Category Archives: __2. Settlers and Migrants

Warren, Seybert, Janes, Skiff, Anderson, Harwood, Grubb, Pierce, Curtis, Sabin

John Chipman Jr. (Hon.) and Mary Skiff

(The Pilgrims & Skiff branch)

John CHIPMAN  Hon. was born on 3 Mar 1670 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; died on 4 Jan 1756 in New Port, New Port, RI; buried in New Port, New Port, RI. [John Chipman Jr. was son of Hope Howland and grandson of Pilgrim John Howland]

John CHIPMAN married Mary SKIFF in 1691 in MA. They had the following children: James CHIPMAN (b. 18 Dec 1694), John CHIPMAN (b. 18 Sep 1697), Mary (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), Bethia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), ♥ Perez CHIPMAN (b. 28 Sep 1702), Deborah CHIPMAN (b. 6 Dec 1704), Stephen (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Lydia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Ebenezer CHIPMAN (b. 13 Nov 1709).

He also married Elizabeth (Russel) (Pope) HANDLEY in 1716 at Capt. Popes home, Dartmouth, MA. They had the following children: Handley CHIPMAN* (b.31 Aug 1717), Rebecca CHIPMAN (b.10 Nov 1719). *See {D4} below.

He also married Hannah (Huxley) (Griffin) CASE in 1725 inNewport,RI.

BIRTH:  17 May 1708 John Chipman is listed in his father’s Will to receive real-estate in Barnstable, MA.{D1}

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: John’s son, Handley, by second wife, Elizabeth describes his father, saying, “My dear Father was a tall Person…my dear fathers hair reddish and he of Light complection..”{D4} [See below Handley’s brief biography of his family includinhg elder John Chipman.

MARRIAGE:
1. John 1st married, Mary Skiff, about 1691: to their union were born nine children including, James, John, Mary, Bethia, Perez, Deborah, Stephen, Lydia, and Ebenezer. Mary and Bethia, also Stephen and Lydia were twins. Mary died on 12 March 1711.{D2} The family lived in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA.

2. In 1716, John married the widowed Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell: their union produced two children, Handley and Rebecca. After continuing to live several more years at Sandwich, John moved the family to Martha’s Vineyard, where they lived for seven years before Elizabeth Handley died.  Elizabeth became very ill while visiting her ex father-in-law Captain Pope in Dartmouth and died 4-5 months later, at his residence, after a long bout with Consumption. John and Elizabeth’s son, Handley, writes, “My Dear Father used to go back and forward to Visit her until about the 30 day of Jany A.D. 1725 when she departed this Life…”{D4}

The Will of Seth Pope of Dartmouthdated 1 April 1720, names “my former daughter in law now wife of Lewt John Chipman of Sandwich” and her son Handy Chipman.{D2}

3. On his last trip to visit Elizabeth before she died, John met the widow Hannah Case. Mrs. Case had just buried her husband on Martha’s Vineyard and returning to the mainland. The two took the ferry and traveled together on one horse, both going in the same direction to Dartsmouth.{D4}

About a year later, in 1725, at 55 of years of age, John married the widow Hannah Huxley Griffin Case.{D2} Soon after remarrying, John sold his property on Martha’s Vineyard and moved to Rhode Island “and Let his money to interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.” {D4}

LIVELIHOOD:
While living in Sandwich John had been a coroner, Lieutenant, Captain, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston.

While he lived on Martha’s Vineyard he was a Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court.{D4}

“In MA he was a magistrate, a member of the general court, a justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1772. In RI, where he lived after 1727, he was first of six Associates of that colony who with the other Associates, the Governor and Philip Cortland and Daniel Horsemanden of the NY council, was a member of the Commissioners of Review appointed by royal authority, who met at Norwich, CT and decided Connecticut’s course toward the Indians.”{D3}

“About age 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying  (Hannah Case) he left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own sister (Rebecca) who had married a worthy person, a Capy Moore…”{D4}
When daughter, Rebecca, died a few years later, John went to live with his son Handley. He was given a room and kept company. “Loosing his Last wife, and Living very retire in a room much by himself, as was his own Choice, keeping his Books of Divinity by him, and pipe and Tobacco, he soon grew rater dull, and rather Melancholy, inclined to have but Little Company or Conversation, nor could he be persuaded but Seldom, to Eat any of his Meals out of his own room, where he always had a fire to himself and one or other of the family that attended upon him…”{D4}

WILL:  In his Will dated 17 Oct 1749, John Chipman mentions his sons Perces (Perez) and Handley and others in the family.{D2}

John Chipman Jr. died leaving 70 children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren behind him.

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p. 181. Recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. “Mayflower Families In Progress – Richard Warren…”, published by General Society of Mayflower
Descendants, 1987, p. 84.
3. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
4.  A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”,
1937 Vol. XCI, Publ by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Mary  SKIFF was born on 13 Nov 1671 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; died on 12 Mar 1711 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA. Parents, Stephen Skeffe and Lydia Snow, descendant from 1620 Mayflower ancestor Richard Warren..

When Marcy died in 1711, she left her husband to care for nine children between the ages of 2 and 17 years of age.

* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America
1631-1920
 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
* Individual source: Mayflower Families In Progress: Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, compiled by Robert S. Wakefield and others, Published by
General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1987.

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

A brief history of the Chipman family written by Handley Chipman, son of  John Chipman (Jr) Hon., and his 2nd wife Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell

“[The Mayflower pilgrims] … saw them the vessel after the boat’s return came up to the place of their intended settlement and they all landed and prepared huts for to live in, but poor distressed souls they being disappointed of other vessels coming over to them for a great while to supply them with provisions and other necessities as expected

“Sundry of these poor distressed people died and all was in imanent danger of perishing, if it had not been for the Clams they found on the shores and dugg up at low tide, but it was especially from the Supp & turkeys obtained in quantities [from] the native Indians … which corn they ate and paid the Indians for the spring after as soon as they had gained acquaintance with them who had been very shy of them.

“My said Grandfather (elder) John Chipman  born 1615 Married a Daughter of the aforesaid Mr. Howland and settled at Barnstable, the next Town but one which is Sandwich, to their Said Plimouth further on the Said Cape Cod, Plimouth being being at the head of the Bay.  he my Said Grandfather was an Elder in Minister Russels Congregational Church, in said Barnstable, and if I am not mistaken removed and lived in Said Sandwich the Latter part of his Day.  He died aged 88.  He had or left 10 children of which my honored father was the Youngest.  his children generally lived to grow up and Marry and from whom proceeded a very Numerous offspring.  As my Grandfather was the only one of the name of Chipman and my Grandmother Daughter of the only one of the name of Howland in New England or any of the now States of America, so the Chipmans are all on this Continent Related as well as the Howlands, and are all of them by reason of my Grandfather and grandmothers Marriage together Related to one another, and so near that Long Since my Remembrance my dear father and the Howlands used to call Cuzzens and the Howlands was often conversant at my house and my fathers house &c.

“My Dear and Honored Deceased father John Chipman, married one Capt. Skiffs daughter of said Sandwich, by whom he had 9 children that all Lived to grow up to the years of Men and Women, from whom has sprang a very large offspring.  Their names were Sons, James, Perez, John, Ebenezer and Stephen.  The Daughters names were Bethia and Mary, twins, as was also the Son Said Stephen with the next daughter Lidia, the others name was Deborah.  They had all entered into the Marriage State and had generally Large families of Children, Except said Stephen, who had no Children by his wife, Dying Master of a Vessel young in Nevis in the West Indies.  They were mostly of more than middling size.  James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a Blacksmith as was also Ebenezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade.  They scattered much in their Settling in families.

“My dear fathers first wife dying at said Sandwich, Leaving said nine children, He some time after, it may be two years, married her that was my dear Mother, at Capt. Popes at Dartmouth, her first husband was his oldest Son, her second husband was one Capt. Russel, with whom I have been told She lived about 17 months, at Rhode Island or near there about….  She had no Child or Children that Lived by Either of these husbands.  by my dear father She had my Self, her son Handley, and my dear sister Rebecca.  Soon after her birth my dear Father removed from Sandwich to Martha Vineyard, where he lived it may be 7 years.

“Just about a year after my dear Mothers Death, my dear Father married the Said widow Case at Newport on Said Rhode Island.  She had had two husbands, one a Griffin, the other said Capt. Case.  by said Griffin She had a daughter who lived to grow up and Married my Said dear father Son Stephen, who died in Said West Indies Leaving no Child.  My Mother in Law’s maiden name was Mary Hoockey, and after my dear father had Lived with her 19 years She died also with the Consumption.  She was a Baptist.  My dear father soon after he thus Married at Rhode Island, sold his farm at the Vineyard, to one Mr. Norton for L1200, money then at s5/pr. ounce.  he removed then to Rhode Island and Let his money to Interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.

“He was when he lived at Sandwich, Crowner or Coroner, a Capt. Lieutenant, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston, as I find, by his Commission Left.  While he lived on the Vineyard he was Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, &c.

“After he removed to Rhode Island Government, he was for some time the first of the Governors Council, and was also Chief Judge of the Superior Court or court of Equity, as it was then called, and continued in said office until he was about 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying he Left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own Sister who had married a worthy person, a Capt. Moore.

“My dear and Honoured Father was born March 3d day, A.D. 1670.  He departed this Life at Newport on Rhode Island, January 4 th day, 1756, in my house, where he had lived some years, after he broke up housekeeping, he went and Lived at Capt. David Moors as aforesaid who married my own only Sister, but she dying in a few years after, he then came to Live with me.

“I would before I conclude the Pedigree of my dear fathers family just mention that I have divers times inquired after the family of the Chipmans coat of arms but never could get Intelligence of it.  And am lately informed that Ward Chipman, Esq. Solisiter General in our Neighboring Province of Brunswick Government, when he was in England a few years past, made very thorough Search after our family coat of arms, and finds we have none at all, &c.

“But the Chipmans in America are very Numerous indeed.  they are, we are, Sure all related, for they are all of them descended from my said Grandfather.  we find they are Spread even from Canso * Eastward to Virginia Westward, if not farther both ways.”

* A fishing village on the eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia.

[“A Chipman Family History,” by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, R.I., and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, composed ca. 1790, in:

Roberts, Gary Boyd; ed.  (1985).  Genealogies of Mayflower Families From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Volume I Adams-Fuller.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Handley Chipman’s statement validates the Chipmans of Virginia as authentic descendants of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman, but supporting documentation still needs to be assembled.]

3 Comments

Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants

John Chipman (elder) and Hope Howland

(Pilgrims families & Chipman branch)

John CHIPMAN, elder, was born in 1614 in Bryan’s-Piddle, near Dorchester, England; died on 7 Apr 1708 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA.

John CHIPMAN married Hope HOWLAND in 1646. They had the following children: Samuel CHIPMAN  Deacon (b. 15 Apr 1661), ♥ John CHIPMAN  Hon. (b. 3 Mar 1670), Elizabeth CHIPMAN (b.24 Jun 1647), Hope CHIPMAN (b. 31 Aug 1652), Lydia CHIPMAN (b. 25 Dec 1654), Hannah CHIPMAN (b. 14 Jan 1658), Ruth CHIPMAN (b. 31 Dec 1663), Bethia CHIPMAN (b. 1 Jul 1666), Mercy CHIPMAN (b. 6 Feb 1668), Desire CHIPMAN (b. 26 Feb 1673).

He also married Ruth SARGENT in 1684.

TRAVEL: Brotherless and early left fatherless, John sailed from Barnstable, Devon Co., England, in May 1631, on the Friendship, arriving in Boston, 14 July 1631.
John was the first and only one of the name, Chipman, in this country, and until 1850 there was no Chipman in this country who was not descended from him.{D2}

MARRIAGE: He first married Hope Howland, when she died, he secondly married Ruth Sargent. John Chipman lists his living children in his Will, dated 12 Nov 1702. {D1}{D2}

LIVELIHOOD: John was a carpenter and deputy.{D5} Also, “John Chipman was for successive years a selectman, then in Plymouth Colony invested with the authority of a magistrate, and was often a deputy of the court; and he with three assistants was designated to frequent the early Quaker meetings and ‘endeavor to reduce them from the errors of their wayes’.”

HOME: Plymouth in 1637, Yarmouth in 1647, and Barnstable in 1649.{D5} The elder John Chipman family homestead was located near the Barnstable Custom House. His son, Samuel, built the “Chipman Tavern” on the homestead, which then continued in the line of his prosperity until 1830.{D2}

RELIGION: On 30 Jun 1653, John joined his wife (Hope Howland) in becoming a member of the church at Barnstable. He became an Elder in Minister Russel’s Congregational Church at Barnstable.{D4}

HISTORICAL NOTE: John Chipman, son-in-law of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley signed his name (at age 58) to a Bond of Administration on the John Howland estate, dated 5 March 1672, see also Elizabeth Tilley notes. {D3}

DEATH John died at 88 years of age.{D4}

WILL: The Will of John Chipman, dated 12 Nov 1702, proved 17 May 1708, mentions his second wife Ruth and the children listed herein. An excerpt from the Will states, “It I Will and Bequeath to my Two Sons Sam and John my Whole Estate in Barnstable to them and theirs for Ever: that is to Say: That my Son Samuell shall have Two parts Thereof & my Son Jno one part or third thereof. unless my son Sam see Cause to pay his brother John seventy pounds in Lew of Sd Third part. and Samuel So Doing shall Enjoy the whole he and his heirs for Ever…” An inventory of personal belonging follows in the
article.{D1}

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p 181; recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem,NC.
3. John Chipman’s autograph shown in “The Mayflower Descendant”, Vol. XIII, April 1911, article An Autograph of Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland, p. 65.
4. A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”, 1937 Vol. XCI, Publ. by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
5.  Founders of Early American Families: Emigrants from Europe 1607-1657, by Meredith B. Colket, Jr. and others, 1975, publ by the General Court of the Order of Founders and Patriots in America, located in LDS Genealogical Library, 500 S. Langley, Tuscon, AZ.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Hope HOWLAND was born on 30 Aug 1629 in Plymouth, MA; died ABT 8 Jan 1683 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; buried in Lothrop Hill Burying Ground, Barnstable, MA.

MARRIAGE: Hope Howland, daughter of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley married (the Elder) John Chipman.{D1}

HOME:  In 1637 Plymouth Colony authorized the creation of three new settlements on Cape Cod, including; Sandwich, Barnstable and Yarmouth. Because the population of Plymouth Colony was too small to occupy the new settlements, outsiders were allowed, if they met some prudent conditions: 1) There could be no absentee land ownership, 2) persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, 3) individuals who were acceptable had to be “of good note.” A group migrated from Scituate to Barnstable led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisting primarily of his church members. Among them, or following very soon afterwards, were some early Plymouth residents, including two daughters of Pilgrim John Howland: Hope Howland with her husband John Chipman and family; also sister Desire Howland with her husband John Gorman and family, moved from Yarmouth to Barnstable.{D2}

BURIAL:  Hope died at Barnstable, MA. Her gravestone, which states, “interred ye body of Mrs. Hope Chipman, wife of Elder John Chipman”, is still standing in the old Lothrop Hill cemetery. Directions to Lothrop Hill cemetery: Go a mile or so west of Barnstable Center, MA., on Main Street, also known as Cape Cod’s Route 6A.{D1}
Lothrop Hill Burying Ground is on shady, rolling terrain located one half mile from the harbor. It is good to be remembered with a monument, because, “who have no memorial; who are perished as though they had never been.”{Ecclesiastics 44,9}

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem, NC.
2. The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb 1993, Vol. 59, “Pilgrim Suburbs On Cape Cod”, page 30-32.
Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem,NC.

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

Pilgrim Suburbs on Cape Cod
by Robert Thompson The Decision to  Expand to the Eastward 1637 – 1657.

Although Cape Cod was where Pilgrims first trod on American soil, the Cape remained virtually uninhabited, except by Indians, for the next seventeen years. The Pilgrims simply had not found the Cape sufficiently attractive for their settlement

But then about 1637, the Colony government suddenly reached back along the Cape, authorizing creation of three new settlements: Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth … This seemingly strange circumstance was the product of several factors: First, the Bay Colony on the Pilgrims’ northern exposure had grown tremendously – eclipsing the very modest growth of their own colony – thus
looming as a competitive threat to their own survival and potential prosperity.
Second, a “use it or lose it” perception emerged as a recognition of this situation; for Cape Cod was not only major coastal property but represented a significant portion of Colony land.
Third, since the population of Plymouth itself was deemed insufficient to render a viable migration and occupation of the entire Cape, it seemed necessary to allow outsiders to come in – subject, however to some prudent “conditions”.

Some of the “conditions” that were laid down: 1)  there could be no absentee land ownership, 2)  persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, and, 3) those individuals who were acceptable had to be persons “of good note”.

Some sixty families were involved with the migration from Saugus to Sandwich. The settlers were joined by some Plymouth and Duxbury residents, such as William Bassett Jr., James (Skiff) Skeffe … Names of Mayflower passengers are conspicuously absent. …
The early settlers of Sandwich roosted along the north shore facing Cape Cod Bay. They were allowed sections of upland to build on and sections of salt marsh for haying.

The group that migrated from Scituate to Barnstable was led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisted primarily of his church members. Among them, or very soon thereafter, were some early Plymouth residents, including the younger Samuel Fuller – Mayflower passenger -who married Lothrop’s daughter Jane. Other Barnstable residents with strong Pilgrim connection included Matthew Fuller, Samuel’s brother, and Thomas Hinkley, destined to become a colony governor: ♥ Hope Howland, daughter of Mayflower passenger John Howland and wife of John Chipman;  Desire Howland, Hope’s sister and wife of John Gorham: both families coming here from Yarmouth.

A few years after the initiation of settlements at Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth, many of the people back in Plymouth began to think about moving their town, en masse, to some other location –
having noted limitations of the land they occupied and the satisfaction of those who had moved already. Further, it became apparent that the continued migration trickle from Plymouth was eroding the Church. Many meetings were held and a committee finally appointed to study the feasibility of moving the town to a tract on the further reaches of the Cape known as Nauset. The committee reported back that a move was inadvisable because of the remoteness of the area and insufficient room for expansion. The idea of a move was then abandoned. But members of the committee went ahead and purchased land from the Nauset Indians anyway and most eventually moved there! The new town was named Eastham.

Among those who purchased land was Thomas Prence, … Nicholas Snow – family names which appear frequently in lines of descent from Mayflower passengers.

There remained a large tract between Yarmouth and Eastham which had been reserved for eventual division among the “old comers” – persons who had come from England on the first three ships.
In 1653 those who still retained rights picked up their options and a committee proceeded to lay out lots in a small portion of the area. The individuals included William Bradford, Thomas Prence,
John Howland, Nicholas Snow, William Collier, … Then for the next forty-one years there was both expansion and a great churning of properties as result of sale and resale, subdividing and re dividing, and endless land disputes. Finally, in 1694 the whole area was incorporated and given
the name Harwich. Taken from The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb. 1993, Vol.
59, No., page 30 -32.

7 Comments

Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants

The Jacob Seybert family, Part 2: Fort Seybert

[Continued from The Jacob Seybert family: Coming to America]

Part 2: From the events at Fort Seybert to the defeat of the NW Indian Confederation.

 Wednesday, 28 April 1758:  On this fateful morning, a fog lay upon the land shrouding South Fork Valley.  The immediate presence of the approaching Shawnee war party was unsuspected.
Eastward from the stockade, the ground fell rapidly to the level of the river bottom.  At the foot of the slope was a damp swale through which flowed a stream that was crossed by a log bridge.  A few yards beyond this was a spring which supplied water for the fort[1]. In the early morning hours a woman walked there for water and was unaware that an Indian, supposedly Killbuck himself, was hiding under the log bridge.

About this time, Sarah Dyer-Hawes,  the wife of Peter Hawes (deceased), went out with a servant boy named Wallace to milk some cows.  While following a path which today leads toward the circa 1910 Post Office (south of the fort), they were surprised by two Indians and captured.  Mrs. Hawes was said to have had a pair of sheep shears in her hand and to have attempted to stab one of the Indians.

William Dyer[2] had gone out to hunt earlier that morning and was waylaid by the Indians near the fort.  He had time to fire his weapon, but his flintlock refused to prime.  As he drew back the hammer for a second trial he was pierced by several musket balls fired by the Indians. William fell dead and the cocked flintlock dropped from his grasp, where it lay on the forest floor until decay of the stock separated lock and barrel.  Mr. J. Clem Miller, (son of William C. Miller), has in his possession a rusty flintlock with its hammer cocked that was found west of the fort. He believes it may have been in the hands of William Dyer when he was killed.

The gunfire alerted the fog shrouded settlement.[3] With the presence of the enemy now known, Nicholas, the 15 year old son of Captain Jacob Seybert, took station in the upper floor of the blockhouse.  From his elevated position, he mortally wounded an Indian, who raised his head from behind the ledge of rocks under the brow of a hill, one hundred yards eastward, in the direction of the spring.[4]

At this time a horseman was riding toward the fort, but hearing the gunfire and knowing something was wrong, he spread the alarm among the more distant settlers.

Presently, Chief Killbuck, who was leading the war party, walked into a clearing by the fort and called for a truce.  He called on the defenders to surrender the fort, threatening no mercy if they did not, but good treatment if they did. Killbuck had good reason for using deceit in an attempt to take the fort.  It was not a great distance from Fort Seybert to the more heavily populated regions of the Shenandoah Valley.  White reinforcements would certainly be coming, so time was an important element.

Jacob listened to the deceitful parley.

Although there were about forty persons in the fort, there were very few men amongst them.  Most of the men from Dyer Settlement had gone across the Shenandoah Mountain on business a day or so before, among them Matthew Patton, Michael Mallow and Andrew Trumbo.  Also, several families had fled the valley in fear that very morning.
Regardless, it is doubtful that Fort Seybert ever had a strong garrison.  Whether the fewness of adult men or a shortage of supplies, especially ammunition, had anything to do with Jacob’s decision is not known, but Jacob yielded to the demands of the enemy, which also included turning over what money and other valuables the defenders had.[5]

Just before the gate was opened, Nicholas Seybert took aim at Killbuck and was squeezing the trigger when the gun muzzle was knocked downward; the ball only raised the dust at Killbuck’s feet.
(Accounts differ as to whether Jacob or another man, Robertson, deflected the gun.)  In finding that
surrender had been decided upon, Nicholas was so enraged he attempted to use violence on his father, Jacob.
The gate was opened, and the savages rushed in.
Killbuck dealt Jacob a blow in the mouth with the pipe side of his tomahawk, knocking out several of his teeth.  Instantly the whites realized the horror of their situation and saw the inevitable doom which awaited them.  In a false moment of security, they had trusted the promise of savages and now were about to pay for the folly with their lives.  Nicholas did not surrender, but was taken prisoner by being overpowered.
When the settlers were secured and led outside, the fort was burned.  A woman named, Hannah Hinkle, bedfast at the time, perished in the flames.
The man, Robertson, had hid himself and as soon as the Indians withdrew, he hurried to the river, followed a bluff to conceal his tracks and made his way over the Shenandoah Mountain.[6]

According to Keister family tradition: When the Indians poured into the fort and the settlers found they were to be massacred, they broke and ran.  During the confusion, Hannah Dyer Keister hid with two small children and one infant among large rocks about 200 yards from the fort and remained there during the slaughter.  The boulders being huge, could hide several people amongst them easily.  Today the place where she hid is called Galloping Run.

The war party took their prisoners up the slope toward South Fork Mountain, where they stopped on a hillside about a quarter mile to the west of the burning fort.  After some discussion, the Indians separated their captives into two groups and seated them in rows on two logs.  The row on one log was for captivity; the other was for slaughter.  Those to be killed were tied hand and foot.  On a signal, the doomed persons were tomahawked and scalped.  Their bleeding bodies left where they fell.  Sarah Dyer-Hawes fainted when she saw her father sink below the blow of his executioner.[7]

Tomahawks continued to fall killing the already wounded Jacob Seybert, age 41 years; his wife Mary Elizabeth Theiss, age 37 ; Jacob’s mother Johanna (about 65 years old); and others.[8]

Suddenly, James Dyer, a tall 14 year old boy, broke away and ran ahead of several pursuing warriors to a thicket on the river a half mile to the east.  He was recaptured.
Of the thirty settlers captured within the fort, only eleven were spared.

Among the remaining captives were the children of Jacob and Mary Seybert:  Nicholas, age 15 years; ancestor Margaret, age 12; Catherine, 10; Elizabeth, 9; Henry, 7; and  George, 5.
The other surviving captives included James Dyer, Mrs. Sarah Dyer Hawes, Mrs. Jacob Peterson, pregnant Mrs. Mallow, and Miss Henever.

The Indians’ reason to spare the captives was to adopt them and, thereby, strengthen the tribe.  They wanted young men who would make valiant warriors and strong young women who could help the squaws do work.  They did not want old people, weaklings or cowards.  They preferred brunettes to blondes because they  more closely resembled the Indian complexion.
The Wallace boy’s blonde scalp was later seen by Sarah Hawes at the Indian village.

By now, it was past noon.
The war party, with their eleven remaining captives and their wounded comrade on a improvised litter, began climbing South Fork Mountain.  (Their route can be followed on the Pendleton County Map.)  The settler’s surrendered valuables, which included a half bushel of silver and gold coins[9],  had been collected in an iron kettle that carried on a pole between two braves.  As the trudging up the east slope of the South Fork Mountain became more burdensome and fear of pursuit made faster travel more advisable, the two Indians fell behind the group and hid the valuables.  It is doubtful that they returned to claim the treasure, as this was their last known visit to the area.  One of the women, Mrs. Mallow, had a crying baby.  To quiet it, an Indian seized the child and stuck its neck into the forks of a dogwood sapling and let the tree fly back.  The baby died.
The war party followed a pathway, still known as Indian Trail, which crosses South Fork Mountain through Dean’s Gap and the Deer Run area.  By nightfall they had reached Greenawalt Gap, having come about nine miles north of the smoldering Fort Seybert.
It was here that the Indian, which Nicholas Seybert had shot in the head, died of his wound.  He was buried 500 feet up the steep mountain side in a cavern.  Until 1850 or so, portions of the skeleton were still to be seen in the cave.
The next morning the group continued past the site of the burned Fort Upper Tract and through Germany Valley.[10]  Their second night’s encampment was at the mouth of Seneca River.
The party traveled without pursuit or mishap.  After a journey of nine days the band of Shawnee and their captives reached the Indian villages near Chillicothe, Ohio.[11]

The next day after the massacre at Fort Seybert, a relief party led by Captain Brock, undoubtedly notified by Robertson, arrived at the smoldering ruins.  It was too late to do anything, except bury the slaughtered victims.[12]  Their ghastly corpses were interred in one common grave, undoubtedly, very near the spot where the tragedy occurred.  A stone wall was erected around the grave, where it stood for nearly a century.  The wall was removed by a Road Overseer, who was willing to overlook common decency and respect for the resting place of the dead, inorder to fill a mud hole.

Three weeks after the massacre, Daniel Smith was named administrator for the Jacob “Sivers” estate.  The estate was appraised on November 8th, 1758, recorded on November 15th and consisted of:
Horses – 4 mares, 3 colts, 2 yearlings
Cattle – 1 bull, 7 cows, 6 calves, 2 steers, and 6 young cattle
Parcel of old iron, parcel of copper
Colter and shears, Kettle and Basin
The estate, valued at 54 pounds, 4 shillings and 3 pence, was subsequently sold to pay for provisioning the militia.[13]  (See: Appraisal of the Seybert Estate, included in this document.)

George Washington estimated the total loss of life at Fort Upper Tract and Fort Seybert at sixty persons.  The burning of the forts and general havoc wrought in the foray delivered a severe blow to the infant settlements, but the land was not abandoned.

The captive pioneer children lived in a Shawnee Indian village near Chillicothe, Ohio.
“After a year or more with the Indians, Nicholas Seybert arranged for the escape of his brothers and sisters.  He had become a trustee with the Indians, and was allowed to carry on fur trading with the French.  One evening when a wagon load of furs was taken out of camp he put his brothers and sisters in the bottom of the wagon, piling furs on top of them.  As the wagon was driven away Nicholas
remained at camp, manifesting surprise when the Indians discovered their disappearance.  He pretended to be as disturbed as the Indians.  That same night he made his escape.”[14]

Several years after his return, Nicholas Seybert sold his father’s farm to John Blizzard and made a new home on Straight Creek.  Some of his descendants still live in that vicinity.
From 1768 to the early years of the Revolutionary War, he owned a Tavern or Inn at Fredericktown, Maryland.
Nicholas went into the Revolutionary War from Maryland and became a Lieutenant.  He later dropped out of the Maryland regiment to join a Virginian regiment. After the war, he spent the rest of his life on Straight Creek, in present day Highland County, Virginia, where he and his brothers owned land.[15]  (See: Pendleton County Map.)

James Dyer remained among the Indians for about two years, occasionally accompanying trading parties to Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh, Ohio.  On his last trip, he was sent with an Indian to buy bread.  Eluding his companion, he entered a cabin and sought protection.  A French trader’s wife hid him behind a trunk and stacked furs over him.  In searching for James, the Indians came into the hut and removed a few furs, but stopped before he was discovered.

About a year and a half after making his escape, James accompanied his brother-in-law, Matthew Patton, to Fort Pitt to sell cattle.  A cattle dealer told them that a tribe near there had a red headed woman among them. Matthew arranged for a store dealer to have the woman come to the store.  The woman was his sister, Sarah Dyer Hawes.  She was  hidden behind and under the store’s counter and covered with hides.[16]

Sarah’s captivity made some changes in her appearance and manner, so that when she returned, her young daughter did not recognize her.  In time the child accepted her identity. Sarah’s husband, Henry, had died in 1755, before the massacre.  In 1764, a couple years after escaping from the Indians, she was remarried  to a Robert Davis.  Sarah died circa 1818, at about 80 years of age, leaving behind at least 25 grandchildren.

The pregnant Mrs. Mallow gave birth to a son, Henry, in captivity.  She eventually returned to her husband Michael, just before he was to be remarried.

As cruel and unmerciful as the Shawnee were in war, when a captive was saved and adopted into an Indian family the captive was treated the same as any other member of that family.  Every effort was made to make adopted whites content and create in them a willingness to stay.  Returned captives stated that they were treated with great hospitality and kindness, according to the Indian’s ideas of these virtues.  When the colonial militias and later the United States army forced the surrender of white captives, there was often great sorrow at the parting.  The Indians delivered their beloved captives with utmost reluctance, and shed torrents of tears over them.  As long as the army remained in camp, the Indian families would visit their adoptee daily, bringing them corn, skins, horses and other materials they had bestowed on them while in their families.[17]

This first stage of the Pioneer Period was brief. It marks little more than the gaining of a foothold on the new soil. It was the story of a weak settlement in the remote corner of a huge country.

With the collapse of French power in America in 1760, the Indian peril became less acute; however, the Indians carried on a war of their own account.

Meanwhile, a renewed wave of immigration swept into Highland County, into that part which became Pendleton County, West Virginia.  Land values rose, and highways were extended.  Church and school houses made their appearance.

In 1764 the Indians were forced to give up some thirty two men and fifty eight women and children as captives.[18]

During 1770, about 10 years after her escape from the Indians, 25 year old Margaret Seybert married 24 year old William Janes IV.[19]  William and Margaret developed a plantation on Straight Creek about 25 miles southwest of old Fort Seybert and the Dyer Settlement.  Their property was possibly either adjoining a part of or very near William’s parents’ plantation, which had been purchased in 1751.
The William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert plantation (ca 1770-1801) included properties located between 3 to 4 miles north of Monterey, on both the north side and within the forks of Straight Creek and West Straight Creek.  In this location the plantation was about 2.5 miles south of  the confluence of Straight Creek and the South Branch of the Potomac.  Nicholas Seybert and his brothers also bought property and lived in this area.

From 1764 to 1774 there was a period of relative peace on the “west” Virginia frontier.  During this time the Pendleton County Deed Book showed the conveyance of 200,000 acres of land to the “Whites” from the Shawnee, Delaware and Iroquois  Indians.  The payment was to be made in  blankets, shirts, stockings, ribbon, calico, serge[20], thread, gartering, strouds, and callimancoe; also in knives, needles, tobacco, tongs, brass kettles, powder, lead, gunflints, vermilion and ten dozen
jewsharps.[21]  The Indian Tribes were being pushed west and northwest by colonial expansion.

Meanwhile on Straight Creek, William and Margaret started a family with the births of son, Henry, born 1771 and daughter, Eleanor, born 1773.

1774 to 1779 was a time when great change swept through the American colonies:
1)  There was a successful revolution against England.
2) The French, who had been our enemies during the French and Indian War, were now celebrated allies in our fight for freedom.
3)  A fledgling, post Revolutionary War colonial government formed and signed the Constitution of the United States.

During 1774: Beyond the Shenandoah Mountains, a ten year period of peace with the Indians came to an end.  In a band stretching from the Indian Territories of Ohio into ‘west’ Virginia, there developed a long period of hostilities.  Beginning in 1774 and lasting twenty years, a renewed state of guerrilla warfare existed between the settlers and Indians.  During this long period there was always the chance that some war party might pass through the broadening zone of settlement and once more bring the tomahawk and torch to the realization of people who knew from experience what these things meant.

At their plantation on Straight Creek, a tributary of the South Branch of the Potomac, the William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert family continued to grow with the births of John, born in 1777, Samuel in 1779, my ancestor ♥ William V in 1780, Edward in 1783, Elizabeth in 1785, and Margaret in 1787.[22]

In 1789, George Washington, who in his younger years directed that Fort Upper Tract and other frontier forts be built on the western Virginia frontier during the French and Indian Wars, and who went on to command the Colonial Militia during the American Revolution, was overwhelmingly elected first President of the American Republic.

Records for 1793 show 47 years old William Janes was a company officer with the rank of Captain and commanded 67+ men in the First Battalion of the 46th Regiment.[23]  One can imagine the 48 year old Margaret Seybert backing her husband’s periodic duties as Captain of the local militia over the years.  Most of her life was spent in a tense and hostile relationship with the Savages.  About 35 years earlier the Indians killed her mother and father, grandmother, step-grandpa, and others she knew and loved and took her and her siblings into captivity. Then, for the last 19 years there existed a state of guerrilla warfare between the Indians and settlers.

1794: During the second term of his Presidency, George Washington appointed Revolutionary War hero, General Anthony Wayne, to command the U.S. Army against the Northwest Indian Confederation.

On 20 August 1794, General Wayne, with a force of one thousand seasoned soldiers, met and routed two thousand warriors who had gathered for the final confrontation near Fort Miami on the Maumee River in the Ohio Territory.  The decisive defeat of the Indians at The Battle of Fallen Timbers, lead to the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.  By terms of the treaty, the Indians were forced to cede to the United States most of Ohio and a large area which later became Indiana, Illinois and Michigan.

During September 1832, as per the treaty, the Shawnee were removed from Ohio and sent across the Mississippi River to Indian Territory on the Kansas River.

The next time our family line encountered the Shawnee was by Pulaski Easton: during the California Gold Rush of ’49 (see associated article). By this time, they were a peaceful, impoverished tribe, living on the Great Plains in ‘Indian Territory’, west of Independence, Missouri.[24]

As listed in Grave Register II, Pendleton County, West Virginia, Jacob Seybert and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Theiss Seybert, were killed in the massacre.  In 1936, the descendants of Roger Dyer had the grave site enclosed with a wall of native stone.  In 1986, Roger Dyer Family Association installed a bronze plate on the stone wall stating:

“Grave site of the 17 victims of the Fort Seybert Massacre, April 28, 1758.
Known names: Capt. Jacob Seybert and wife, Roger Dyer, Wallace boy,
William Dyer, Henry Haus, John Regger and wife.”[25]

The ground, on which Fort Seybert stood and upon which now stands a mortar and stone wall surrounding the grave of those slaughtered at Fort Seybert, belonged to Jacob Seybert.  In 1768, Nicholas Seybert, son of Jacob, sold the 210 acre tract to John Blizzard.  One of John Blizzard’s heirs sold the land to a minister named, Ferdinand Lair, in about 1800.[26]  Ferdinand Lair willed the land to his grandson, John Miller.  The land was willed down the Miller family to William C. Miller (alive in 1916)  and his sons, J. Clem Miller (alive in 1936) and Ed T. Miller.  In the late 1980s the property belonged to elderly Paul Conrad, a widower, who married a Miller daughter.

Footnotes below:
[1]  In later years, a willow cutting was planted near the spring which grew into a tree measuring four and a half feet in diameter.  It is thought that the tree subsequently dried up the spring.
[2] William was the eldest son of Roger Dyer. William had a wife and two sons.  His brother, James Dyer, and sister, Sarah Dyer-Hawes, survived the attack as captives.
[3] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[4] The ledge where the Indian was shot is, in the 20th Century, in front of the main entrance of the William C.  Miller house, at a distance of about 100 yards.
[5] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[6] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[7] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[8] Pendleton County Historical Grave Register, (Pendleton County: West Virginia, 1977), 52.
[9] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[10] “Origin of the Treasure Mountain Festival,” Treasure Mountain Festival Newspaper, 14-17 Sept 1989,    (Franklin:Pendleton County,West Virginia)
[11] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[12] From correspondance with my cousin, Doris Grubb, and husband, John Hughes, who visited the historic Fort Seybert site in December 1988 and spoke with Paul Conrad (related to the deceased Miller family by marriage.) John quoted Paul as saying of the massacre victims, “I always heard
they were killed up there on the hill where they’re buried.”
[13] Morton, History of Highland County, equivalent to $180.71 in 1910.
[14] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[15]  Correspondence with Doris Grubb Hughes. While looking for literature regarding Seybert descendants  at the Monterey, Virginia, public library, Doris and John Hughes were approached by the Head Librarian who while speaking with them claimed to be  a descendant of Nicholas Seybert. She said that Nicholas had owned 3000 acres in the vicinity of Monterey.
[16]  Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[17]  Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio, Vol. I and II, (Cincinnati: C.J. Krehbiel & Co. Publishers and Binders, 1904)
[18] It is estimated there were approximately 2,000 incidents of kidnapping of white settlers during the French and Indian War.
[19] Evelyn Halkyard Vohland, Betebenner – Horney and Allied Families,  (Shelton: Clipper Publishers, 1981)
[20] A twill weaved fabric made of silk or wool and often used for  military uniforms.
[21] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[22] Bell, The Seiberts
[23] Morton, A History of Pendleton County
[24] Article, Pulaski Easton – California ’49er, mentions the Shawnee briefly, Line C: Midwestern Migration.
[25] “Marker Placed at Grave of 17 Victims of Fort Seybert Massacre”, The Pendleton Times newspaper
[27] October 1988, (Franklin: Pendleton County , West Virginia)
[26] Deed recorded in Pendleton County, West Virginia.

26 Comments

Filed under My family in history, __2. Settlers and Migrants

The Jacob Seybert family, Part 1: Coming to America

Part 1: From Germany  to the South Fork of the Potomac, late April 1758
Compiled by Mr Larry, 1988 – 1994

With the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, most of the hostilities in Europe’s Thirty Year War ceased.  The German emperor became a figurehead and the country collapsed into about three hundred regional entities, each with full sovereignty.
The territorial princes and rulers became free to build their own military powers and finances without interference from above or below, thereby consolidating the basis for their increased independence and for absolute government within their own territories.

In these times, during the year 1717, Jacob Seibert was born to the family of Christopher and Johanna Seibert in the small town of Sotern, Saarland, Germany. Jacob was the fourth and last child in the family which included two brothers, Adam and Wendel, and a sister, Catherine.[1]

On 28 July 1732, at fifty years of age, Christopher Seibert died in Sotern, thus disrupting the family’s well being at a time of deep rooted, national economic problems.

Saarland, like other parts of southern Germany, had suffered untold hardships during the Thirty Year War and during the 17th Century struggles for empire between France and Austria. German emigration rates were rising as a result of Europe’s unsettled political machinations and unfavorable economic conditions within Germany’s many principalities and ducal territories.

Among the economic problems were: 1) an oppressive and annoying compulsory service to the overlords, a remnant of medieval feudalism, 2) an increasing repeal of former grazing and wood gathering rights in ducal forests, and 3) mounting taxes which rested on the land owning classes alone. As a result, many sold their real-estate and emigrated.

A statesman of the period wrote: “These days the farmer is the most miserable of all creatures, he is being annoyed constantly with compulsory service, running errands, game beatings, work on fortifications and the like.  What is rescued from the wild game, a rough official may take to pay out standing taxes.  The barns are empty, the dwellings threaten collapse, the inhabitants appear miserable and ruined.”[2]

In addition to the enforced labor, there were gradually introduced grazing fees, hunting fees, watch fees, plowing fees, dyeing fees, food tax, tax on second hay crops, hand work rendered, money paid in lieu of labor with teams, the Prince’s personal tax, chimney tax, water tax, the so called “hearth tax”, etc.  There were also the percentage of one’s Shrovetide fowls and Martinmas geese.

For four years after the death of her husband, Johanna Seibert raised her children alone. In 1736 Johanna married Henry Lorentz, who brought a daughter to the family from a previous marriage.

Within two years of their marriage, the family decided to emigrate to America.

During the spring of 1738, several great-grandsons of Nickel Seibert, the miller, set out from Saarland for the Pennsylvania colony in North America.  Among those emigrating were: Johanna Seibert-Lorentz, her children Wendel, age 23; Jacob, age 21; Catherine; and husband Henry Lorentz, and his daughter. Several Seibert cousins, including two grown males and their sisters were also in the party of emigrants.

The travelers left Sotern and proceeded north then west through Germany and on to the port city of Rotterdam, Holland.  “The journey to Rotterdam was as a rule made by water. It must not, however, be imagined that one simply got aboard ship and went merrily down the valley.  There were several dozen toll – stations to be passed along the Rhine; everywhere there was a delay, many times
intentional, in order to force the people to stay overnight and shell out their money.”
The 280 mile trip down the Rhine River took four to six weeks! Occasionally, the already poor emigrants arrived in Rotterdam having spent what little money they had.

After making arrangements and waiting in Rotterdam for an undetermined time, the Seibert’s boarded the ship, Glasgow, and sailed for America, with a brief stop at Cowes, Isle of Wright, England.[3]  An example of the “Contract for Transport”, a common agreement between emigrants and the shipping firms of Rotterdam, is included immediately below.  The 1756 form seen below is probably  similar to the one agreed to by the Seibert group and their fellow passengers in the summer of 1738:

——————————————————————————————————

Agreement For Transport From Rotterdam To Philadelphia
Know All Men By These Presents, especially those whom it may concern,
that we, the undersigned passengers, have contracted with Messers Isaac &
Zacharias Hope, Merchants in Rotterdam, even as we here with contract for
ourselves and our families in the following manner:

Firstly,
The above mentioned Messers Issac & Zacharias Hope shall furnish us
a good, comfortable, and well-sailing ship, inorder with the same to have us
transported to Philadelphia.

And to that end there shall be made in the ship firm bunks for each
whole freight, six feet long and one and one- half feet wide.

Secondly,
The above mentioned Messers Issac & Zacharias Hope shall fit out the
said ship well with good and proper provisions, namely: good bread, meat,
bacon, flour, rice, barley, peas, syrup, butter, beer, good fresh water, and
what ever else is necessary; likewise the ship shall be twice daily cleaned
with vinegar and juniper berries to purify the air; and daily there shall be
given out to each whole freight the following:
Sunday – one pound of beef cooked with rice
Monday – barley with syrup
Tuesday – one pound of white wheat flour
Wednesday – one pound of bacon with peas
Thursday — one pound of beef cooked with rice
Friday – one pound of white wheat flour and one pound of butter
Saturday—one pound of bacon, one pound of cheese and six pounds of
bread   for the entire week.

Besides, everyday, one quart of beer (as long as it remains good) and
two quarts of water daily, to each whole freight.
If brandy is desired, it shall be given each morning to every person who
desires it. Lovers of tobacco, however, shall receive on enough to take along on
the journey.

Thirdly,
We the undersigned passengers, want to have freedom (as God’s weather
permits) to cook a few victuals for ourselves and the little children, and to
make use of the fire from six o’clock in the morning til the same time in the
evening; also permission to be on deck; yet those who are sick are especially
to enjoy the right to help themselves to the fire and water as often as they
need it for their refreshment; likewise there shall be provided on the ship all
kinds of aromatics and also wine so that the sick can be better cared for.

In Return For Which
We the undersigned passengers promise to pay the above mentioned Messrs,
Isaac & Zacharias Hope in Rotterdam, or on their order, for transport of
our persons, baggage and household goods, from Rotterdam to Philadelphia

Seven And One Half Doubloons

for each whole freight, and goods that we have with us shall be
delivered on land there gratis, without our being forced to pay anything
therefore to the stevedores.

Now the freights shall be reconed in the following manners: children
under four years old are free; from four to fourteen years  they shall pay half freight; and fourteen
years and upwards, full freight…

In Witness where of we have validated this Contract with our personal  signature.

Done in Rotterdam, February 16, 1756

(signed)  Isaac & Zacharias Hope

[A list of prospective emigrants and their portions in the freight follow.]

—————————————————————————————————

It would be nice to think that our emigrant ancestors received the fair treatment promised in their contract, “But how often must have happened, that emigrants lost their entire baggage on the way, through treachery, theft or violence.  Contemporary reports are filled with hair raising accounts of this.
The crossing of the Atlantic – remember this was 1738 – took eight to twelve weeks.
There was much hardship, illness, death, hunger, storms, lack of water and crowded conditions…”

 Tuesday, 9 September 1738:  Four or five months after leaving Sotern, the Seibert-Lorentz group landed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and were authorized to enter the colony.[4]  Jacob, being under the age of consent was apparently not required to sign his name to the legal immigration document.  A copy of the ships passenger manifest, showing the names of Johan Jacob Seibert and Henry Lowrence, accompanies this document.[3]

The earliest record of the Seibert family in Germany dates to the baptismal record of Nickel Seibert of 26 October 1569.  It was about this time that surnames were widely adopted in Europe.  When the Seibert’s landed in America, a clerk unaccustomed to Germanic spelling convention, changed the two century old SEIBERT – to SEYBERT. Jacob continued to use the old spelling in his signature; however, be aware that the new Seybert spelling became a custom, as seen in the name, Fort ‘Seybert’.

When immigration procedures were finished, the Seybert-Lorentz extended family left Philadelphia and proceeded sixty to eighty miles northwest to the recently settled Tulpehocken region of Lancaster County (since changed to Berks County), Pennsylvania.  When the Seybert group reached their German
relatives and friends there was a happy reunion.[5]   The Tulpehocken region was a fertile valley settled in 1723 by a colony of Germans and which over the years continued to draw German immigrants.  In the next century the descendants of these families would move west with their gaily
painted covered wagons and be known as, ‘The Pennsylvania Dutch.’

26 February 1739 A half year after landing in America and at age 22 years, Jacob Seybert married Mary Elizabeth Theiss. The services were performed by J. Casper Stoever.

28 March 1739:  A month after their marriage, Jacob received a 209 acre tract of land in Bethel Township from the Penns.

1740 – 1747:    Jacob and Mary farmed their land and began a family with a son, Nicholas, born 1743; ♥ Margaret, born 1745; and Catherine, born 1747.[6] (See also the associated blog, William Janes IV and Margaret Seybert)

It was during this time that word came into the middle colonies, especially Pennsylvania that there
was a very beautiful and fertile country in the river valleys southward.  This area was composed of three rivers which flowed north to form the Potomac, each separated from the other by a mountain range.
A beautiful new valley was found on the South Fork of the Potomac, the most easterly of the three rivers.  Its valley was separated on the east from the populated Shenandoah Valley by the Shenandoah Mountain.  It was separated on the west from the South Branch Valley by the South Fork Mountain.  South Branch Valley was already familiar to pioneer settlers, being referred to as the “upper
tract” of Virginia.

Early 1748:  Family members attending the Trinity Reformed Church in the Tulpehocken region were: Jacob Seybert and his wife Mary Theiss; Mary’s sister and brother-in-law, Christian Lauer; Johanna and husband, Henry Lorentz.

Later 1748:  Jacob and his family, his mother and stepfather and other relations left their farms in  Tulpehocken region of Pennsylvania and traveled 180 miles southwest to the South Fork valley wilderness of Highland County,[7] Virginia.  In the mid 1700s, the area where they settled was on the leading edge of the Anglo-Saxon colonization of America.
Jacob’s brother, Wendel remained in Pennsylvania.

An 18th Century contemporary description of the “west” Virginia wilderness:
“We may picture to ourselves a primeval forest broken only by a few dozen clearings, nearly all of those lying on or near the larger water courses.  In these clearings were the small houses, usually of unhewn logs.  Around the houses were small, stump dotted fields of corn, grain and flax.  The pens for livestock were strongly built, so as to protect the animals from the bears, wolves and catamounts that were the cause of continual anxiety and occasional loss.  The ‘broads’ leading out from the settlement were simply bridle-paths, and commodities were carried on the backs of  animals.” (Photo taken along the South Branch of the Potomac)

 1749:  In South Fork Valley, where the Dyer Settlement formed two years earlier, the inhabitants wrote a petition to Augusta Court House (now Staunton, Virginia) asking that a road be opened through the wilderness:  “…Petition of inhabitants and subscribers of the South Fork of the South Branch of Pattomuck are very much discommoded for want of a road to market and to Court if occation but espetialy to market.  We have found a very good way for a road: Beginning at John Patton’s over the mountain to Cap. John Smith’s…” [8]

 1753:  Meanwhile, living in South Fork Valley, Jacob and Mary increased their number of children with the births of: Elizabeth born in 1749; Henry, born 1751; and George, born 1753.

Twenty seven tracts of land were surveyed on the wilderness plateau of South Fork Mountain, west of the Dyer settlement. Of the twenty one persons applying for land patents, sixteen were newcomers in Highland County, including Jacob Seybert.

Small Shawnee hunting parties often visited the homes of the settlers.  Through them and the traders, the Indians picked up serviceable knowledge of the white man’s tongue.  That their English vocabulary was well supplied with terms of abuse and profanity, is significant of the sort of language they were accustomed to hear.[9]

Meanwhile, the European settlers cut the trees and cleared the ground thus scaring away the game.  This in turn caused the Indians to give up land and fall back in pursuit of their food supply.  White and Indian relations were further strained by the fact that the European’s, except for the French, did not go to any pains to win or keep the good will of the “Red men”.

In the fall of 1753, the Shawnee of the South Fork of the Potomac were visited by neighboring Indians from across the Ohio River, who urged them to move out of their (West Virginia) country. Among those at the conference was Killbuck, chief of a small band of Shawnee, who lived and hunted the region where upon sat the cabins and farms of the Dyer Settlement.  Killbuck was known, even amongst the “Whites,” as an Indian of “much ability and strong mental powers.”  At the conclusion of the conference, the Shawnee accepted their red brothers’ offer to move west, and in the spring of 1754 they quietly and abruptly left.

Before the beginning of hostilities, Killbuck had lived among the settlers and was acquainted with many of them.  In particular, he held a grudge against Peter Casey. Casey had once employed Killbuck to bring back a runaway slave. When Killbuck delivered the slave, Casey refused to pay him the promised sum.  In an altercation that followed, Casey knocked Killbuck down with his cane, an indignity not to be borne by the lowest Indian, much less by a proud chief. Killbuck controlled his anger at the time, but when war broke out he relentlessly sought to kill Casey; however, he never found the opportunity.  Yet, according to the Indian custom, an injury or insult from one man might be avenged upon anyone of the community to which he belonged.

Prior to the year 1754, various small tribes or clans, belonging to the general Shawnee nation, roamed over the Valley of Virginia and the valleys and mountains of Pendleton County. Although they established settlements and formed villages, their dwelling was largely transitory.  They did not recognize individual or tribal ownership of the land.  The whole area was a great hunting ground into which they came, where they stayed, and from which they left of their own will.[10]   The mountain region was rich with wildlife including ground hog, opossum, raccoon, squirrel, rabbit, bear, wild turkey, deer and panthers. In the earliest days of settlement there had even been a few elk and buffalo.

21 May 1755:  Jacob Seybert purchased the 210 acre John Patterson Jr. farm and mill in the Dyer Settlement.[11]  (See: Pendleton County Map)  The same day, his step brother-in-law, Nicholas Haffner, bought an adjoining farm. Jacob’s brother-in-law, Matthais Theiss, also settled in the area, as did Jacob’s mother and step father, Johanna and Henry Lorentz.[12]

Between 1755 and 1759, the frontiers of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and “west” Virginia were exposed to increased attack as the French and Indian War flared anew. Boarder settlements were harassed by raiding parties of Indians, who at times acted alone; while at other times were accompanied by French soldiers. The resulting damage was great and was done by a comparatively small number of warriors.

Families of settlers located up and down the remote valleys were not entirely unprotected.  They “forted in” themselves, meaning their homes were built with facilities similar to a contemporary
military blockhouse.  The log house of the frontier was built considering a possible attack.  Commonly the structure was constructed near a spring.  The door could be strongly barred and the windows were too small for a man to crawl through.  There were loopholes in the walls through which the inmates could fire their guns.
And if possible, it was not too near a spot where the enemy could find cover.  A few of these old log houses still stand in this region of West Virginia and in some instances are still occupied; in the walls are “shooting-holes” which have since been covered by weather boarding.[13]

The Indians believed that by scalping their enemies they would be safe from harm from that enemy in the after life, since no one could enter the next world if disfigured in body or limb.  Wives were killed so they would not bear any more children to grow up and avenge their slain husband.  If a life was spared – as was often the case with the young – the captive was adopted. Otherwise, boys were killed because they would grow into warriors.  Girls were killed because they would become mothers of more warriors.  Finally, the house was burned in order to damage the enemy that much more.

 In 1755 the colonial governments decided to fight the Indians in the same way and began offering a bounty of 10  for the scalp of any hostile Indian over twelve years of age.

1755:  Seventy one civilian settlers were either killed or taken captive by the Indians, resulting in a stream of refugees pouring through the Blue Ridge for safety.

1756:  Virginia appropriated $33,000 to build 23 forts.  George Washington was sent into the frontier where he set up headquarters at Winchester, in northernVirginia.

4 January 1756George Washington’s letters give a vivid idea of the weak settlements of Highland County, “I have now ordered Captain Waggoner with sixty men to build and garrison two forts at places I have appointed high up the South Branch.”[14]

 February:  Jacob Peterson, living on North Mill Creek near Grant Line, lost six children to capture by the Indians – only one later escaped.

15 April:  Washington writes, “All my ideal hopes of raising a number of men to search the adjacent mountains have vanished to nothing.”

 A week later he writes, “I am too little acquainted with pathetic language to attempt a description of the people’s distresses.”

Two days later, “Not an hour, nay, scarcely a minute passes that does not produce fresh alarms and melancholy accounts.”  In another letter Washington writes, “…the deplorable situation of these people is no more to be described than is my anxiety and uneasiness for their relief.”  And again, describing the situation on the frontier, he writes, “Desolation and murder still increase.”

 16 May:  Michael Freeze and his wife, who lived in an area called Upper Tract, were killed.

By 16 August 1756: Washington writes, “…We have built some forts and altered others as far south on the Potomac as settlers have been molested; and there only remains one body of inhabitants at a place called Upper Tract who need guard. Thither I have ordered a party…”[15]

Fort Upper Tract, in South Branch Valley, was built a mile above Harman’s Landing and a mile south of the present Upper Tract village.  Built on a bluff, on the bank of the South Branch of the Potomac River, it was protected by a steep slope on one side, while being afforded some protection on two other sides by a ravine. The enclosed space was however very limited.  The structure’s foundation can still easily be traced on the ground.
The Dyer Settlement was located only nine miles southeast of Fort Upper Tract, just over South Fork Mountain.

1756:   A wooden palisade fort with a central blockhouse was constructed by the settlers at a strategic
location on Jacob’s centrally located farm. It was built on the west side of South Fork River, and situated on an elevation which sloped rapidly to a ravine on the north and descended abruptly over a ledge of rocks to the river bottom on the south-east.  Westwardly, a gradual incline sloped back to
the mountain.[16]

The fact that the previous owner, John Patterson Jr., had a mill at the river’s edge also influenced the choice of the site of Fort Seybert.  A road of some description was always built to a mill.  Consequently, the settlers could use the same road to get to the fort for safety.  There was also a bridle trail, or road of similar description, that began at the Patterson-Seybert property and went over the Shenandoah Mountain to Captain John Smith’s place and on to the county seat at Augusta, Virginia.  The fort was built about 100 yards from where the mill stood, and there was a good spring fifty to sixty yards from the fort.[17]

A description of Ft. Seybert: “There was a circular stockade with a two storied block house inside.  The diameter of the stockade was about 90 feet. (See the drawing at the top of this article).
 According to the practice of the day, the wall was composed of logs set in contact with one another and rising at least ten feet above the ground.  For going in and out there was a heavy gate constructed of puncheons (heavy framing timbers with a smooth face).  The blockhouse stood near the center of the circle and was apparently about 21 feet square. From the loopholes in the upper room, the open space around the stockade could be commanded by the garrison. There is no evidence of the fine spring then existing a two minute walk away.”[18]

FortSeybert stood in what became during the late 19th and early 20th Century the yard of the William C. Miller [alive in 1916] house. The Miller house is located about 0.5 miles north of the Fort Seybert Post Office, the Fort Seybert mail drop.) on the west side of County Road #3, also known as the Sweedlin Road, Fort Seybert, Pendleton County, West Virginia.
When constructing his home, Mr. Miller preserved in its original location a foundation cornerstone under his cellar window and another cornerstone on the surface of his lawn, 21 feet away.  Nor did he obliterate the circle arc that showed where the stockade wall use to rise. In a circa 1910 photograph of the Miller house and yard, the location of the former log wall can be seen as a slight depression in the ground.[19]

Winter 1756-57:  During the winter season the settlers were quite safe. The Indians were not inclined to maraud while food was scarce and the forest leaves fallen.

16 March 1757Possibly as a result of the tragedy at the Michael Freeze home ten months earlier, Jacob Seybert, age 40 years, was commissioned Captain of Militia.[20]

16 May 1757:  Jacob’s step father, Henry Lorentz, was killed by the Indians, who were making attacks
farther and farther down the South Fork and South Branch of the Potomac.

28 September:  George Washington writes, “The inhabitants of this valuable and very fertile valley are terrified beyond expression.”

10 November:  Determined to stay and fight the Indians if necessary, Jacob applied for a land patent for an additional 88 acres.

By the end of 1757, there were only about forty families, or about two hundred European – Americans left spread out in small settlements inPendletonCounty.

19 March 1758A destructive Indian raid occurred in the region of Fort Upper Tract. On this day three men were shot dead while working about their homesteads.  Two other men were wounded, and two persons were captured by the Indians.  Fort Upper Tract was located only nine miles northwest of Fort Seybert, just over SouthFork Mountain.

2 April:  Lieutenant Gist, was in charge of a company of Scouts, composed of six soldiers and 30 Indians under the employ of the colonists.  The lieutenant found a large Indian encampment about 15 miles “this side” (south) of Fort Duquesne[21] with tracks leading directly toward the Virginia
frontier.  Within days the scouts came upon the tracks of another large party pursuing the same course.[22]

24 & 27 April:  A band of French and Indians arrived in the valley near Fort Upper Tract and killed Captain James Dunlap and nine other persons. Captain Dunlap was an experienced soldier who had commanded a detachment in the Big Sandy Expedition.  Three days later, the Indians attacked Fort Upper Tract and killed an additional thirteen defenders before burning the fort.  It is thought that the massacre at Fort Upper Tract was complete since no stories have ever surfaced in local tradition.

After massacring the soldiers and settlers at Fort Upper Tract, the large Indian war party began its trek back to Indian country.
However, a group of forty or more Shawnee with perhaps one Frenchman, led by Chief Killbuck, took an independent course of action.  They proceeded southeast over South Fork Mountain  toward Fort Seybert.

Meanwhile, the residents of Dyer Settlement, having learned that an attack was imminent, sent an express rider to Fort Upper Tract for assistance, but the rider turned back upon seeing the tell tale column of smoke from the burning buildings.  Upon hearing of the nearby attack, several families from Dyer Settlement immediately left to cross the Shenandoah Mountains for safety.  Forty people were left to gather at Fort Seybert, of which very few were men.

Story continued in blog, The Jacob Seybert family: Fort Seybert

Footnotes follow:
[1]  Raymond Martin Bell, The Seiberts of Saarland,  Pennslyvania and West Virginia, (Washington, Pennsylvania, 1982)
[2]  Don Yoder, Pennsylvania German Immigrants 1709 – 1786, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1936, reprinted 1980)
[3] Prof I. Daniel Rupp,  A Collection Of Thirty Thousand Names of German, Swiss, Dutch, French and Other Immigrants in Pennsylvania from 1727 to 1776, (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, reprinted 1965), p. 116-117.
[4] Rupp, A Collection
[5]  Bell, The Seiberts
[6]  Bell, The Seiberts
[7]  Through various land divisions, parts of Highland County became  Augusta County. In 1788, parts of Augusta, Rockingham and Hardy Counties were formed into Pendleton County, Virginia. In 1863    Pendleton County became part of the newly formed state ofWest Virginia.
[8]  Mary Lee Keister Talbot, The Dyer Settlement -The Fort Seybert Massacre-Fort Seybert, West Virginia, (The Roger Dyer Family Association, 1937) .
[9] Oren Frederic Morton, History of Highland County, Virginia, (Baltimore:Regional Publishing Company, reprinted 1969)
[10] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[11] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[12]  Bell, The  Seiberts
[13]  Morton, History of Highland County
[14]  W.C. Ford, George Washington Bicentennial Edition: Writings of Washington, Vol. I & II
[15]  Jared Sparks, Writings of Washington, [1834], Vol II, pages 179-198
[16] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[17] Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[18]  Oren F. Morton, A History of Pendleton County, West Virginia, (Baltimore: Regional Publishing Company, 1916, reprinted 1980)
[19]  The house was still standing in 1988, but was uninhabited.  The two corner stones are still evident in the locations discussed.  The William C. Miller property is  [in 1988] owned by Paul Conrad, the husband of a Miller descendant, who lives  in the next house on this property (see footnote 34).
[20]  Talbot, The Dyer Settlement
[21] Fort Duquesne, French, built 1754, and taken by the British in 1758 then renamed Fort Pitt; now the site of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
[22] Ford, George Washington Bicentennial Edition

2 Comments

Filed under My family in history, __2. Settlers and Migrants

Glen Kenyon Pierce and Elsie Grubb

(Settlers and migrants, Pierce family)

 * Glen Kenyon PIERCE was born on 4 Jun 1887 in Jacksonville, Chickasaw, IA; died on 2 Nov 1958 in rural Coloma, Berrien, MI; buried on 5 Nov 1958 in Lawton, Van Buren, MI.

He married Elsie GRUBB on 16 Jul 1913 in Grand Junction, Greene, IA. They had the following children: William Glen “Uncle Bill” PIERCE[1] (b. 22 Jun 1914), Jack Pershing PIERCE (b. 11 Aug 1918), ♥ Robert Francis PIERCE (b.1 Oct 1920).

BIRTH: Glen Kenyon Pierce was born to Francis Albert Pierce and Lydia Amanda Sabin 4 Jun 1887 at Jacksonville, Chickasaw, IA.{D4}

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:
“Pictures I have of my parents as young adults show clearly that my mother was a beautiful woman, and that Dad was tall and handsome.”{D6} Glen had a dimple in his chin which was passed on to his sons and grand sons. He stood about 6′ 2″or 3” tall and was a slender, but not thin man.”{D8}

[Photo ca 1896. Glen K. Pierce, about age 9 years standing-leaning against tree, elder brother, Francis, seated on stool.]

CHARACTER:
“Glen is characterized as being patient, easy-going, clever, industrious, honest, courteous, trustworthy, and understanding. He enjoyed playing Cribbage, Pinochle and Chinese checkers. Some of the family magazine subscriptions included Reader’s Digest and National Geographic.{D7} He was quiet, serious and soft-spoken. The work he did on the farm seemed easy and natural to him; he never seem confused or perplexed by a situation, but accomplished his work with steady and quiet determination, always seeming to do the right thing. I think he almost preferred working by himself. Even when angered at the grandchildren for losing his tools, his complaint would be in a modest not angered voice. He liked watching football games on television as a diversion. He was a gentleman.” {D8}

MARRIAGE:
Glen and Elsie were married by Presbyterian minister, Rev. Elmer Ankerman, in Grand Junction, IA.
At the time, Glen (age 26), was living in Chicago, IL. Elsie (age 23), had graduated from college and was again living at home with her parents.{D1}

[ca 1990 photos: Interior of the one room school that Glen attended in (old) Jacksonville, IA, during the 1890s. The building is now a museum. Photo at right shows his future daughter-in-law, Hazel (Shafer) Pierce walking amongst desks.]

[Photo at right: ca, 1910. Glen Kenyon Pierce, about 23 years old.]

EVENT:
1.   In 1916 Glen received $2000, plus 5-1/2% interest from the sale of his portion of his father’s farm near Jacksonville, Chickasaw Co., IA (The $2000 in 1916 had an equivalent 2011 purchasing power of $41, 631.)

HOME:
1.  The family lived for a short  while in Chicago where their first son, William, was born in 1914. Then went back to the University of Iowa when Glen taught for 5 or 6 years.{D6}
2.  In Oct 1920, when their last son, Robert, was born, the family was residing at 647 Rundall Street, Iowa City, IA.{D5}
3.  While Glen taught at J. Morton High School the family lived in several different residences, one being on 56th Court right across the street from Goodwin School, Cicero, IL. The home was the downstairs of a two-story flat in a Czechoslovakian neighborhood, where most of the people were first generation Americans and could speak only broken English. They were hard-working, thrifty and peaceful.{D6}
4.  Another flat being “on the 2nd floor over ‘Jake the Barber’. This must have been just north of 26th St., near 56th”, in Cicero, IL.{D6}
5.  In the mid 1930s the family bought a 20 acre “retirement” farm to occupy their summers and earn some extra money during the school vacation. For the next 10-15 years they continually improved the farm and house. Glen retired from teaching in 1942 and moved to the farm. By this time all their sons had left home and were married.
Glen and Elsie supplemented their Social Security checks by selling fruit and raising chickens, hogs and a milk cow. Elsie had several large gardens and canned a great deal of produce, jams and jellies, chicken, pickles, etc. for personal consumption. Glen remodeled the large two-story farm house soon after they moved to the farm. I always remember this farm and that home as one of the great places in the world. There was warmth and love, and all the neat things to see, and places to play. It was a friendly home. The farm was located about 2-3 miles N.W. of Coloma, in the S.W. corner of the intersection of Little Paw Paw Road and Spring Hill Road, Coloma Township, Berrien County, MI (in the 1980-90s it was referred to by the owners as Spring Hill Farm){D8}

[The sons of Glen and Elsie Pierce, 1923, L>R:  Jack, Bob, Bill. William (Bill) was the author of Memories of my Parents text article seen below; my father in center, (Robert) ‘Bob’, is 3 years old)]

EDUCATION:
Graduated from the University of Iowa with a degree in engineering.

LIVELIHOOD:
1.  The following is quoted from an old, ca 1923 news article:
“University Instructor Studies Telephony at Hawthorne — G.K. Pierce, an instructor in the fundamentals of telephony at Iowa State University, has been spending his vacation at Hawthorne and Chicago in the pursuit of information on the latest developments in telephone work. Mr. Pierce has been particularly interested in machine switching apparatus and Long Lines transmission. Previous to his admission to the faculty of Iowa State University, Mr. Pierce was a Western Electric man, having started with our company as a student at Hawthorne in 1913. In 1914 he was assigned to equipment drafting work and entered the Equipment Engineering Department a year later. In 1918 Mr. Pierce left the Western to become an instructor in the Engineering Department of Iowa State University, at Iowa City, IA. He returned to Hawthorne last June and spent four weeks studying machine switching development. This was followed by one week with the Illinois Bell Telephone Company, getting an insight into the practical application of machine switching, and three weeks with the Long Lines Department of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, where he devoted most of his time to the problems of carrier current telephone repeaters, inductive interference, cross talk and general transmission. Mr. Pierce spent the final three weeks of his stay in our Equipment Engineering Department at Hawthorne and returned to Iowa State University the first of September.”
2.  He taught Civil and Electrical Engineering at the University of Iowa, 1918-1923
3.  Glen taught engineering at the J. Sterling Morton High School in Cicero, IL for 22 years.
4.  “The Great Depression. from 1929 on hurt my parents, but not as much as some other people. Dad kept his job at Morton High School, but took a pay cut. Times were pretty tough, but Bob, Jack and I never knew it. If anyone ate or dressed better than we did, we sure didn’t notice. With no income at all during summer months, most teachers were forced to try to find temporary summer employment. A couple of summers Dad took a job driving taxis. D6}
5.  After retiring from teaching and moving to the “retirement farm” in MI, Glen took a part-time job
with Auto Specialties, Benton Harbor.

ORGANIZATIONS:
Member of Theta XI fraternity; was a Registered Professional Engineer.

DEATH:
“Glen K. Pierce, 71, was found dead in bed late yesterday afternoon at his home on Route 2, Coloma (MI). He was discovered by neighbors when his wife Elsie, who had been visiting in Lawton (with son Jack’s family) for the past two and a half weeks, attempted to call him and received no answer. Harding Day, acting coroner, said death occurred about 1 a.m. Sunday. Mr. Pierce was born in Lawler, IA, June 4, 1887, and lived in Chicago until 1942 when he located on a farm northwest of Coloma (hobby, retirement farm)…”{D2}
Glen died of a Myocardial infarction.{D3}

BURIAL:
Glen K. and wife Elsie are buried together in the Lawton Cemetery, Lawton, MI.

DOCUMENTS:
1.  Greene County, IA., Marriage Record Book #8, p.102. Establishes Elsie Grubb parents as George Grubb and Anna F. Anderson.
2.  Obituary from The News-Palladium, Benton Harbor, MI, 3 Nov 1958.
3.  Death Certificate listed in Berrien Co., MI., Record Number #58-1064 and dated 5 Nov 1958.
4.  Birth Record of Glen Kenyon Pierce, Chickasaw Co., IA, Birth Records Book #1, p. 56.
5.  See birth record note for son Robert F. Pierce.
6.  From “The Memories Of My Parents” by, William G. Pierce, 1985, a 10 page dialog.
7.  Recollections of son Robert F. Pierce, 1988.
8.  Recollections of grandson, Larry F. Pierce, 1994.
9. Individual source: The Anderson Story, by Mrs. C. J. Davis, Mrs. Cora May Boots and others, printed in 1968. A 67 page genealogical record of the Anderson family from John & Elizabeth Horney Anderson, ca 1800 to 1968.
.

* Elsie GRUBB was born on 3 Oct 1889 in Maple River Junction, Carroll, IA; died on 27 Dec 1969 in Omaha, Douglas, NE; buried in Lawton Cemetery, Lawton,Van Buren,MI.

BIRTH:
____ Grubb, female was born 3 Oct 1889, 3rd child of this mother and G.E. Grubb, telegraph operator at Maple River Junction, IA.{D4}

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:
Elsie was short, as was her mother, Anna Flora, and her grandmother, Margaret Horney. She put on weight in middle life, then lost it, becoming very thin in old age.{D4}

[Photograph left: Elsie Grubb, ca 1893, about 4 years old. Note from 2011:  Elsie’s baby doll has passed down to me, grandson, Larry F. Pierce]

CHARACTER:
She is characterized as easy to talk to and industrious, but occasionally moody. She was a good manager and conversationalist, sympathetic, understanding, sensitive, easy to anger, had musical ability and was intuitive. She loved to read and work in her gardens. She subscribed to Cosmopolitan and Ladies Home Journal magazines.{D6} Elsie was always very loving, warm and giving to her grandchildren, but when angered by an adult member of the family, or their wives, she was quite free in speaking her mind, much to the discomfort of the offender!{D4}

[Photo right: ca 1909. Elsie Grubb, about 20 years old.]

EDUCATION:
Elsie graduated from the University of Iowa at Iowa City, it was here that she met Glen K. Pierce, who would become he husband. She had a teaching certificate.{D3}

EVENT:
Many nights while my family lived on the farm with Grandma and Grandpa, I’d see my Grandparents sitting at the kitchen table playing Cribbage.
Elsie loved to play cards. Her favorite card game was “cut throat” Canasta. In her later years Grandma and I played Canasta several days a week for hours at a time. At first we’d play one game to see who’d win, then it would become 2 out of 3, occasionally 3 out of 5. Grandma would often cap a winning streak with statements like, “I guess you know who your master is now!”, spoken in a way as to make you want to play another game, a grudge match for revenge. We had fun.{D4}

LIVELIHOOD:
During her earlier years, Elsie was a math teacher and for a time the Principal of a school, whereabouts unknown.{D4}

During their retirement years, Elsie worked on  the farm, helping to pick, supervise hired pickers and sorting fruit. She also did the house work: cooking, wash, shopping, etc. When it came to selling their fruit at the Fruit Exchange, Elsie had the better personality for haggling with  the buyers.{D4}

HOME:
After Glen’s death, Elsie moved to Lawton, MI to be closer to Jack’s family. The apartment she rented, at the time of her death, was essentially a three room, upstairs dwelling over Rich’s Grocery store on Lawton’s main street. The address was 110 1/2 Main Street, Lawton, MI.{D4}

WILL:
Elsie’s Will simply divided her estate into 3 equal portions amongst her 3 sons, i.e.; “…I give,
 devise and bequeath my entire estate as follows…3. one third thereof to my son, Robert F. Pierce, if he survives me, in the event he should precede me, then to his widow surviving my death, and if no widow surviving my death then to his children in equal shares and proportions.”… etc.{D2}

DEATH:
Elsie, 80, died of a heart attack during the night while visiting her son Jack Pershing Pierce, at 3007 South 20th St., Omaha, NE, for the Christmas holidays. Jack, his second wife, Alvira and a friend were preparing to watch a football game on the morning of the 27th. When it was noticed that Elsie was sleeping in a little too long Alvira went in to waken her; that’s when they discovered she’d passed away.
The immediate cause of Elsie’s death is listed as Coronary arteriosclerosis.{D3}

[Elsie (Grubb) Pierce and son, Jack Pierce; probably on evening of 26 Dec 1969, Elsie wearing a Christmas gift dress she received. Elsie died during her sleep this night and was buried wearing this dress, from son William, and a sweater from grand-daughter Linda F. (Pierce) Trowbridge.
How little we have of those we love. We mature from childhood to adulthood, raise our own children, they too age, all pass. We who for a time remain, mourn those who we love, as they evaporate, their Being rising like the fog from a woodland meadow. All those joyous and precious moments we had together, lost in time.’ lfp]

BURIAL:
Her body was shipped back  to MI where she was buried at the Lawton Cemetery next to her husband, Glen. Elsie was buried in a Christmas dress just given to her by son Jack. A photograph taken the evening before shows her wearing the dress and smiling at the camera. God Bless you Grandma.{4}

DOCUMENTS:
1. Birth Certificate, Registrar of Vital Statistics, Carroll County, IA, for the year ending 1 Oct 1890, Number 1201, Date of filing return 5 Oct 1889; establishes that the 3d born child, a female, in her parent’s family was Elsie. See also, George E. Grubb, 1900 census.
2. The Will of Elsie Pierce bequeaths her entire estate to be divided into thirds and given equally to her three sons, William, Jack and Robert Pierce; filed in Van Buren Probate Court, Van Buren County, MI, on 19 January 1970.
3. Death Certificate #154912, filed with the Omaha-Douglas County Health Department, Div. of Vital Statistics, NE. Establishes Elsie Pierce’s father as George Grubb.
4. The recollections of grandson, Larry Francis Pierce, 1994.
5. From “The Memories Of My Parents” by, William G. Pierce, 1985, a 10 page dialog.
6. The recollections of son, Robert F. Pierce, 1988.
7. Individual source: The Anderson Story, by Mrs. C. J. Davis, Mrs. Cora May Boots and others, printed in 1968. A 67 page genealogical record of the Anderson family from John & Elizabeth Horney Anderson, ca 1800 to 1968.

———————————————-  ∞ ————————————————

Memories of my parents
By William G. Pierce, May 1985
(William was an elder brother of my father, Robert F. Pierce, and my ‘Uncle Bill’)

Glen Kenyon Pierce was born on 4 June 1887, at Lawler, Iowa. Elsie (Grubb ) Pierce was born on 3 Oct 1889 in Maple River Junction, Carroll Co, Iowa. They were both in the teaching profession most of their lives. My mother had a teaching certificate, but I don’t rememberwhere she went to school She must have taken some courses at the University of Iowa, because that’s where they first met.

They were married in Iowa City on 16 July 1913. Dad received his bachelors degree in electrical engineering, and subsequently became a registered professional engineer. Pictures I have of my parents as young adults show clearly that my mother was a beautiful woman, and that Dad was tall and handsome.

[Photo right: Clinton Street businesses, Iowa City, Iowa, between 1915 and 1920]

GK took a job briefly in Chicago, where I was born, but then went back to the University of Iowa, where he taught for five or six years. My memories begin with Iowa City.
We lived in a two-story frame house at the end of Rundell Street. The corner of Rundell and an intersecting street was where street cars got their trolley reversed for the return trip uptown. Beyond this corner was a car barn where street cars were stored when not in use. Across Rundell Street from us was a Jewish family named, Yetter, whose son, Bill, was about my age. They owned, ‘Yetter’s Big Store’, a mini-department store. It’s still there I’m told.

[Photos above. ca 1910 about 5 years before Glen began teaching class and working in this electrical laboratory. Students in the Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Building, The University of Iowa, Mar. 5,  1910. Left: Students in the Engineering Laboratory, Engineering Building, The University of Iowa, Mar. 5, 1910., Right: Electrical Laboratory, The University of Iowa, Mar. 4, 1910.]

While I was still a preschooler, I can remember being taken by my parents to a University of Iowa football game; so this shows they attended some college events.

On the far back of our lot was a small creek, where I used to catch crawdaddies. Just a short ways closer to the house was a cinder driveway leading to a rickety wood barn that served as a garage for their first vehicle, a motorcycle with attached sidecar. I can remember riding in the sidecar with my mother, while Dad straddled the motorcycle and drove. I must have been 3 or 4 years old at the time.

And then there was their first radio, a crystal set that was tuned by moving a metal whisker across a crystal. It must have been an early set, because many neighbors came in to listen.

My mother started me in kindergarten in Iowa City, and I do remember some of my early classes. When I was midway through third grade, Dad took a job in Chicago with Western Electric. We moved from Iowa to a Chicago suburb, Cicero, on 56th Court, right across the street from Goodwin Grade School. Mother was told that I would either have to start third grade over again or skip into fourth grade. She wasn’t one to waste a lot of nonsense time this way, so with her tutorship, I did move up a grade and managed to hang on. Since my birthday is only a short time after school lets out, this accounts for my graduation from grade school at age twelve years and high school at sixteen. My two brothers followed me through both schools.

Our home was in the downstairs of a two-story flat in a Czechoslovakian neighborhood. Most of these people were first generation Americans and could speak only broken English, but they were hard-working, thrifty and peaceful. We three Pierce boys played with their children, who were thoroughly  ‘Americanized’. Not too far south of where we lived was an apartment owned by a well-known hoodlum, Al Capone, his brother, Ralph, and their lieutenant, Roger Toughy.

One episode which occurred at about this time comes from brother Jack. For some reason Mother told all of us boys to be home for dinner on time one night. Bob and I heeded her warning and were seated at the table on time, but Jack was late. When he finally did get home., Mom gave him a chewing out. Jack didn’t act repentant enough, so she became angrier and angrier, until finally she grabbed a plate from the dinner table and hit him over the head with it. The plate broke, and Bob and I burst out laughing. Pretty soon all of us were laughing. Jack considers himself real lucky that we laughed: otherwise he could really have been given a workout.

Fireworks were legal in Illinois at the time, and we always bought a modest amount for excitement. None of us will ever forget that July 4th evening when we set off a skyrocket. Usually we mounted skyrockets in a sturdy V trough aimed at a 45-60 degree angle, but this time we got lazy and set it in an upright milk bottle. This was after dark, of course, so the skyrocket would  leave a fiery trail across the heavens. Only this one never got to the heavens, because our milk bottle tipped over, and the skyrocket was launched parallel to the ground. Everything would have still been Jim Dandy except that there was automobile traffic on the adjoining street. Whether the skyrocket zoomed in front of a car’s windshield, as I believe, or through an open car window and out the other side, as Jack believes, is immaterial. There were screams and pandemonium, as the car ran over a curb, across a lawn and came to rest against a hedge. Our Cicero police came very quickly, but I never found out what happened next, because I wasn’t around.

Another story reflects on our parents opposite approaches to raising a family. Mother believed in punishment as a corrective measure, and her volatile nature caused her to use it a lot. Dad, on the other hand, tried to be pals with his sons and he abhorred spankings. Nevertheless, Mother called on him more than once to paddle us when we did something she perceived as wrong. Dad developed a little ploy, which he used frequently with our help. He would take us into a closed room, often a bedroom and tell us to holler at the right moment. Then he would spank the bed heavily, or us lightly, while we hollered our heads off. I’m surprised Mother never caught on, since we often laughed as loud as we hollered. Jack said he was a little surprised once when dad spanked a little harder than expected, but perhaps there was a good reason for that.

[Photo: ca 1924, Likely visiting relatives at George and Anna Flora Grubb’s  (Elsie’s parents) home in Grand Junction, Iowa. L>R inside the Willys Knight auto: Jack the Fox Terrier dog, Elsie (Grubb) Pierce, Glen K. Pierce. Sitting on dashboard, L>R (several nieces) Margaret (Grubb) Frantz; Dorothy (Grubb) Mount; son Jack P. Pierce; Florence (Grubb)___ and,  son William G. Pierce. Seated on the ground center front, son Robert ‘Bob’ F. Pierce.]

Our parent’s motorcycle had been replaced by a black, Model T Ford Touring car. They also acquired a pet dog, named, Jack, a male Fox Terrier. Jack was a very good pet, but he had two faults that often got him into trouble. He loved to chase motorcycles, and he chased cats as his duty. One weekend we had  motored out to Batavia to visit my Aunt Grace Beem  Pierce, and her two sons, Glen and Harry. We had just pulled up in front of her house when Jack spied Aunt Grace’s cat. Out through the plexiglass side curtains he sailed and disappeared around he far side of the house after the cat. A short while later they came back around that same corner, but this time the cat was chasing Jack.

Still later, inside the house, Jack took out after the cat again, no doubt trying to shine up his tarnished reputation. Aunt Grace had a beautiful upright piano with a spread on top on which  there were pictures, kewpie dolls and other knick knacks. Sure enough, the cat skiddled across the polished piano top, taking everything with him (or her) Jack was ejected from the house (you might say in dis-Grace) and I don’t think my folks were too popular in Batavia from then on.

Each summer an Anderson Reunion was held in one of the small Iowa towns, like Yale, with a park suitable for a big group. There were many Anderson descendants, some like us who drove in from other states. I can remember attending several of these with my parents and brothers. We visited with uncles, aunts, cousins, grandparents, and many other people I didn’t even know. Each family supplied at least one large dish of food for the buffet; and the tables with this feast were beautiful. After eating, adults sat around and became reacquainted, while kids and young adults played softball.

[Internet image left: J. Morton High School, Cicero, IL This is the same facade and structure the building had when Glen retired from teaching here in the late 1930s.]

One summer when we were driving toward this reunion, our Model T Touring car took a sudden and sharp turn to the left and overturned. Although I wasn’t hurt, Mother had her eye cut and Dad broke an arm. Everyone recovered, but that was the end of our model T Ford.

I don’t know exactly when Mother first became interested in the occult; but I must have been under ten when she introduced me to her Ouija board. This was a flat varnished board with letters, numbers and other symbols on it. A three-legged planchette would glide over the board and spell out messages. Of course the medium’s hand would have to be on it, so there was always the doubt that these were really spirit messages. At first the Ouija board was interesting, but I learned that it never worked with my hand alone.

Other practices she developed were reading cards and tea leaves and telling fortunes. She became quite good at this, and a few persons claimed that she had told them where they would find lost rings and other articles. Later in life when she was staying with Jack and Elvera in Omaha, jack reported that Mom, now a gray-haired grandmother, was the hit of a party that Elvera held for some 35 women. Grandma told fortunes and was remarkably accurate in recounting events that happened and of which she could have no knowledge. Perhaps she did have a little bit of clairvoyance.

At a little later date, Mother became interested in gambling on the horses. I don’t think she was interested in horses, just gambling. Nor do I recall her going to a track; but she did take me, at least once, to a bookie parlor in Cicero. I was probably twelve years old at the time. I don’t think her gambling affected the family finances much, one way or the other.

 My father left Western Electric and returned to the teaching profession by taking a job at J. Sterling Morton High School in Cicero. He taught electrical theory and shop. We then became friends with many high school teachers and their families. Morton used to have some very good basketball teams; and I can remember them winning the National High School Basketball Championship in 1927. Cicero and Morton went crazy for a couple of days. .

The Great Depression from 1929 on, hurt my parents, but not as much as some other people. Dad kept his job at M.H.S. but took a pay cut; and along with other teachers, was paid in paper ‘script’ instead of real money. Script was worth only what merchants were willing to trade for it; and that was sometimes less than 50% of the face value. That’s when they bought a new car, a Willys Knight, because the rate of exchange was quite favorable. Car dealers were having a rough time of it too.

Willys Knight engines had sleeve valves instead of the more common poppet valves. Since Dad did most of his own work on the car, I got to learn quite a bit about automobile engines, even though I must have been quite a nuisance when he was busy. Gasoline in the depression days was quite cheap, sometimes selling for under 10¢/ gal. It wasn’t very good gas, and it seems to carbon up the sleeve valve ports. I think dad had to clean carbon out of the Willys Knight engine every summer.

By this time we had moved again, to a second floor flat in Cicero; and I had to carry my bicycle up the stairway to a landing outside our doorway to keep it from getting stolen. Visitors to our house had to enter this way, too, but the flat was cheap; and this was still the depression.

Even when we were little, our folks would take us on motor car vacations with them, but we didn’t stay in motels or eat at expensive restaurants. Dad bought a tent, and we slept on cots and had meals that were cooked on a Coleman stove. Camping was fun, and it took us all over the country: up into Canada, to the East coast, and out west to Colorado, Jackson Hole and Yellowstone National park. I once was lectured for feeding black bears from my hand. Jack says he almost caused Mother heart failure when they caught him showing off hanging by his knees from a guard railing over Horseshoe falls. A slip would have plunged him hundreds of feet into the water and rocks below.

[Photograph at left, ca. 1934. G.K. Pierce family: L>R: youngest son, Robert Francis (my father), middle son Jack Pershing (with hat), Elsie (Grubb) Pierce, Glen Kenyon Pierce, eldest son, William Glen.]

One Sunday my folks decided they would rather press grapes for wine than attend church. And this is what they y were doing when the minister and his wife decided to find out what kept the Pierces from church.
After trudging up the stairs to the back door, they were led through the grape processing kitchen to our living room. I remember how embarrassed my parents were; and I wonder if they would mind that incident being recorder.

During the 1930s our United States suffered through another crisis called ‘Prohibition’. This encouraged a lot of people. Like my parents to make their own beer and wine, and it also encouraged illegal stills.
One of these was located in a garage only a block or so from our home. Someone must have reported the still, because one day our Cicero police raided it. About fifty f gallon tins were axed and turned over on their sides to drain. Not five seconds after the police departed, a bunch of enterprising citizen, including my parents, were salvaging what they could. This was 200 proof alcohol, so bless their hearts, I don’t blame them. I would have done the same.

Time were pretty tough through the Depression, but Bob, Jack and I never knew it. If anyone ate or dressed better than we did, we sure didn’t notice.
Teachers were poorly paid, although the script days were ended. With no income at all during summer months, most of them were forced to try to find temporary summer employment. A couple of summers dad took a job driving taxis. All I can remember about those days is that he was once held up and robbed by a passenger.

As the Depression was winding down times were getting better, we moved to a nicer neighborhood and home in Berwyn. I attended high school and Morton Junior College while living there. Dad drove to school, and I either rode with him or took the streetcar. Later, I had my own motorcycle.

However, the problems of summer income, or lack of it, persisted, and that’s why my parents bought their first property, a  twenty acre fruit farm near Coloma, Michigan.
The place  was pretty run down, there was no inside toilet, and fruit trees needed replacement, so there was plenty of work to do. When they weren’t spraying fruit trees, planting, picking, or hauling produce to market, they were digging a basement, building an inside toilet, adding two porches, finishing off the upstairs, etc. But they were more secure and happy.

Before they finally pulled up rooted and retired to the farm, our folks spent many arduous weekends and summers working it and marketing the fruit. One weekend they returned to their home in Berwyn with a cash box full of money. Jack was away at school, I was working in Michigan, but brother Bob, was still living at home. The folks had retired to bed with the cash box safely stowed underneath, when Bob returned home late from a date. Mother heard a noise downstairs and awakened Dad.

They called downstairs to learn who it was, but Bob had gone to the kitchen for a piece of pie. He either didn’t hear them or didn’t bother to answer; so Dad grabbed a glass dresser lamp for protection and started downstairs. For some unexplained reason the stairway light went out, so Dad retreated up stairs and told Mother, “They got the fuse box.”

Mother was terrified, so she grabbed the money-box and crawled out through a bedroom window onto the front porch roof,  where she began to scream bloody murder. Neighbors heard her and called the police.

In the meantime, Bob heard all this racket and wondered what was going on. So upstairs he came and tried to open their bedroom door, while Dad was trying to hold it closed from the other side. Finally the tension was broken when Bob asked what the hell was going on. Mother came in off the porch roof in her night grown, still clutching the money-box. Dad was terribly embarrassed, and the police were amused.

Since they owned this farm property for over thirty years, and eventually retired to it, they did make many improvements. This speaks well for their willingness to work hard and improve their lot in life. I’ll mention some of the improvements.
Their apple orchard was a major ground user and income producer, so our parents brought that section into top shape first. Fortunately, most of the trees were healthy, solid producers: Jonathon, McIntosh, Red and Golden Delicious, Northern Spies and several other varieties, planned so that ripening and picking were spread out over the season. Not too much replacement of trees was necessary; however the trees had to be severely pruned at first, and then annually thereafter. Deadwood was hauled to an open area, dried and burned.
[Ca 1940: The remodeled farm house with newly built enclosed porch in front.]

A pear orchard, adjacent to the apples, ran downhill from their house. These pear trees were quite aged and had to be replaced eventually with Bartlett’s, which proved to be a good investment. Adjacent to another side of the apple orchard were peaches, and most of these trees were also replaced by Dad and Mother. I don’t think I ever enjoyed the taste of a peach so much as when it was picked ripe from one of those trees.

A small orchard of Morenci cherries was located just beyond the driveway near the barn. Many of us were drafted to help pick cherries in season. And we learned why you were asked to whistle while you picked.
[Photo above, 1939. Elsie (age 50) and son, Bob (age 19), taking a break while picking cherries. This location is in front of the barn and off the driveway about 15 feet. Seen in the 1989 barn photo below, they were sitting just out of the picture on the extreme right. Ten years later (1949), I was climbing in these trees during harvest season, enjoying the sweet cherries.]
Out back was a single sweet cherry tree, and was that fruit ever large and tasty! Mother credited this to its  proximity to an outhouse, and she was probably right.

No farm would be complete without a large vegetable garden, the Pierce’s was no exception. It contained every vegetable and melon that school teachers could imagine, including sweet corn, pumpkins, squash, and watermelon. There was a smattering of berry bushes; black and red raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, and currants. There were also several huge lilac bushes.

Completing their fruit farm was a vineyard out near the county road, and vines needed pruning each year after grapes were harvested. All but four vines from each stalk were cut and hauled away. The remaining four vines were tied to horizontal wires, two top and two bottom. A commercial grease called, Tanglefoot, was smeared around each stalk near its base to  entrap crawling insects. One day a hired man told Mother that she should tie bow knots on the cords, and she did!

Way back on the extreme west side of their property was a deep dark ravine. Although visiting children were warned to stay away from this ravine because of its dangers (poison ivy, snakes, boogie men) it nevertheless remained a strong attraction. Some of the trees had long vines that seemed to be securely attached, so it was great fun to swing way out over the ravine, like Tarzan. I always thought those vines could have been more dangerous than poison ivy, but maybe that’s why we enjoyed it so much.

[Drawing above by grandson Larry Pierce: Symbols G1, G2 & G3 on map are grandmother’s gardens; #1 behind barn was a plank foot bridge across the springs wet swale; #2 where I occasionally sat looking down over the sumacs, day dreaming and making ‘Indian hunting weapons’. lfp]

Dad quickly learned to get on Michigan’s Agriculture Dept’s free mailing list. Their regular bulletins told farmers when to spray, for what, and with what. This was a tremendous help in growing healthy marketable fruit.

Among the early purchases were a small tractor, a spray rig, and a truck. This equipment was eventually replaced with better, larger models when they retired to the farm. The sprayer was towed to the tank to be filled, hen to the orchard and up and down the rows of trees. One person could do this, but it was a lot easier with two, one to drive and the other (always Dad) to spray. So Mother drove the tractor, unless one of us was there to take over. Dad walked behind and went between trees with his spray gun, which connected to a tank and pressure pump. He sent a huge plume of noxious chemicals to the highest reaches of all trees. Dad’s face, glasses and clothes were covered with spray by this time, and he looked like a ghost by the time spraying was finished.

Sorting and grading apples  by hand was a tedious job, so Dad designed and build an electric-powered grader, just like the larger commercial ones. It worked well for as long as I can remember. Lugs of apples were poured in top side and gently moved along a trough by a canvas belt. Mother would remove any bad ones that had escaped previous attention, while all other apples would gravity feed down one or another chute, depending on what size holes they could pass through. Periodically, chutes were opened and apples collected in brand new bushel baskets. Tops were fastened on and stenciled with apple brand name, size and “Pierce Fruit Orchards”. Their truck, loaded with baskets, was driven to market in Benton Harbor for sale to some Chicago fruit buyer.

Despite spraying and other care lavished on growing apples, some, like windfalls, were simply not good enough for sale at market. These were used for making cider. One day Jack drove mother and a load of culls to market in Coloma, where they were weighed and sold. A clerk asked jack to whom the check should be written. “Elsie Pierce, Jack replied, so Mother received a check made out to L.C. Pierce and was very upset However, she endorsed the check “L.C. Pierce” and collected her money at the bank, anyway.

I recall other examples of Dad’s mechanical skills. For a long while the Pierces kept a Jersey cow for its rich milk.. Of course there was also an ice-cream freezer;  and when ever company came, this manually operated freezer was pressed into service. As the cream began to freeze, cranking became harder and harder. So Dad converted it to a homemade electric freezer, the first I had ever seen. There were only about three varieties of ice-cream, but they were the best I ever had.

Besides the cow, there were also a few pigs; and the chickens that Mother took care of. A sack of corn was kept just inside the chicken house door, and that became the source of excitement one day. We were visiting Grandma and Grandpa when our children were little. Grandma took Richard, who was 7, out to show him her chickens. In the process of feeding them, the bag of corn was moved and a family of mice broke out and scurried every which way. Richard still remembers that incident.

In their front yard were two large maple trees, one of which had a low limb suitable for climbing and stunting on. I don’t recall how many times I hung from that limb by my legs and even my heels. It must have been about 7-1/2 feet off the ground.

At first there was a windmill in their back yard, and wind power pumped water into the house. After they moved out to the farm permanently, Dad motorized the pump, which made for a far more dependable water supply. Although the mill was removed, the tower remained. So did a galvanized water tank that was used for filling their sprayer.

Their original front porch was very dilapidated, so with some professional help, Dad rebuilt it into a nice screened in porch that was used frequently,, especially when there was company. One July 4th holiday when Elizabeth and I were visiting,  and most of the others were taking a nap, I decided to have a little fun. I lit a firecracker and placed it in a standing metal ashtray, expecting a little “pop”.
Instead there was  a loud explosion which blew the ash tray cover up to the ceiling, where it stuck in an acoustic tile. Everyone came running out to see who was trying to blow up their house, and I was caught red-handed and red-faced. My folks never replaced that damaged tile.

It was several years before they got rid of one hangover from depression days—rolling their own cigarettes. At first Dad rolled cowboy style, by hand; but Mother wasn’t very good at this. Her cigarettes were loosely packed allowing tobacco to fall out. After several flare-ups and a few burnt
eyebrows, dad bought a cigarette rolling machine. It now became quite simple to roll, so they would make up  several packs at a time.

Eventually they retired from teaching and moved out to the farm, as they had planned. They had both grown up in rural areas of Iowa, and now were returning to rural life, but in Michigan.

[Above, a 1989 photograph of the barn, by grandson, Larry. During the time that Glen and Elsie owned the farm, the barn was painted white. We are standing in Spring Hill Road looking WNW, the farm house is off to our left a couple hundred feet. The area in the foreground was once one of Elsie’s large gardens. The flowering bushes seen here were planted by Elsie and Glen some 50 years earlier and are still thriving. The cherry orchard mentioned by William ‘Bill’ Pierce in this mini biography and the picture above of Elsie and son Robert, working in that orchard, were found to the immediate right of the driveway that leads in toward the barn.
In my autobiography, see post ‘Chapter 1956’, there is a picture of me holding  a cat, that was taken in front of the barn ca 1946. In a later discussion (Chapter 1952) there is mention of a plank bridge we grandchildren built behind the barn…actually in the dark space seen here at the left side of the barn, down in the spring fed gully. lfp]

When I was working at Pontiac, the folks asked if I could get them a low mileage executive car. It just so happened that a friend of ours had a car he was getting ready to sell. We purchased the car and drove it out to the farm. It was a beautiful car, using General Motors large “C” body, which was shared with Olds 98, Buick Limited and Cadillac. Pontiac wasn’t permitted to use this “C” body long, but were instead paired with Chevrolet. However, it was the nicest car that Pontiac ever turned out and certainly the best my folks ever owned. They kept it for many years.

Living on a farm is not all work. Nearby were several fun places. Only three miles to the east was Crystal lake, a popular resort, and on one of its shores was Crystal Palace. This beautiful dance pavilion had big name bands, and crowds got so dense you could only stand and watch. I wonder if Crystal Palace is still there.

 Lake Michigan beaches were three miles in another direction. Clean sand dunes were wonderful for running and jumping, and they provided good spots for picnics. Lake Michigan water was  initially good for swimming, but it gradually became  polluted with effluent from Benton Harbor and ‘St. Joe’.

Benton Harbor did have an attraction, though—the ‘House of David’. Men of this religious order never shaved, so they were an attraction by themselves. They also operated a narrow gauge steam-powered railroad that carried visitors around their park: to the zoo, domesticated animal farm, refreshments, rest rooms, and picnic area. One time Mother was running to catch a train that was already starting up, when she fell. It scared the dickens out of us, but only her dignity was hurt.

We had lots of company: local friends, Chicago area friends, and relatives. Two of my pals from Berwyn, John Lofgren and  Glen Strand, were frequent visitors. They came mostly for fun, but in weak moments could be talked into helping. I remember, for instance, when Johnny and I drove a load of furniture and appliances out from Berwyn. John’s married sister, Margaret, lived on another fruit farm only 20 miles away.

Often when there was company, a card game would ensue. If there weren’t over four people, the game might be cribbage. Whenever I returned for a visit, out came the cribbage board. Both my parents loved to beat me, and I suppose the same was true of my brothers. However, their favorite game was poker. Dad was a pretty good player, but Mother always preferred the wildest games she could think of. Baseball was one of her favorites. No matter how much she played, she could never remember relative values of hands—“Does a straight beat a pair?” When they were alone, Dad and Mom had a running game of cribbage going. At one point Dad was several hundred dollars in the hole.

In their later years Dad and Mother became interested in Arizona and spent several winter vacations there. A Michigan fruit farm doesn’t offer much in winter, so the warm dry climate of Arizona beckoned. Besides that they had a niece, Dorothy Mount, who lived with her family in Tucson. The Superstition Mountains with the legendary Lost Dutchman gold mine had a particular fascination for Mother. She bought more than one “secret” map showing where the mine and hordes of gold coin could be found. I think she half believed all this.

In 1958 I was living with my family in Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, and working for A.O. Smith. On November 2 brother Jack telephoned that Dad had passed away during the night. Mother had gone to spend the night with Jack and family, and Dad was to have followed the next morning. When he didn’t show, they called neighbors, who found him in bed. Brother, Bob flew in from Arizona. We all attended church services and his burial at a quiet little cemetery in Lawton, Michigan.

Mother sold the farm and moved into an upstairs apartment in Lawton.
The outside stairway to her apartment became slippery in winter, so she didn’t stay there too long. While she did, though, she managed to get a job substitute teaching in Lawton and  Matawan. She also generated another interesting story. It may not have been mentioned before, but Mother wasn’t the best driver in the world. In fact she was downright lousy, and we were all afraid to ride with her. One night she was playing poker with Jack, Julie and friends. When it was time for her to leave, she said her,
“Goodnights” and started driving home The other four continued playing, when all of a sudden their lights flickered. Next day they learned that Mother had driven off the road and hit an electric pole.

Since Jack lived close to both parents in their later life, many of these memories are from him, including the following. Mother made arrangements to fly out to Arizona and visit son, Bob and daughter in law, Hazel. Jack drove her to Kalamazoo, where she was to catch a connecting flight to Chicago. Besides her traveling bags, she had two hand-carried sacks which were packed with canned fruits, veggies and meats. Jack warned her that they were too heavy, but she insisted on carrying them on board. Instead of taxiing out to the runway then, the plane’s door opened and a flight attendant escorted Grandma down the steps and into the terminal. She was bringing too much weight on board and had to dispose of most of it.

As Mother grew older, her health began slipping. She went to a couple of nursing homes where she could receive at least a minimum of health care. One of these was associated with a little hospital in Paw Paw, about 7 miles north of Lawton. Although the medical care there was good, she needed someone to talk to. Instead she was left alone most of the time. Elizabeth and I brought her home to live with us in Milwaukee, with the understanding that she would alternate staying with us, and with brother jack in Omaha, and Uncle Bill in Grand Junction, Iowa. She seemed to flourish with this environment. We even permitted her to smoke, proved she went to the kitchen to  do it. This was against doctor’s orders, but we weren’t too happy with her progress under the doctor’s supervision, anyway. I had about 12 prescriptions to fill, when we brought her home, and the cost from our local drug store was over $50.

After about a month with us in Milwaukee, it was decided she night want to spend some time with jack and Elvera in Omaha. Jack showed her prescriptions to his doctor, who advised eliminating some of them as redundant. She was still allowed to smoke in Omaha, but like us they required her to go to the kitchen. This may seem a little strange to an outsider, but Grandma was constantly dropping hot ashes, burning holes in many of her robes and dresses, and sometimes in the carpeting.

At Christmas, 1969, Grandma received many nice presents from her family and friends, including a nice dress from us. Just after Christmas, [on the morning of Dec 27th] Jack and a friend were preparing to watch a  football game on T.V., when Jack noticed that it was late for Grandma to be coming downstairs. So Elvira and their little dog went up to awaken her. The dog jumped on her bed, then gave a scared yelp. She, too, had passed away during the night.

Her body was shipped back to Lawton, and she was buried in her Christmas dress next to dad. She had lived a little over 80 years.

Leave a comment

Filed under My family in history, __2. Settlers and Migrants

Perez Chipman Sr. & Perez Chipman Jr.

(1620 Mayflower lineage)

PEREZ (PARIS) CHIPMAN SR. and MARGARET WHEELER

* Perez CHIPMAN Sr. was born on 28 Sep 1702 in Sandwich, MA; died in 1781 in Sussex, DE; buried in Sussex, DE.

Perez CHIPMAN married (1) Margaret Hinckley,  (2) Margaret Wheeler in 1725, (3) Judith Draper in 1740.
In the marriage to Margaret WHEELER, they had the following children: John CHIPMAN, Sarah CHIPMAN, Betsy CHIPMAN, Kezia CHIPMAN, ♥ Perez CHIPMAN Jr. (b. ABT 1730), Benjamin CHIPMAN, Love CHIPMAN, Draper CHIPMAN, Mellicent CHIPMAN, Mary CHIPMAN.

Perez lived the last years of his life in Sussex Co., DE, but is believed to have lived in some other New England state for a considerable time.

The children of John Chipman spread out in the colonies as noted by their half brother Handley Chipman in his short family history, “They scattered much in their Settling in families.”{D1}

LIVELIHOOD:
Handley continued writing about his half brothers, which included Perez Chipman Sr., stating, “They were mostly of more than middling size. James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a blacksmith as was also Ebebezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade…” {D1}
Blacksmiths, or “smiths,” were key contributors to American colonial society. Manipulating  iron for everything from shoeing horses to manufacturing and repairing tools and  utensils, blacksmiths were involved in all aspects of colonial life. The high colonial regard for labor along with the utility of the business made  blacksmithing a reputable and worthy occupation. [Internet image left: Colonial blacksmith. Image below right: Examples of blacksmith metal work.]

.
DOCUMENTS:
1.  A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”, 1937, Vol. XCI, Published by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms, Boston.
•  Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
•  Individual source: Mayflower Families In Progress: Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, compiled by Robert S. Wakefield and others, Published by
General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1987.

* Margaret WHEELER  was born 1702 in Sussex Co., Delaware and died in 1739 Somerset, MD
Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

.
.
PEREZ (PARIS) CHIPMAN JR. and MARGARET MANLOVE

* Perez CHIPMAN Jr. was born April 1730 in Sussex, DE; died on 13 Mar 1801 in Deep River, Guilford, NC; buried in Deep River, Guilford, NC.

Perez Chipman Jr. married Margaret MANLOVE on 3 Oct 1751 in Camden, DE. They had the following children: Eunice CHIPMAN (b. 20 Jun 1752), ♥ Harriet Hannah CHIPMAN (b. 11 Nov 1753), Mary CHIPMAN (b. 27 Jul 1756), Deborah CHIPMAN (b. 31 Dec 1758), John CHIPMAN (b. 24 Mar 1761), Paris CHIPMAN III (b. 11 Sep 1763).

Perez signed his name as “Perez” on his Will, but the writer of the Will spelled his name “Paris”, both spellings were considered correct in the 18th Century.

HOME:
Perez lived, from 1749 to about the close of the Revolutionary War, in Camden, DE, and then moved to Deep River, Guilford Co., NC.

EVENT:
1. A manumission deed for Kent County, DE, dated 24 May 1766, shows Paris and Margaret Chipman freeing a Negro boy named Thomas.{D3}
2. “While the British army had control of Delaware, a party of their soldiers came to get from him what plunder they could, but, from respect for the non-combative principles indicated by his coat, agreed to divide the bacon in his meat-house equally with him. He looked on quietly until the division was made, then his manhood rising to energy, he pitched them all out of doors with his own hands.”{D2}

RELIGION:
Perez was a leading figure in a religious group known as the Nicholites, a Quaker like group that formed in  Kent County, Delaware. “Chipman was one of the first Nicholites to leave Maryland-Delaware area where upon he and another settler bought 640 acres in Guilford Co., NC in 1775.”{D3} See genealogy posts: a) Jeffrey Horney III and b) William Coffin for further details about the Nicholite religion.

In Guilford Co., NC, a “Nicholite Meeting House” was built. (In 1994 this location is just NW of High Point Reservoir.) Perez lived 2.6 miles north of the meeting house. His son-in-law William Horney and daughter, Hannah Chipman, bought land and resided about 0.7 mile north of the meeting house.{D4}

LIVELIHOOD:
Perez Chipman Jr was a  “fuller” or clothier. {D2}

MILITARY:
“CHIPMAN, Perez, born ca. 1730, d 13 Mar 1801, m Margaret Manlove, Patriot Service, NC.”{D1} Services rendered in the establishment of American Independence: “For sundries furnished the militia of North Carolina Virginia and South Carolina as allowed by Bruce and Baggee Auditors to
Perez Chipman”{D5} Both Perez Chipman Jr. and his father Perez Chipman furnished sundries for the Colonial soldiers.

WILL:
“I give and bequeath unto my Loving wife Margaret. The full use and Priviledge of my house During her Lifetime, and also what income is to be paid by my Two sons Together with as much of my stock and movables as she Sees proper to have and one Hundred Pounds in hard money to be paid by my Executors to be here after mentioned…that my land Called farlow shall eaqually Devided by my two Sons John & Paris…The residue of my Estate both Real and Tomporal to be appraised and Devided in three parts one third to my son John, and one third to my son Paris, and the other third to be Equally Devided Between my Two Daughters, ♥ Hannah Horney & Mary Horney…” Signed by Perez Chipman on 13 Jan 1797.

DOCUMENTS
1. DAR Patriot Index, Washington, 1966, p. 129.
2. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy  of the Chipmans In America  1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
3. Joseph Nichols and the Nicholites: A Look at the ‘New Quakers’ of Maryland, Delaware, North and South Carolina by Kenneth Lane Carroll, 1962, published by The Easton Publishing Company, Easton, Maryland.
4. “18th Century Historical Documentation Map”, Guilford County, NC
5. Account of the U.S. with North Carolina, War of the Revolution, Book A, Page 272. See also NSDAR
National Number 336008.
6. Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

* Margaret MANLOVE daughter of William Manlove and Elizabeth Browne was born in 1728; died on 23 Feb 1803 in Deep River, Guilford, NC; buried inDeep River,Guilford, NC.

Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Leave a comment

Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants

William Horney, Private in American Revolution, Nicholite by faith

(Settlers and Migrants, Horney family)

* William HORNEY was born in ABT 1751 in Caroline, MD; died in 1829 in Bellbrook, Greene, OH; buried in Pioneer Cemetery, Bellbrook,Greene,OH.

William Horney married Harriet Hannah CHIPMAN in 1772 in MD. They had the following children: Margaret HORNEY (b. ABT 1773), James HORNEY (b. 1774), Paris HORNEY (b. 1776), Deborah HORNEY (b. 1778), Mary HORNEY (b. 6 Mar 1780), Lydia HORNEY (b. 5 Aug 1782), William HORNEY (b. 1784), Daniel HORNEY (b. 1786), Hannah HORNEY (b. 1788), John HORNEY (b. 1790), Chipman HORNEY (b. 23 Feb 1793), Sarah HORNEY (b. 1795), ♥ Jeffrey HORNEY (b. 7 Mar 1798).

MARRIAGE:
William Horney married Hannah Chipman in Maryland, his brother, John, married Hannah’s sister, Mary Chipman.

MILITARY:
“HORNEY Wm., b c. 1750/1, d 1829, m Hannah Chipman, rank Private, MD.”{D3}  William and his brother John served together in the War for Independence.  1778 William enlisted for 3 years service in  the Maryland 5th Regiment.{D4}
•  According to a military Roll Call, dated 8 Sep 1778, William Horney, was a Private in Captain Levin Handy’s Company of the 5th Maryland Regiment, commanded by Colonel W. Richardson.{D4}
•  1778-1780 Pvt. Wm. Horney in Captain William Riley’s Company, 5th Maryland Regiment.{D6}
•  7 Feb 1779 William reenlisted into the same unit.{D4}
•  Listed as Pvt. in muster roll of the 5th MD Regt., Capt. William Rie Cup’s Company on Aug 1780 and Jan 1781. The 4th and 5th Maryland Regiments fought in the Battle of the Cowpens.

24 Mar 1797 William was issued 100 acres of Bounty Land, Warrant Number #11302, as part of the pay incentive  for serving in the Continental Army.{D5}{D7}

RELIGION:
William was born into a Quaker (pacifist) family. Because William and his brother John served in the Colonial Militia during the American Revolution, their father, Jeffrey Horney Jr., left them only a comparative pinnace of £10 each in his Will. By the end of the Revolutionary War, the brothers William, John and James Horney had become Nicholites, a Quaker like religious group that formed in Delaware.{D11}

TRAVEL:
William, his wife Hannah and family, moved to Deep River area of Guilford County, NC in 1778. William’s brothers John and James and their families were also part of the small migration of Nichollites who removed to NC.{D11}

HOME:
In Guilford Co., NC, a “Nicholite Meeting House” was built. William’s home and farm was located about 0.66 mile north of the Meeting House. William’s father-in-law Perez Chipman Jr. lived 2.6 miles north of the meeting house.{D13}

EVENT:
During the 1790s, with the death of many of the original founding members, the Nicholites began merging with the Quakers. About 1801 or 1802, with the dissolution of the Nicholite religious group, William, brother John and their families moved toOhio.

HISTORICAL NOTE:
The first white settlement in the Ohio was in 1788, at Marietta. In the same year a settlement was also established at Cincinnati. During the next few years other villages sprang up, particularly in the south.

HOME:
William purchased 51 acres of land from Josiah Hunt and 11.5 acres from Edward Mercer in 1804.  He bought a 90 acre parcel from Richard Mendenhall in 1818. All of the land records refer to the lands as being “on the waters of Caesars Creek”, but no survey location was given on any of them. {D14}  “William and John Horney settled early on the farm now (the author wrote this in 1881) owned by Amos Williams. John devoted himself to hunting and shooting the game which was here in abundance.”{D2} In 1807 an enumeration of white males in Xenia Twp., Greene Co. OH above the age of 21 years was taken, among those recorded were the familiar names: James Anderson, William Anderson, John H. Anderson and William Horney…{D9, p.28-30}

LIVELIHOOD:
He was a planter and farmer.

WILL:
William made his Will on 6 April 1817. The disposition of his property is as follows:
Daniel was to receive 80 acres on Sugar Creek;  Chipman would get 120 acres on Sugar Creek also a bed and furniture;  Jeffrey, he Willed, “I give unto my son ♥ Jeffrey Horney my homeplace , one waggon &
gears One Dark bay mare, eight years old, and one cow and calf and the ballance of the bedding to be left to said Jeffry”; the balance of the estate to be divided amongst daughters Mary, Lydia, Hannah and Sarah.  Sarah, one horse and saddle, bed and furniture, cow and calf, spinning wheel.
Hannah, a bed and furniture. John, a bed and furniture. Margaret’s children $1.00; Paris’ children $1.00.  James $1.00; Deborah $1.00; Mary $1.00; Lydia $1.00; William $1.00.{D12}

BURIAL:
William was buried in the old Pioneer Cemetery, 1/4 mile north of Bellbrook’s modern cemetery. William and Harriet’s grave markers are not amongst those that have survived to the present. A grave stone for William was erected in the modern Bellbrook Cemetery noting William as a Patriot in the American Revolution. His monument sits directly in front of the cemetery flagpole.{D10}

DOCUMENTS:
1. Land Records: GreeneCounty Recorders Office, Greene County Courthouse, Xenia, OH.
Ask for copies of Volume #1, pages 103, 107 & 141; Vol. #6, page 88.
2. History of Fayette County by R.S. Dills, 1881,, Odell & Mayer Publishers, Dayton, OH., p. 642.
3. DAR Patriot Index, Washington, 1966.
4. Revolutionary War records of William Horney – Reference Services Branch, National Archives and Records Service, 8th and Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington DC 20408.
5. Maryland Revolutionary Records, by Newman.
6. Roster of Revolutionary Ancestors, Volume I, Indiana DAR.
7. Note: Information concerning the issuance of land warrants is found in “Land Warrants Issued Prior to 1800”, Vol. 2-4. Other records regarding applications for warrants were destroyed in the War Department fire of 9 Nov 1800. Information concerning warrants surrendered to the Federal Government may be found in General Land Office records at the National Archives.
8. William Horney estate papers. Greene County Court of Common Pleas, Vol. G, pages 223-224.
9. Robinsons History of Greene County Ohio, by George F. Robinson, 1902, reprinted 1973.
10. Soldiers of American Revolution Buried in Ohio, Cat. # 1-973344, H., Vol. 1, page 192, “HORNEY, WILLIAM Greene County,Ohio.”
11.  Joseph Nichols and the Nicholites: A Look at the ‘New Quakers’ of Maryland, Delaware, North and South Carolina by Kenneth Lane Carroll, 1962, published by The Easton Publishing Company, Easton,
Maryland.
12.  Document at: Greene County Court of Common Pleas, Vol. G, pages 223-224,Greene County, OH.
13. “18th Century Historical Documentation Map”, Guilford County,NC.
14. Green County Recorders Office, Greene County Courthouse, Xenia, OH ask for Land Records, Vol.1, Pages 103, 107; vol. 6, page 88 for copies of the originals.
Individual source: TITLE: Betebenner – Horney and Allied Families, 1981 by Evelyn Halkyard Vohland, Published by The Clipper Publishers, Shelton, NE, 297 pages, hardbound.

* Harriet Hannah CHIPMAN was born on 11 Nov 1753 in Caroline, MD (her family lived in Camden, DE); died AFT 1804 in Bellbrook, Greene, OH; buried in Pioneer Cemetery, Bellbrook, Greene, OH.

Individual source: TITLE: Betebenner – Horney and Allied Families, 1981 by Evelyn Halkyard Vohland, Published by The Clipper Publishers, Shelton, NE, 297 pages, hardbound.

≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈≈

William Horney and the Nicholites
(also William Coffin, Paris (Perez) Chipman and their families)

“A very interesting sect which saw its rise in the rural area along the Delaware-Marylandboarder in the 1760s owed its existence to Joseph Nichols. A native of  Delaware, he was born near Dover about 1730 and engaged in husbandry in Kent county, Delaware. Nichols received very littleformal education but is said to have been “endowed with strong powers of mind and a remarkable flow of spirits”.

After 1764, Nichols bought 224 acres in Mispillion Hundred on the south side of Ivy Branch, in Kent County. “Joseph Nichols humor, vivacity and ability to amuse others made his company much sought after by the young people of his neighborhood so that Sundays he was frequently the center of a crowd. At these and other times, Nichols often entertained his friends with anecdotes and songs. During one such pleasant gathering,” where they met together for merriment such as dancing, etc, he was accompanied by a very particular and intimate friend, who was taken ill and died suddenly at that place.

As Joseph reflected on the circumstance, it was made the means of producing a radical reform in his life and conduct. Nichols became convinced that he and his friends should read a portion of the Scripture whenever they met. Out of the respect his neighbors had for him, they agreed. With the passage of time these gatherings were transformed from scenes of “mirth,’ to seasons of serious thoughtfulness.” Nichols genius in friendship enabled him to move many of his friends and acquaintances along with him on his religious pilgrimage – so that “as he became more circumspect’ in appearance, behavior and conversation, so did they.”
As the Nicholites ministry developed, Joseph Nichols was thusly described, “He appeared to me to be between thirty and forty years of age. In stature, he was about middle size, dressed very plainly, principally in undyed clothes.”

Observers were struck by the similarity between the Nicholites and the Quakers, when asked about this a Nicholite would say, “We Do profess and Confess the same principles that the Quakers Doth, but for Some reasons which we Could render if requested, we hither to have not thought it best to Joyn Membership with them.”
The basic beliefs of the Nicholites and Quaker religions were essentially the same: there was emphasis on the inner light, pacification, simplicity, plainness, and opposition to a “hireling ministry”. Joseph Nichols taught his followers that, just as in the case of the first century Christians and their own Quaker neighbors, they should avoid going to court to settle their difficulties.
The Nicholites came to oppose war and slavery, “believing that war came from the basic causes a slavery-luxury and desire for selfish.”

In April 1766, one of Nichols earliest and staunchest followers, James and Ann Anderson of Kent County, Delaware, freed a slave named, Jane. “Another manumission deed for the same county, dated 24 may 1766 shows Paris and Margaret Chipman freeing a Negro boy names, Thomas”. “A year later, on 12 August 1767, William Anderson freed five slaves: John, age 26; Lydia, 25; and her three children.”

“Some Nicholites carried their zeal even further. James Horney refused to eat with slaveholders or to use any goods either produced or procured through slave labor. Horney, like Nichols, knew that when one is content to benefit from the fruits of slavery, he enters to some degree into the position of being a slaveholder himself.

 Joseph Nichols work was cut short by his death in bed in December 1770, while still a young man. Though his religious career was a relatively short eight years, the work he accomplished was destined to continue long after the man ceased to be.

In 1774, four years after their leaders death, the Nicholites had become aware that they must organize themselves and set up some sort of church government so the life of the movement could be regulated. The decision was signed by James and Ann Anderson, James Horney, William Warren and thirteen others on behalf of the larger Nicholite Society. It was these fourteen men and three women, most of whom were living in Caroline County, Maryland who probably furnished most of the leadership and guidance received by the Nicholites following Joseph Nichols death.

About the time the Society was organizing in Maryland, a number of Nicholites left their homes and moved southward. Among the reasons for their movement were the unsettled conditions in the years after Joseph Nichols death, problems arising from the religious establishment, the availability of news and cheap southern land and other factors.

It is unknown exactly when the idea of starting a new life in another section of the country occurred, but it may have been ♥ Paris (Perez) Chipman of Kent County, Delaware, who provided the inspiration and guidance for this migration. Chipman was one of the first Nicholites to leave the Maryland-
Delaware are whereupon he and another settler bought 640 acres in Guilford County, North Carolina in 1775.

By 1778, the original Nicholite settlers in Guilford County had been joined by (brothers) John, James
and ♥ William Horney[1] and at least twelve other families including Nichols remarried wife and her
children. Several families had settled in the Deep River area in 1774-75 and a much larger group arrived in 1778. Other Nicholites from Delaware-Maryland area, such as Major Anderson arrived from time to time during the following years.

Almost all the land grants made to the Nicholites were located on Deep River, Wolf’s Island Creek, Reed Fork, Matrimony Creek and Haw River and had entered claims by the end of 1778.
[Map: Guilford County, NC, 1986 Deptartment of Transportation. The original source map for locating these ancestor home was a Guilford County, North Carolina 18th Century Historical Documentation Map. The 18th Century map (the 1700s) shows the home locations of settler/farmers over the entire county, streams, Colonial roads. printing on the colonial map was too small to read in this reduced blog space.] See also my Genealogy/William Coffin post, for additional details

“…the Quaker minister, Job Scott, visited the Nicholites of Deep River at their meeting house in October 1789. The date of the erection of this meeting house is not known, but approximate location can be determined from Guilford country deeds.

In November 1796, Isaac Odle sold 16-1/4 acres to the “Members of the Society of People called
Nicholites”…for benefit of Isaac Nichols and heirs forever”…”on the waters of Israel’s Creek, being part of a lot the said Odle lately bought of George Pope”. This land was on the south side of Israel’s Creek and joined the lands of James Caldwell and John Horney (Gfd Deed Bk. 6:237). Pope had purchased the land from Isaac Hiatt in December 1795. Hiatt had been granted the land as a part of a grant from the state of North Carolina n May 1787.

Israel’s Creek is now known as Hiatt’s Branch and flows east into Oak Hollow lake along the present northern city limits of High Point. One of the forks of this creek, which flows south through Oakview Estates subdivision, is now known as Horney’s Branch and is the “Israel’s Cree” referred to in the deed for the Nicholite land. The Nicholite Meeting House would then have been located on Horney’s Branch about 2000 feet upstream from it junction with Hiatt’s Branch.
[The drawing above was made of the New Garden Meeting House in 1859, and photocopied from The Pictoral Field Book of the Revolution, copr. 1859, by B.J. Lossing, Published in 2 volumes by Harper Brothers.

In the summer of 1778, the Nicholites wrote a petition to the North Carolina General Assembly seeking certain rights and privileges for their group. This petition was signed by nine male Nicholites, including Paris Chipman, John Horney[2] and William Horney.

Before the summer of 1778, the aforementioned Nicholite Meeting House was built near Deep River in Guilford County. See the Historical Documentation map associated with this article for its approximate location, as well as the homes of ancestors, William Horney, Paris (Perez) Chipman and William Coffin.

“In the 1790s, with the death of many of the original founding members, the Nicholites began to merge with the Quakers-Society of friends. An examination of the Wills for Caroline County, Maryland showed that James Horney died in 1794. Benjamin Chipman died in 1772, in Kent County Delaware. James Anderson died in 1791. In all, some twenty six of the older members died.”

On 25 October 1797, some eighty Nicholites petitioned to join the Society of friends, among these were James and wife, Celia Anderson. The petition was presented to members of the Marshy Creek Preparative Meeting near what is now Preston, Maryland.

 “The Nicholites had only a brief existence. The “New Quakers” became Quakers, so that few traces of the old movement remains. Knowledge of the Nicholite Society has become such a fading tradition in the areas where the Society once waxed strong, that many who were born and have grown up in these localities have never heard of this unusual sect which once flourished on the Delmarva Peninsula and which gave birth to the two smaller bodies in North and South Carolina.

Mant Probate records, wills and administration records,  as seen below, can be found in : Calendar of Kent County, Delaware, Probate Records, 1680-1800 (Dover 1944).

♥ Benjamin Chipman died 19 April 1772.
Will probate: 23 June 1772
Wife Mary; daughter Susanna; sons Stephan and Benjamin.
Witnesses: Patrick Crain, ♥ Perez Chipman and Reuben Shield.

Sources:
•  Joseph Nichols And the  Nicholites: A Look at the New Quakers of Maryland, Delaware and South Carolina, © 1962 by Kenneth Lane Carroll, published by The Easton Publishing Company, Easton, MD, abt. 110 pages.
•  The Nicholites of Jamestown and Deep River, by Jack L. Perdue
•  Guilford Count, North Carolina 18th Century Historical Documentation Map
•  Guilford County, North Carolina, 1986, D.O.T.  map
This work compiled by Larry F. Pierce, May  1988.


[1]  John, James and ♥ William Horney were the eldest sons of Jeffrey Horney III. Jeffrey Horney III. died a year later in 1779, still in Caroline County, Maryland. (See also my post Genealogy/Horney family: Geoffrey Sr., Geoffrey Jr. & Jeffrey  III)
[2] John Horney was brother of  our William Horney, while John’s wife, Mary was sister to my ancestor, ♥ Hannah (Chipman) Horney.

Leave a comment

Filed under My family in history, __1. 1620 Mayflower lineage, __2. Settlers and Migrants