered victims.[12]  Their ghastly corpses were interred in one common grave, undoubtedly, very near the spot where the tragedy occurred.  A stone wall was erected around the grave, where it stood for nearly a century.  The wall was removed by a Road Overseer, who was willing to overlook common decency and respect for the resting place of the dead, inorder to fill a mud hole.

Three weeks after the massacre, Daniel Smith was named administrator for the Jacob “Sivers” estate.  The estate was appraised on November 8th, 1758, recorded on November 15th and consisted of:
Horses – 4 mares, 3 colts, 2 yearlings
Cattle – 1 bull, 7 cows, 6 calves, 2 steers, and 6 young cattle
Parcel of old iron, parcel of copper
Colter and shears, Kettle and Basin
The estate, valued at 54 pounds, 4 shillings and 3 pence, was subsequently sold to pay for provisioning the militia.[13]  (See: Appraisal of the Seybert Estate, included in this document.)

George Washington estimated the total loss of life at Fort Upper Tract and Fort Seybert at sixty persons.  The burning of the forts and general havoc wrought in the foray delivered a severe blow to the infant settlements, but the land was not abandoned.

The captive pioneer children lived in a Shawnee Indian village near Chillicothe, Ohio.
“After a year or more with the Indians, Nicholas Seybert arranged for the escape of his brothers and sisters.  He had become a trustee with the Indians, and was allowed to carry on fur trading with the French.  One evening when a wagon load of furs was taken out of camp he put his brothers and sisters in the bottom of the wagon, piling furs on top of them.  As the wagon was driven away Nicholas
remained at camp, manifesting surprise when the Indians discovered their disappearance.  He pretended to be as disturbed as the Indians.  That same night he made his escape.”[14]

Several years after his return, Nicholas Seybert sold his father’s farm to John Blizzard and made a new home on Straight Creek.  Some of his descendants still live in that vicinity.
From 1768 to the early years of the Revolutionary War, he owned a Tavern or Inn at Fredericktown, Maryland.
Nicholas went into the Revolutionary War from Maryland and became a Lieutenant.  He later dropped out of the Maryland regiment to join a Virginian regiment. After the war, he spent the rest of his life on Straight Creek, in present day Highland County, Virginia, where he and his brothers owned land.[15]  (See: Pendleton County Map.)

James Dyer remained among the Indians for about two years, occasionally accompanying trading parties to Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh, Ohio.  On his last trip, he was sent with an Indian to buy bread.  Eluding his companion, he entered a cabin and sought protection.  A French trader’s wife hid him behind a trunk and stacked furs over him.  In searching for James, the Indians came into the hut and removed a few furs, but stopped before he was discovered.

About a year and a half after making his escape, James accompanied his brother-in-law, Matthew Patton, to Fort Pitt to sell cattle.  A cattle dealer told them that a tribe near there had a red headed woman among them. Matthew arranged for a store dealer to have the woman come to the store.  The woman was his sister, Sarah Dyer Hawes.  She was  hidden behind and under the store’s counter and covered with hides.[16]

Sarah’s captivity made some changes in her appearance and manner, so that when she returned, her young daughter did not recognize her.  In time the child accepted her identity. Sarah’s husband, Henry, had died in 1755, before the massacre.  In 1764, a couple years after escaping from the Indians, she was remarried  to a Robert Davis.  Sarah died circa 1818, at about 80 years of age, leaving behind at least 25 grandchildren.

The pregnant Mrs. Mallow gave birth to a son, Henry, in captivity.  She eventually returned to her husband Michael, just before he was to be remarried.

As cruel and unmerciful as the Shawnee were in war, when a captive was saved and adopted into an Indian family the captive was treated the same as any other member of that family.  Every effort was made to make adopted whites content and create in them a willingness to stay.  Returned captives stated that they were treated with great hospitality and kindness, according to the Indian’s ideas of these virtues.  When the colonial militias and later the United States army forced the surrender of white captives, there was often great sorrow at the parting.  The Indians delivered their beloved captives with utmost reluctance, and shed torrents of tears over them.  As long as the army remained in camp, the Indian families would visit their adoptee daily, bringing them corn, skins, horses and other materials they had bestowed on them while in their families.[17]

This first stage of the Pioneer Period was brief. It marks little more than the gaining of a foothold on the new soil. It was the story of a weak settlement in the remote corner of a huge country.

With the collapse of French power in America in 1760, the Indian peril became less acute; however, the Indians carried on a war of their own account.

Meanwhile, a renewed wave of immigration swept into Highland County, into that part which became Pendleton County, West Virginia.  Land values rose, and highways were extended.  Church and school houses made their appearance.

In 1764 the Indians were forced to give up some thirty two men and fifty eight women and children as captives.[18]

During 1770, about 10 years after her escape from the Indians, 25 year old Margaret Seybert married 24 year old William Janes IV.[19]  William and Margaret developed a plantation on Straight Creek about 25 miles southwest of old Fort Seybert and the Dyer Settlement.  Their property was possibly either adjoining a part of or very near William’s parents’ plantation, which had been purchased in 1751.
The William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert plantation (ca 1770-1801) included properties located between 3 to 4 miles north of Monterey, on both the north side and within the forks of Straight Creek and West Straight Creek.  In this location the plantation was about 2.5 miles south of  the confluence of Straight Creek and the South Branch of the Potomac.  Nicholas Seybert and his brothers also bought property and lived in this area.

From 1764 to 1774 there was a period of relative peace on the “west” Virginia frontier.  During this time the Pendleton County Deed Book showed the conveyance of 200,000 acres of land to the “Whites” from the Shawnee, Delaware and Iroquois  Indians.  The payment was to be made in  blankets, shirts, stockings, ribbon, calico, serge[20], thread, gartering, strouds, and callimancoe; also in knives, needles, tobacco, tongs, brass kettles, powder, lead, gunflints, vermilion and ten dozen
jewsharps.[21]  The Indian Tribes were being pushed west and northwest by colonial expansion.

Meanwhile on Straight Creek, William and Margaret started a family with the births of son, Henry, born 1771 and daughter, Eleanor, born 1773.

1774 to 1779 was a time when great change swept through the American colonies:
1)  There was a successful revolution against England.
2) The French, who had been our enemies during the French and Indian War, were now celebrated allies in our fight for freedom.
3)  A fledgling, post Revolutionary War colonial government formed and signed the Constitution of the United States.

During 1774: Beyond the Shenandoah Mountains, a ten year period of peace with the Indians came to an end.  In a band stretching from the Indian Territories of Ohio into ‘west’ Virginia, there developed a long period of hostilities.  Beginning in 1774 and lasting twenty years, a renewed state of guerrilla warfare existed between the settlers and Indians.  During this long period there was always the chance that some war party might pass through the broadening zone of settlement and once more bring the tomahawk and torch to the realization of people who knew from experience what these things meant.

At their plantation on Straight Creek, a tributary of the South Branch of the Potomac, the William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert family continued to grow with the births of John, born in 1777, Samuel in 1779, my ancestor ♥ William V in 1780, Edward in 1783, Elizabeth in 1785, and Margaret in 1787.[22]

In 1789, George Washington, who in his younger years directed that Fort Upper Tract and other frontier forts be built on the western Virginia frontier during the French and Indian Wars, and who went on to command the Colonial Militia during the American Revolution, was overwhelmingly elected first President of the American Republic.

Records for 1793 show 47 years old William Janes was a company officer with the rank of Captain and commanded 67+ men in the First Battalion of the 46th Regiment.[23]  One can imagine the 48 year old Margaret Seybert backing her husband’s periodic duties as Captain of the local militia over the years.  Most of her life was spent in a tense and hostile relationship with the Savages.  About 35 years earlier the Indians killed her mother and father, grandmother, step-grandpa, and others she knew and loved and took her and her siblings into captivity. Then, for the last 19 years there existed a state of guerrilla warfare between the Indians and settlers.

1794: During the second term of his Presidency, George Washington appointed Revolutionary War hero, General Anthony Wayne, to command the U.S. Army against the Northwest Indian Confederation.

On 20 August 1794, General Wayne, with a force of one thousand seasoned soldiers, met and routed two thousand warriors who had gathered for the final confrontation near Fort Miami on the Maumee River in the Ohio Territory.  The decisive defeat of the Indians at The Battle of Fallen Timbers, lead to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.  By terms of the treaty, the Indians were forced to cede to the United States most of Ohio and a large area which later became Indiana, Illinois and Michigan.

During September 1832, as per the treaty, the Shawnee were removed from Ohio and sent across the Mississippi River to Indian Territory on the Kansas River.

The next time our family line encountered the Shawnee was by Pulaski Easton: during the California Gold Rush of ’49 (see associated article). By this time, they were a peaceful, impoverished tribe, living on the Great Plains in ‘Indian Territory’, west of Independence, Missouri.[24]

As listed in Grave Register II, Pendleton County, West Virginia, Jacob Seybert and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Theiss Seybert, were killed in the massacre.  In 1936, the descendants of Roger Dyer had the grave site enclosed with a wall of native stone.  In 1986, Roger Dyer Family Association installed a bronze plate on the stone wall stating:

“Grave site of the 17 victims of the Fort Seybert Massacre, April 28, 1758.
Known names: Capt. Jacob Seybert and wife, Roger Dyer, Wallace boy,
William Dyer, Henry Haus, John Regger and wife.”[25]

The ground, on which Fort Seybert stood and upon which now stands a mortar and stone wall surrounding the grave of those slaughtered at Fort Seybert, belonged to Jacob Seybert.  In 1768, Nicholas Seybert, son of Jacob, sold the 210 acre tract to John Blizzard.  One of John Blizzard’s heirs sold the land to a minister named, Ferdinand Lair, in about 1800.[26]  Ferdinand Lair willed the land to his grandson, John Miller.  The land was willed down the Miller family to William C. Miller (alive in 1916)  and his sons, J. Clem Miller (alive in 1936) and Ed T. Miller.  In the late 1980s the property belonged to elderly Paul Conrad, a widower, who married a Miller daughter.

Footnotes below:
[1]  In later years, a willow cutting was planted near the spring which grew into a tree measuring four and a half feet in diameter.  It is thought that the tree subsequently dried up the spring.
[2] William was the eldest son of Roger Dyer. William had a wife and two sons.  His brother, James Dyer, and sister, Sarah Dyer-Hawes, survived the attack as captives.
[3] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[4] The ledge where the Indian was shot is, in the 20th Century, in front of the main entrance of the William C.  Miller house, at a distance of about 100 yards.
[5] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[6] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[7] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[8] Pendleton County Historical Grave Register, (Pendleton County: West Virginia, 1977), 52.
[9] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[10] “Origin of the Treasure Mountain Festival,” Treasure Mountain Festival Newspaper, 14-17 Sept 1989,    (Franklin:Pendleton County,West Virginia)
[11] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[12] From correspondance with my cousin, Doris Grubb, and husband, John Hughes, who visited the historic Fort Seybert site in December 1988 and spoke with Paul Conrad (related to the deceased Miller family by marriage.) John quoted Paul as saying of the massacre victims, “I always heard
they were killed up there on the hill where they’re buried.”
[13] Morton, History of Highland County, equivalent to $180.71 in 1910.
[14] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[15]  Correspondence with Doris Grubb Hughes. While looking for literature regarding Seybert descendants  at the Monterey, Virginia, public library, Doris and John Hughes were approached by the Head Librarian who while speaking with them claimed to be  a descendant of Nicholas Seybert. She said that Nicholas had owned 3000 acres in the vicinity of Monterey.
[16]  Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[17]  Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, Vol. I and II, (Cincinnati: C.J. Krehbiel & Co. Publishers and Binders, 1904)
[18] It is estimated there were approximately 2,000 incidents of kidnapping of white settlers during the French and Indian War.
[19] Evelyn Halkyard Vohland, Betebenner – Horney and Allied Families,  (Shelton: Clipper Publishers, 1981)
[20] A twill weaved fabric made of silk or wool and often used for  military uniforms.
[21] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[22] Bell, The Seiberts
[23] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[24] Article, Pulaski Easton – California ’49er, mentions the Shawnee briefly, Line C: Midwestern Migration.
[25] “Marker Placed at Grave of 17 Victims of Fort Seybert Massacre”, The Pendleton Times newspaper
[27] October 1988, (Franklin: Pendleton County , West Virginia)
[26] Deed recorded in Pendleton County, West Virginia.


Filed under My family in history, __2. Settlers and Migrants

The Jacob Seybert family, Part 1: Coming to America

Part 1: From Germany  to the South Fork of the Potomac, late April 1758
Compiled by Mr Larry, 1988 – 1994

With the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, most of the hostilities in Europe’s Thirty Year War ceased.  The German emperor became a figurehead and the country collapsed into about three hundred regional entities, each with full sovereignty.
The territorial princes and rulers became free to build their own military powers and finances without interference from above or below, thereby consolidating the basis for their increased independence and for absolute government within their own territories.

In these times, during the year 1717, Jacob Seibert was born to the family of Christopher and Johanna Seibert in the small town of Sotern, Saarland, Germany. Jacob was the fourth and last child in the family which included two brothers, Adam and Wendel, and a sister, Catherine.[1]

On 28 July 1732, at fifty years of age, Christopher Seibert died in Sotern, thus disrupting the family’s well being at a time of deep rooted, national economic problems.

Saarland, like other parts of southern Germany, had suffered untold hardships during the Thirty Year War and during the 17th Century struggles for empire between France and Austria. German emigration rates were rising as a result of Europe’s unsettled political machinations and unfavorable economic conditions within Germany’s many principalities and ducal territories.

Among the economic problems were: 1) an oppressive and annoying compulsory service to the overlords, a remnant of medieval feudalism, 2) an increasing repeal of former grazing and wood gathering rights in ducal forests, and 3) mounting taxes which rested on the land owning classes alone. As a result, many sold their real-estate and emigrated.

A statesman of the period wrote: “These days the farmer is the most miserable of all creatures, he is being annoyed constantly with compulsory service, running errands, game beatings, work on fortifications and the like.  What is rescued from the wild game, a rough official may take to pay out standing taxes.  The barns are empty, the dwellings threaten collapse, the inhabitants appear miserable and ruined.”[2]

In addition to the enforced labor, there were gradually introduced grazing fees, hunting fees, watch fees, plowing fees, dyeing fees, food tax, tax on second hay crops, hand work rendered, money paid in lieu of labor with teams, the Prince’s personal tax, chimney tax, water tax, the so called “hearth tax”, etc.  There were also the percentage of one’s Shrovetide fowls and Martinmas geese.

For four years after the death of her husband, Johanna Seibert raised her children alone. In 1736 Johanna married Henry Lorentz, who brought a daughter to the family from a previous marriage.

Within two years of their marriage, the family decided to emigrate to America.

During the spring of 1738, several great-grandsons of Nickel Seibert, the miller, set out from Saarland for the Pennsylvania colony in North America.  Among those emigrating were: Johanna Seibert-Lorentz, her children Wendel, age 23; Jacob, age 21; Catherine; and husband Henry Lorentz, and his daughter. Several Seibert cousins, including two grown males and their sisters were also in the party of emigrants.

The travelers left Sotern and proceeded north then west through Germany and on to the port city of Rotterdam, Holland.  “The journey to Rotterdam was as a rule made by water. It must not, however, be imagined that one simply got aboard ship and went merrily down the valley.  There were several dozen toll – stations to be passed along the Rhine; everywhere there was a delay, many times
intentional, in order to force the people to stay overnight and shell out their money.”
The 280 mile trip down the Rhine River took four to six weeks! Occasionally, the already poor emigrants arrived in Rotterdam having spent what little money they had.

After making arrangements and waiting in Rotterdam for an undetermined time, the Seibert’s boarded the ship, Glasgow, and sailed for America, with a brief stop at Cowes, Isle of Wright, England.[3]  An example of the “Contract for Transport”, a common agreement between emigrants and the shipping firms of Rotterdam, is included immediately below.  The 1756 form seen below is probably  similar to the one agreed to by the Seibert group and their fellow passengers in the summer of 1738:


Agreement For Transport From Rotterdam To Philadelphia
Know All Men By These Presents, especially those whom it may concern,
that we, the undersigned passengers, have contracted with Messers Isaac &
Zacharias Hope, Merchants in Rotterdam, even as we here with contract for
ourselves and our families in the following manner:

The above mentioned Messers Issac & Zacharias Hope shall furnish us
a good, comfortable, and well-sailing ship, inorder with the same to have us
transported to Philadelphia.

And to that end there shall be made in the ship firm bunks for each
whole freight, six feet long and one and one- half feet wide.

The above mentioned Messers Issac & Zacharias Hope shall fit out the
said ship well with good and proper provisions, namely: good bread, meat,
bacon, flour, rice, barley, peas, syrup, butter, beer, good fresh water, and
what ever else is necessary; likewise the ship shall be twice daily cleaned
with vinegar and juniper berries to purify the air; and daily there shall be
given out to each whole freight the following:
Sunday – one pound of beef cooked with rice
Monday – barley with syrup
Tuesday – one pound of white wheat flour
Wednesday – one pound of bacon with peas
Thursday — one pound of beef cooked with rice
Friday – one pound of white wheat flour and one pound of butter
Saturday—one pound of bacon, one pound of cheese and six pounds of
bread   for the entire week.

Besides, everyday, one quart of beer (as long as it remains good) and
two quarts of water daily, to each whole freight.
If brandy is desired, it shall be given each morning to every person who
desires it. Lovers of tobacco, however, shall receive on enough to take along on
the journey.

We the undersigned passengers, want to have freedom (as God’s weather
permits) to cook a few victuals for ourselves and the little children, and to
make use of the fire from six o’clock in the morning til the same time in the
evening; also permission to be on deck; yet those who are sick are especially
to enjoy the right to help themselves to the fire and water as often as they
need it for their refreshment; likewise there shall be provided on the ship all
kinds of aromatics and also wine so that the sick can be better cared for.

In Return For Which
We the undersigned passengers promise to pay the above mentioned Messrs,
Isaac & Zacharias Hope in Rotterdam, or on their order, for transport of
our persons, baggage and household goods, from Rotterdam to Philadelphia

Seven And One Half Doubloons

for each whole freight, and goods that we have with us shall be
delivered on land there gratis, without our being forced to pay anything
therefore to the stevedores.

Now the freights shall be reconed in the following manners: children
under four years old are free; from four to fourteen years  they shall pay half freight; and fourteen
years and upwards, full freight…

In Witness where of we have validated this Contract with our personal  signature.

Done in Rotterdam, February 16, 1756

(signed)  Isaac & Zacharias Hope

[A list of prospective emigrants and their portions in the freight follow.]


It would be nice to think that our emigrant ancestors received the fair treatment promised in their contract, “But how often must have happened, that emigrants lost their entire baggage on the way, through treachery, theft or violence.  Contemporary reports are filled with hair raising accounts of this.
The crossing of the Atlantic – remember this was 1738 – took eight to twelve weeks.
There was much hardship, illness, death, hunger, storms, lack of water and crowded conditions…”

 Tuesday, 9 September 1738:  Four or five months after leaving Sotern, the Seibert-Lorentz group landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and were authorized to enter the colony.[4]  Jacob, being under the age of consent was apparently not required to sign his name to the legal immigration document.  A copy of the ships passenger manifest, showing the names of Johan Jacob Seibert and Henry Lowrence, accompanies this document.[3]

The earliest record of the Seibert family in Germany dates to the baptismal record of Nickel Seibert of 26 October 1569.  It was about this time that surnames were widely adopted in Europe.  When the Seibert’s landed in America, a clerk unaccustomed to Germanic spelling convention, changed the two century old SEIBERT – to SEYBERT. Jacob continued to use the old spelling in his signature; however, be aware that the new Seybert spelling became a custom, as seen in the name, Fort ‘Seybert’.

When immigration procedures were finished, the Seybert-Lorentz extended family left Philadelphia and proceeded sixty to eighty miles northwest to the recently settled Tulpehocken region of Lancaster County (since changed to Berks County), Pennsylvania.  When the Seybert group reached their German
relatives and friends there was a happy reunion.[5]   The Tulpehocken region was a fertile valley settled in 1723 by a colony of Germans and which over the years continued to draw German immigrants.  In the next century the descendants of these families would move west with their gaily
painted covered wagons and be known as, ‘The Pennsylvania Dutch.’

26 February 1739 A half year after landing in America and at age 22 years, Jacob Seybert married Mary Elizabeth Theiss. The services were performed by J. Casper Stoever.

28 March 1739:  A month after their marriage, Jacob received a 209 acre tract of land in Bethel Township from the Penns.

1740 – 1747:    Jacob and Mary farmed their land and began a family with a son, Nicholas, born 1743; ♥ Margaret, born 1745; and Catherine, born 1747.[6] (See also the associated blog, William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert)

It was during this time that word came into the middle colonies, especially Pennsylvania that there
was a very beautiful and fertile country in the river valleys southward.  This area was composed of three rivers which flowed north to form the Potomac, each separated from the other by a mountain range.
A beautiful new valley was found on the South Fork of the Potomac, the most easterly of the three rivers.  Its valley was separated on the east from the populated Shenandoah Valley by the Shenandoah Mountain.  It was separated on the west from the South Branch Valley by the South Fork Mountain.  South Branch Valley was already familiar to pioneer settlers, being referred to as the “upper
tract” of Virginia.

Early 1748:  Family members attending the Trinity Reformed Church in the Tulpehocken region were: Jacob Seybert and his wife Mary Theiss; Mary’s sister and brother-in-law, Christian Lauer; Johanna and husband, Henry Lorentz.

Later 1748:  Jacob and his family, his mother and stepfather and other relations left their farms in  Tulpehocken region of Pennsylvania and traveled 180 miles southwest to the South Fork valley wilderness of Highland County,[7] Virginia.  In the mid 1700s, the area where they settled was on the leading edge of the Anglo-Saxon colonization of America.
Jacob’s brother, Wendel remained in Pennsylvania.

An 18th Century contemporary description of the “west” Virginia wilderness:
“We may picture to ourselves a primeval forest broken only by a few dozen clearings, nearly all of those lying on or near the larger water courses.  In these clearings were the small houses, usually of unhewn logs.  Around the houses were small, stump dotted fields of corn, grain and flax.  The pens for livestock were strongly built, so as to protect the animals from the bears, wolves and catamounts that were the cause of continual anxiety and occasional loss.  The ‘broads’ leading out from the settlement were simply bridle-paths, and commodities were carried on the backs of  animals.” (Photo taken along the South Branch of the Potomac)

 1749:  In South Fork Valley, where the Dyer Settlement formed two years earlier, the inhabitants wrote a petition to Augusta Court House (now Staunton, Virginia) asking that a road be opened through the wilderness:  “…Petition of inhabitants and subscribers of the South Fork of the South Branch of Pattomuck are very much discommoded for want of a road to market and to Court if occation but espetialy to market.  We have found a very good way for a road: Beginning at John Patton’s over the mountain to Cap. John Smith’s…” [8]

 1753:  Meanwhile, living in South Fork Valley, Jacob and Mary increased their number of children with the births of: Elizabeth born in 1749; Henry, born 1751; and George, born 1753.

Twenty seven tracts of land were surveyed on the wilderness plateau of South Fork Mountain, west of the Dyer settlement. Of the twenty one persons applying for land patents, sixteen were newcomers in Highland County, including Jacob Seybert.

Small Shawnee hunting parties often visited the homes of the settlers.  Through them and the traders, the Indians picked up serviceable knowledge of the white man’s tongue.  That their English vocabulary was well supplied with terms of abuse and profanity, is significant of the sort of language they were accustomed to hear.[9]

Meanwhile, the European settlers cut the trees and cleared the ground thus scaring away the game.  This in turn caused the Indians to give up land and fall back in pursuit of their food supply.  White and Indian relations were further strained by the fact that the European’s, except for the French, did not go to any pains to win or keep the good will of the “Red men”.

In the fall of 1753, the Shawnee of the South Fork of the Potomac were visited by neighboring Indians from across the Ohio River, who urged them to move out of their (West Virginia) country. Among those at the conference was Killbuck, chief of a small band of Shawnee, who lived and hunted the region where upon sat the cabins and farms of the Dyer Settlement.  Killbuck was known, even amongst the “Whites,” as an Indian of “much ability and strong mental powers.”  At the conclusion of the conference, the Shawnee accepted their red brothers’ offer to move west, and in the spring of 1754 they quietly and abruptly left.

Before the beginning of hostilities, Killbuck had lived among the settlers and was acquainted with many of them.  In particular, he held a grudge against Peter Casey. Casey had once employed Killbuck to bring back a runaway slave. When Killbuck delivered the slave, Casey refused to pay him the promised sum.  In an altercation that followed, Casey knocked Killbuck down with his cane, an indignity not to be borne by the lowest Indian, much less by a proud chief. Killbuck controlled his anger at the time, but when war broke out he relentlessly sought to kill Casey; however, he never found the opportunity.  Yet, according to the Indian custom, an injury or insult from one man might be avenged upon anyone of the community to which he belonged.

Prior to the year 1754, various small tribes or clans, belonging to the general Shawnee nation, roamed over the Valley of Virginia and the valleys and mountains of Pendleton County. Although they established settlements and formed villages, their dwelling was largely transitory.  They did not recognize individual or tribal ownership of the land.  The whole area was a great hunting ground into which they came, where they stayed, and from which they left of their own will.[10]   The mountain region was rich with wildlife including ground hog, opossum, raccoon, squirrel, rabbit, bear, wild turkey, deer and panthers. In the earliest days of settlement there had even been a few elk and buffalo.

21 May 1755:  Jacob Seybert purchased the 210 acre John Patterson Jr. farm and mill in the Dyer Settlement.[11]  (See: Pendleton County Map)  The same day, his step brother-in-law, Nicholas Haffner, bought an adjoining farm. Jacob’s brother-in-law, Matthais Theiss, also settled in the area, as did Jacob’s mother and step father, Johanna and Henry Lorentz.[12]

Between 1755 and 1759, the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and “west” Virginia were exposed to increased attack as the French and Indian War flared anew. Boarder settlements were harassed by raiding parties of Indians, who at times acted alone; while at other times were accompanied by French soldiers. The resulting damage was great and was done by a comparatively small number of warriors.

Families of settlers located up and down the remote valleys were not entirely unprotected.  They “forted in” themselves, meaning their homes were built with facilities similar to a contemporary
military blockhouse.  The log house of the frontier was built considering a possible attack.  Commonly the structure was constructed near a spring.  The door could be strongly barred and the windows were too small for a man to crawl through.  There were loopholes in the walls through which the inmates could fire their guns.
And if possible, it was not too near a spot where the enemy could find cover.  A few of these old log houses still stand in this region of West Virginia and in some instances are still occupied; in the walls are “shooting-holes” which have since been covered by weather boarding.[13]

The Indians believed that by scalping their enemies they would be safe from harm from that enemy in the after life, since no one could enter the next world if disfigured in body or limb.  Wives were killed so they would not bear any more children to grow up and avenge their slain husband.  If a life was spared – as was often the case with the young – the captive was adopted. Otherwise, boys were killed because they would grow into warriors.  Girls were killed because they would become mothers of more warriors.  Finally, the house was burned in order to damage the enemy that much more.

 In 1755 the colonial governments decided to fight the Indians in the same way and began offering a bounty of 10  for the scalp of any hostile Indian over twelve years of age.

1755:  Seventy one civilian settlers were either killed or taken captive by the Indians, resulting in a stream of refugees pouring through the Blue Ridge for safety.

1756:  Virginia appropriated $33,000 to build 23 forts.  George Washington was sent into the frontier where he set up headquarters at Winchester, in northernVirginia.

4 January 1756George Washington’s letters give a vivid idea of the weak settlements of Highland County, “I have now ordered Captain Waggoner with sixty men to build and garrison two forts at places I have appointed high up the South Branch.”[14]

 February:  Jacob Peterson, living on North Mill Creek near Grant Line, lost six children to capture by the Indians – only one later escaped.

15 April:  Washington writes, “All my ideal hopes of raising a number of men to search the adjacent mountains have vanished to nothing.”

 A week later he writes, “I am too little acquainted with pathetic language to attempt a description of the people’s distresses.”

Two days later, “Not an hour, nay, scarcely a minute passes that does not produce fresh alarms and melancholy accounts.”  In another letter Washington writes, “…the deplorable situation of these people is no more to be described than is my anxiety and uneasiness for their relief.”  And again, describing the situation on the frontier, he writes, “Desolation and murder still increase.”

 16 May:  Michael Freeze and his wife, who lived in an area called Upper Tract, were killed.

By 16 August 1756: Washington writes, “…We have built some forts and altered others as far south on the Potomac as settlers have been molested; and there only remains one body of inhabitants at a place called Upper Tract who need guard. Thither I have ordered a party…”[15]

Fort Upper Tract, in South Branch Valley, was built a mile above Harman’s Landing and a mile south of the present Upper Tract village.  Built on a bluff, on the bank of the South Branch of the Potomac River, it was protected by a steep slope on one side, while being afforded some protection on two other sides by a ravine. The enclosed space was however very limited.  The structure’s foundation can still easily be traced on the ground.
The Dyer Settlement was located only nine miles southeast of Fort Upper Tract, just over South Fork Mountain.

1756:   A wooden palisade fort with a central blockhouse was constructed by the settlers at a strategic
location on Jacob’s centrally located farm. It was built on the west side of South Fork River, and situated on an elevation which sloped rapidly to a ravine on the north and descended abruptly over a ledge of rocks to the river bottom on the south-east.  Westwardly, a gradual incline sloped back to
the mountain.[16]

The fact that the previous owner, John Patterson Jr., had a mill at the river’s edge also influenced the choice of the site of Fort Seybert.  A road of some description was always built to a mill.  Consequently, the settlers could use the same road to get to the fort for safety.  There was also a bridle trail, or road of similar description, that began at the Patterson-Seybert property and went over the Shenandoah Mountain to Captain John Smith’s place and on to the county seat at Augusta, Virginia.  The fort was built about 100 yards from where the mill stood, and there was a good spring fifty to sixty yards from the fort.[17]

A description of Ft. Seybert: “There was a circular stockade with a two storied block house inside.  The diameter of the stockade was about 90 feet. (See the drawing at the top of this article).
 According to the practice of the day, the wall was composed of logs set in contact with one another and rising at least ten feet above the ground.  For going in and out there was a heavy gate constructed of puncheons (heavy framing timbers with a smooth face).  The blockhouse stood near the center of the circle and was apparently about 21 feet square. From the loopholes in the upper room, the open space around the stockade could be commanded by the garrison. There is no evidence of the fine spring then existing a two minute walk away.”[18]

FortSeybert stood in what became during the late 19th and early 20th Century the yard of the William C. Miller [alive in 1916] house. The Miller house is located about 0.5 miles north of the Fort Seybert Post Office, the Fort Seybert mail drop.) on the west side of County Road #3, also known as the Sweedlin Road, Fort Seybert, Pendleton County, West Virginia.
When constructing his home, Mr. Miller preserved in its original location a foundation cornerstone under his cellar window and another cornerstone on the surface of his lawn, 21 feet away.  Nor did he obliterate the circle arc that showed where the stockade wall use to rise. In a circa 1910 photograph of the Miller house and yard, the location of the former log wall can be seen as a slight depression in the ground.[19]

Winter 1756-57:  During the winter season the settlers were quite safe. The Indians were not inclined to maraud while food was scarce and the forest leaves fallen.

16 March 1757Possibly as a result of the tragedy at the Michael Freeze home ten months earlier, Jacob Seybert, age 40 years, was commissioned Captain of Militia.[20]

16 May 1757:  Jacob’s step father, Henry Lorentz, was killed by the Indians, who were making attacks
farther and farther down the South Fork and South Branch of the Potomac.

28 September:  George Washington writes, “The inhabitants of this valuable and very fertile valley are terrified beyond expression.”

10 November:  Determined to stay and fight the Indians if necessary, Jacob applied for a land patent for an additional 88 acres.

By the end of 1757, there were only about forty families, or about two hundred European – Americans left spread out in small settlements inPendletonCounty.

19 March 1758A destructive Indian raid occurred in the region of Fort Upper Tract. On this day three men were shot dead while working about their homesteads.  Two other men were wounded, and two persons were captured by the Indians.  Fort Upper Tract was located only nine miles northwest of Fort Seybert, just over SouthFork Mountain.

2 April:  Lieutenant Gist, was in charge of a company of Scouts, composed of six soldiers and 30 Indians under the employ of the colonists.  The lieutenant found a large Indian encampment about 15 miles “this side” (south) of Fort Duquesne[21] with tracks leading directly toward the Virginia
frontier.  Within days the scouts came upon the tracks of another large party pursuing the same course.[22]

24 & 27 April:  A band of French and Indians arrived in the valley near Fort Upper Tract and killed Captain James Dunlap and nine other persons. Captain Dunlap was an experienced soldier who had commanded a detachment in the Big Sandy Expedition.  Three days later, the Indians attacked Fort Upper Tract and killed an additional thirteen defenders before burning the fort.  It is thought that the massacre at Fort Upper Tract was complete since no stories have ever surfaced in local tradition.

After massacring the soldiers and settlers at Fort Upper Tract, the large Indian war party began its trek back to Indian country.
However, a group of forty or more Shawnee with perhaps one Frenchman, led by Chief Killbuck, took an independent course of action.  They proceeded southeast over South Fork Mountain  toward Fort Seybert.

Meanwhile, the residents of Dyer Settlement, having learned that an attack was imminent, sent an express rider to Fort Upper Tract for assistance, but the rider turned back upon seeing the tell tale column of smoke from the burning buildings.  Upon hearing of the nearby attack, several families from Dyer Settlement immediately left to cross the Shenandoah Mountains for safety.  Forty people were left to gather at Fort Seybert, of which very few were men.

Story continued in blog, The Jacob Seybert family: Fort Seybert

Footnotes follow:
[1]  Raymond Martin Bell, The Seiberts of Saarland,  Pennslyvania and West Virginia, (Washington, Pennsylvania, 1982)
[2]  Don Yoder, Pennsylvania German Immigrants 1709 – 1786, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1936, reprinted 1980)
[3] Prof I. Daniel Rupp,  A Collection Of Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, reprinted 1965), p. 116-117.
[4] Rupp, A Collection
[5]  Bell, The Seiberts
[6]  Bell, The Seiberts
[7]  Through various land divisions, parts of Highland County became  Augusta County. In 1788, parts of Augusta, Rockingham and Hardy Counties were formed into Pendleton County, Virginia. In 1863    Pendleton County became part of the newly formed state ofWest Virginia.
[8]  Mary Lee Keister Talbot, The Dyer Settlement -The Fort Seybert Massacre-Fort Seybert, West Virginia, (The Roger Dyer Family Association, 1937) .
[9] Oren Frederic Morton, History of Highland County, Virginia, (Baltimore:Regional Publishing Company, reprinted 1969)
[10] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[11] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[12]  Bell, The  Seiberts
[13]  Morton, History of Highland County
[14]  W.C. Ford, George Washington Bicentennial Edition: Writings of Washington, Vol. I & II
[15]  Jared Sparks, Writings of Washington, [1834], Vol II, pages 179-198
[16] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[17] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[18]  Oren F. Morton, A History of Pendleton County, West Virginia, (Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1916, reprinted 1980)
[19]  The house was still standing in 1988, but was uninhabited.  The two corner stones are still evident in the locations discussed.  The William C. Miller property is  [in 1988] owned by Paul Conrad, the husband of a Miller descendant, who lives  in the next house on this property (see footnote 34).
[20]  Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[21] Fort Duquesne, French, built 1754, and taken by the British in 1758 then renamed Fort Pitt; now the site of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
[22] Ford, George Washington Bicentennial Edition


Filed under My family in history, __2. Settlers and Migrants

Martin Jackson Shafer and Arvilla A. Dyer

(My famiily in history/4. Midwestern migration/Shafer family)

* Martin Jackson SHAFER
BIRTH: Martin was born 16 October 1837 in New York state to the family of John Joseph Shafer and Lydia A. Dodge.
The 1860 census of Lawrence Twp, Van Buren Co, MI listed Martin as born in OH, his death certificate and obituary stated he was born in NY state. {D1}

“While yet a boy of sixteen, he came to the then almost unbroken wilderness of Van Buren County, Michigan and settled with his parents in Hartford in 1855, where a major portion of his life was spent and seeing what was an unbroken forest grow into a veritable fruit garden…” {D2}

Martin Jackson Shafer and Arvilla Ann Dyer were married on 24 March 1860 in Lawrence or Hartford Township, MI {D3}. “…he was married to Miss Arvilla Dyer a young lady of Hartford, where they continued to live…”{D2}
They had the following eleven children: Jay Frank (b. 10 Apr 1861), ♥ Charles Elmer (b. 25 Apr 1862), Mac McClellan (b. 16 Mar 1864), Ulysses S. (b. 7 Oct 1865),  Clementine A. (b. 6 Oct 1866),  Larue Glen (b. 13 Apr 1868), Metta Maud (b. 24 Aug 1870), Emory F. (b.12 June 1872), Bert B. (b. 22 Apr 1976), Marion Judson (b. 20 Dec 1880), Altha (b. 6 June 1884). {D3}

[Main Street Hartford, MI, late 1800s. A sight common to several generations of the Shafer family]

Martin and Arvilla, raised a family of eleven children while living in Lawrence and Hartford Twps. In 1885 after several of his children were grown, Martin moved the family to Elbridge Township, near Hart, MI, where he purchased land. Three of his adult children, Glenn, Marion and Altha lived in Elbridge.
[Martin Jackson Shafer and Arvilla Ann (Dyer) seat at table, with children around. My ancestor Charles Elmer Shafer is seated to the left of his father Martin, hands cusp)


“… Martin was a quiet unassuming man, working hard to make his way in the world…”{D2}

“…At an early age was converted and united with the Baptist Church.”{D2}

After the death of his wife Arvilla in 1909, Martain spent his last months living with his children. In 1910 Martin died of “Canceronia of Intestines” while staying at the home of his son, Glenn, in Elbridge Township, Oceana County, MI. . {D1} {D2} Martin died in 1910 of cancer. {D3}

Elbridge Cemetery with wife Arvilla.

1.  Certified Copy of Death Record, Record Number 2150; Oceana County Clerk, Oceana County, MI.
2. Martin Jackson Shafer obituary, Elbridge (?) newspaper, Oceana County, MI, obituary clipping was found in the Shafer family Bible.
3. Descendants of John Shafer 1810 – 1967 by Howard Leroy Shafer of Union City, IN, printed 1967, about 100 pages.

* Arvilla Ann DYER
Arvilla was born in New York state on 3 April 1843. Her family moved to the near wilderness of Hartford, MI, where she met her future husband, Martin Jackson Shafer.

Arvilla was married to Martin Jackson Shafer on 24 March 1860, at age 16 years, 11 months and 21 days.

Arvilla died of “Heart Disease” at age 66 years, 1 month and 2 days, in Elbridge, Oceana Co. MI. and was buried at the Elbridge Cemetery {D1} {D2}

1.  Certified Copy of Record of Death, Record Number 1978; Oceana County Clerk, Oceana County, MI.
2.  Descendants of John Shafer 1810 – 1967 by Howard Leroy Shafer of Union City, IN, printed 1967, about 100 pages.

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Filed under My family in history, __4. Midwestern migration