Category Archives: __3. Food & Water

Emergency water treatment techniques

RainMan(Survival Manual/ 3. Food & Water/ Emergency water treatment techniques)

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water
<http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/emergencydisinfection.cfm>

USE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH
1.  Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available.
2.  If you don’t have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most types of disease-causing organisms that may be present. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths [and/or coffee filters Mr. Larry] or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for boiling. Boil the water for one minute, let it cool, and store it in clean containers with covers
3.  If you can’t boil water, you can disinfect it using household bleach [Regular Clorox-Mr. Larry]. Bleach will kill some, but not all, types of disease-causing organisms that may be in the water. If the water is cloudy, filter it through clean cloths or allow it to settle, and draw off the clear water for disinfection. Add 1/8 teaspoon (or 8 drops of regular, unscented, liquid household bleach for each gallon of water, stir it well and let it stand for 30 minutes before you use it. Store disinfected water in clean containers with covers.
4.  If you have a well that has been flooded, the water should be tested and disinfected after flood waters recede. If you suspect that your well may be contaminated, contact your local or state health department or agriculture extension agent for specific advice.

Boiling
Boiling is the surest method to make water safe to drink and kill disease-causing microorganisms like Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium, which are frequently found in rivers and lakes.
These disease-causing organisms are less likely to occur in well water (as long as it has not been affected by flood waters). If not treated properly and neutralized, Giardia may cause diarrhea, fatigue, and cramps after ingestion. Cryptosporidium is highly resistant to disinfection. It may cause diarrhea, nausea and/or stomach cramps. People with severely weakened immune systems are likely to have more severe and more persistent symptoms than healthy individuals. Boil filtered and settled water vigorously for one minute (at altitudes above one mile, boil for three minutes). To improve the flat taste of boiled water, aerate it by pouring it back and forth from one container to another and allow it to stand for a few hours, or add a pinch of salt for each quart or liter of water boiled.

If boiling is not possible, chemical disinfection of filtered and settled water collected from a well, spring, river, or other surface water body will still provide some health benefits and is better than no treatment at all.

 Chemical Treatment
When boiling is not practical, certain chemicals will kill most harmful or disease-causing organisms.
For chemical disinfection to be effective, the water must be filtered and settled first. Chlorine and iodine are the two chemicals commonly used to treat water. They are somewhat effective in protecting against exposure to Giardia, but may not be effective in controlling more resistant organisms like Cryptosporidium. Chlorine is generally more effective than iodine in controlling Giardia, and both disinfectants work much better in warm water.

Chlorination
1.
Clorox, Purex (or other brand) household chlorine bleach: regular, non scented, no dyes or additives, that contains a chlorine compound to disinfect water.chlorination clorox
Do not use non-chlorine bleach to disinfect water. Typically, household chlorine bleaches will be 5.25% available chlorine. Follow the procedure written on the label. When the necessary procedure is not given, find the percentage of available chlorine on the label and use the information in the following table as a guide.
•  If boiling is not possible, treat water by adding liquid household bleach, such as Clorox or Purex. Household bleach which is typically between 5-6% chlorine. Avoid using bleaches that contain perfumes, dyes and other additives. Be sure to read the label.
•  Place the water (filtered, if necessary) in a clean container. Add the amount of bleach according to the table below.
•  Mix thoroughly and allow to stand for at least 30 minutes before using (60 minutes if the water is cloudy or very cold).

Treating Water with a 5-6 Percent Household Liquid Chlorine Bleach Solution   

Volume   of Water to be Treated Treating   Long Term Municipal or Well Water: Bleach Solution to Add Treating   Cloudy, Very Cold, or Surface Water:Bleach   Solution to Add
1 quart/1 liter 3 drops 5 drops
1/2 gallon/2 quarts/2 liters 5 drops 10 drops
1 gallon 1/8 teaspoon 1/4 teaspoon
5 gallons 1/2 teaspoon 1 teaspoon
10 gallons 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons
50 gallons 5 tsp(1.6 Tbsp) 10 tsp(3.33 Tbsp)
57 gallons (rain water tank) 5.7 teaspoons(1.9 Tbsp) 11.4 teaspoons (3.8 Tbsp)
Conversions: 3 tsp=1 Tbsp; 12 tsp=1/4   cup; 4 Tbsp=1/4 cup.
•   1/8   teaspoon and 8 drops are about the same quantity.
•   60   drops per tsp; 180 drops per 1 Tbsp
•   1/8 cup (2 Tbsp) household bleach will maintain   long term purity in 60 gal. water.
•   ¼ cup will kill pathogens in 60 gal. filtered   surface water even if cloudy and/or very cold.
•   1 quart household bleach will purify about 1000   gallons of filtered surface water

 

Notes:
•  Do not use non-chlorine bleach to disinfect water.
•  Typically, household chlorine bleaches will be 5.25% available chlorine. Follow the procedure written on the label.
•  When the necessary procedure is not given, find the percentage of available chlorine on the label and use the information in the following table as a guide.  (Remember, 1/8 teaspoon and 8 drops are about the same quantity.)

Available Chlorine Drops per Quart/Gallon of Clear Water Drops per Liter of Clear Water
1% 10 per Quart – 40 per Gallon 10 per Liter
4-6% 2 per Quart – 8 per Gallon (1/8   teaspoon) 2 per Liter
7-10% 1 per Quart – 4 per Gallon 1 per Liter

.
If the strength of the bleach is unknown:
•  Add ten drops per quart or liter of filtered and settled water; or double the amount of chlorine for cloudy, murky or colored water or water that is extremely cold.).
•  Mix the treated water thoroughly and allow it to stand, preferably covered, for 30 minutes.
•  The water should have a slight chlorine odor.
•  If not, repeat the dosage and allow the water to stand for an additional 15 minutes.
•  If the treated water has too strong a chlorine taste, allow the water to stand exposed to the air for a few hours or pour it from one clean container to another several times.

2. Using granular calcium hypochlorite to disinfect water
•  Calcium Hypochlorite is widely available for use as swimming pool chlorine tablets or white powder that is much more stable than chlorine. This is often known as “pool shock”.chlorination Poolife1chlorination Poolife2
•  Calcium hypochlorite is one of the best chemical disinfectants for water, better than household bleach by far. It destroys a variety of disease-causing organisms including bacteria, yeast, fungus, spores, and viruses.
•  A 1-pound bag of calcium hypochlorite in granular form will treat up to 10,000 gallons of drinking water.

 EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
Procedural excerpt  below pasted from: <http://water.epa.gov/drink/emerprep/emergencydisinfection.cfm>

Calcium hypochlorite Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water Procedure
•  Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water.
•  The mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution (of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight.)
•  To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated.
•  This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water or (approximately ½ liter to 50 liters of water) to be disinfected. (Add 2 quarts stock solution per 50 gallons of water to be treated)
•  To remove any objectionable chlorine odor, aerate the disinfected water by pouring it back and forth from one clean container to another.

Safety
•  Granular calcium hypochlorite is corrosive and dangerous.
•  Eye protection is a must when handling CH.
•  Gloves and a dust mask are not essential, but it is wise to use them.
•  Handle the powder in a well-ventilated area without wind.
•  When dealing with corrosive chemicals it is always a good practice to have a 5 gallon bucket or sink full of water nearby to submerge your head, body or arms in case of an emergency.

When mixing CH add the CH to the water not vice-versa. It is important to go from dry to weak solution (less than 20% chlorine by weight) as fast as possible. If you only add a small amount of water to the CH it will release hazardous amounts of gaseous chlorine. If you feel a strong burning or stinging in your eyes, throat or lungs at any point, evacuate to fresh air immediately, chlorine can be deadly and was in fact used as a chemical warfare agent in WWI.

chlorination nalgeneCH is a fire hazard when heated or mixed with certain organic compounds which will not be mentioned. Basically, don’t let this stuff touch anything but plastic, glass and stainless steel and you’ll be good to go.

Polyethylene (LDPE or HDPE) containers are the preferred method of storage, as this is what the CH manufacturer’s packages are made of. Nalgene makes HDPE containers that are available at most sporting goods stores (the squeezable Nalgene, look for HDPE, LDPE or UVPE marked at the bottom.)

[This is an important article to print and place in a folder for possible future reference. Mr Larry]

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Food resources for extreme hardship: Dog, cat, roadkill…

(Survival manual/ 3. Food & water/ Food resources for extreme hardship: Dog, cat, roadkill…)

Disclaimer:
Personally, I’ve never eaten dog, cat or roadkill and I’ve never heard a specific story of anyone in the US who has.
The oddest meat I’ve even eaten was from a package of horse meat my mom bought from the grocer in about 1950. I have had dog and cat pets in the household for most of my life and never considered them any less than junior members of the family.
With that said, the purpose of this post is to provide the awareness that other people’s do in fact eat dog and cat, it’s simply part of their cultural norm. AND this article is meant to show you alternative food source possibilities, so that if there occurred an absolutely horrific collapse of human social systems, you might survive on what is now considered taboo and frankly, disgusting to think about, food resources. “Bon appetite!” Mr. Larry.

A.  Butcher—Dog, cat, rabbit, etc.

1. Catch, Kill, Cook, Eat!
16-22 March 2000, by Dan Savage
http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/catch-kill-cook-eat/Content?oid=3455
Back in the Stone Age, the average meat-eater was slimmer and trimmer than the average meat-eater today. Before there were QFCs and Safeways, cavemen and cavewomen couldn’t just stroll into the meat department at the supermarket to pick up a choice cut. No, Mr. and Mrs. Caveman had to CATCH something, KILL IT, and COOK IT before they could sit down and EAT IT! Mr. and Mrs. Caveman were fit because going out for dinner meant chasing large animals around savannas, or stalking small animals through the bush. All this chasing and stalking burned more calories before a single meal than most modern carnivores burn in a week at the gym.Mr. and Mrs. Caveman wouldn’t know what to make of modern carnivores going out for dinner. Mr. and Mrs. Modern Carnivore sit on their fat, greasy asses in dimly lit restaurants, ordering cuts from animals most couldn’t pick out of a lineup, let alone pick off with a spear. In addition to being fatter and lazier than Mr. and Mrs. Caveman, Mr. and Mrs. Modern Carnivore are also keenly hypocritical, keeping some animals as pets, while happily sending other animals off to be slaughtered by poorly paid illegal immigrants.

But just because you live in an urban area doesn’t mean you can’t know the calorie-burning joy and satisfaction of CATCHING IT, KILLING IT, and COOKING IT before EATING IT. Forget that step class, Mr. Modern Carnivore! Get off that treadmill, Mrs. Modern Carnivore! And throw away that Thighmaster! Your friends at The Stranger have assembled a step-by-step guide to hunting in the urban jungle. Just follow our four easy steps — CATCH, KILL, COOK, EAT — and you’ll quickly connect with your inner caveman or cavewoman while staying effortlessly slim and trim. Have a good workout, and… bon appétit!… (read the rest of the preceding article at the web site provided above)

2.  Dog meat
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog_meat

This article is about human consumption of dog flesh and parts.

Dog   meat
Nutritional   value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 1,096   kJ (262 kcal)
Carbohydrates 0.1   g
–   Dietary fiber 0   g
Fat 20.2   g
Protein 19   g
Water 60.1   g
Vitamin   A equiv. 3.6   μg (0%)
Thiamine   (vit. B1) 0.12   mg (10%)
Riboflavin   (vit. B2) 0.18   mg (15%)
Niacin   (vit. B3) 1.9   mg (13%)
Vitamin   C 3   mg (4%)
Calcium 8   mg (1%)
Iron 2.8   mg (22%)
Phosphorus 168   mg (24%)
Potassium 270   mg (6%)
Sodium 72   mg (5%)
Ash 0.8   g

Percentages   are relative to
US recommendations for adults.
Source: Yong-Geun Ann (1999)[1]

Dog meat refers to edible parts and the flesh derived from (predominantly domestic) dogs. Human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including ancient China, ancient Mexico, and ancient Rome. According to contemporary reports, dog meat is consumed in a variety of countries such as Switzerland, China, Vietnam, Korea. In addition, dog meat has also been used as survival food in times of war and/or other hardships. The Donner Party, stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the height of the Mexican-American War, is a noted example of having eaten a pet dog for survival purposes, though it became more known over the years due to cannibalism.

In contemporary times, some cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their traditional cuisine, while others consider consumption of dog to be inappropriate and offensive. In response to criticisms, proponents of dog meat have argued that distinctions between livestock and pets is subjective, and that there is no difference with eating the meat of different animals, while countering that those critical of dog meat consumption are guilty of cultural supremacy, if not racism. Eating dog is forbidden under both Jewish dietary laws and Islamic dietary laws.

How to Cook Lemongrass Dog
Last update 24 April 2012, wikiHow
http://www.wikihow.com/Cook-Lemongrass-Dog

Lemongrass dog is a very popular Vietnamese dish! Tender dog meat coupled with savory, citrus lemongrass sauce is sure to satisfy any cravings for Vietnamese cuisine. It should be noted, however, that eating dog meat is considered taboo in many countries. Make sure not to offend anyone if this is the case.
[Photo below- right, dog meat on sale at the Kyungdong Shijang Market in Seoul, South Korea, a country where dog meat is common.]

Ingredients

  • 2 lb dog meat
  • 4 3′ stalks lemongrass
  • 3 tbsp Vietnamese fish sauce (aka. nuoc mam)
  • 2 tsp lime juice
  • 1/2 tsp lime zest
  • Jasmine rice (if desired)
  • Rice vermicelli (if desired)
  • Baguette (if desired)

Steps
1. Acquire two pounds of dog meat. Try to ensure that it is from a medium-sized dog. The breed does not matter, unless you have certain preferences. Usually, the local flea market will have six or seven stands that specialize in dog meat.
2.  Mince four 3-feet stalks of fresh lemongrass. (Alternatively, use an 8 oz. package of frozen minced lemongrass.)
3. Mix the minced lemongrass with three tablespoons of Vietnamese fish sauce, two teaspoons of lime juice, and a half teaspoon of lime zest. A recommended brand is Three Crabs Brand, but all in all, fish sauce tends to taste the same.
4. Chop the dog meat into 1-inch pieces. Add the lemongrass marinade and stir. Leave the mixture refrigerated overnight.
5. Either sauté, steam, or grill the meat. A recommended way to cook this dish is to skewer the meat chunks and roast it in a rotisserie oven.

 Tips
• 
You can serve this dish with rice vermicelli, jasmine rice, toasted French bread, etc.
•  You can substitute chicken meat for dog. It is just as tasty and you can even prepare lemongrass chicken for your neighbors.

 Warnings
Cultural acceptance of the consumption of dog meat varies from country to country. In many places, doing so is considered a taboo and may potentially be illegal (It would be advisable to check local laws regarding this issue). If this is considered a local taboo in your area, make sure you do not offend anyone. Some cultures such as those of the U.S. and the U.K. consider dogs to be companion animals and not livestock. Please be discreet about this.

3.  How to Cook a Cat
http://www.ooze.com/ooze13/cats.html
__a)  Preparing the cat for consumption
Since cat meat isn’t commercially available in the United States (and illegal to boot), you’ll probably have to prepare cat yourself. If you live in the more enlightened domains of East Asia, and can purchase cat at the local market, you may want to skip this step and proceed to COOKING YOUR CAT.
First, get a large cutting board and lay out your cat. Lop off the head, the tail and the feet with a sharp butcher’s knife. These parts of the cat contain little usable meat, so toss them aside.
Next, make a longitudinal incision on the cat’s abdomen. Reach your hand (wear gloves!) into the body cavity, and remove all of the internal organs. Discard them- especially the liver. It may look tasty, but the liver of a felis domesticus is frequently too toxic for human consumption.

Skinning your cat
There’s more than one way to skin a cat- our exhaustive research uncovered two. On this site, two High School students meticulously guide you step-by-step through skinning a cat – complete with diagrams. To summarize, use a sharp knife to trim off the skin, and pull it back, snipping away at the muscle tissue.
Gourmands like to skin their cats differently. They shun using a skinning knife, calling it crude. They recommend you grab the loose skin around the head stump, and using a pair of pliers, peel it back off the carcass like a banana, rolling it off the body. The final step before cooking is to wash the meat of stray gristle and hairs. Nobody likes cat hair in their food.

_b)  Cooking your cat
Now you are ready to cook! One USENET account recommends placing a cat in a very high-powered magnetron microwave. This device supposedly can cook a cat in approximately 10 minutes- the proteins are denatured (cooked), and sugars caramelized by microwave heating. The cat may be “cooked” but will it taste good? If you’ve ever tried to microwave a raw hamburger, you’ll know the answer is “no.” For the best taste, our reader inquired about possibly slow cooking a feline. That’s exactly what we at PWEETA recommend- a slow cooked Beer Roasted Cat. Other cat recipes you may enjoy are classic Cat Tamales, Cat in Spicy Ginger Sauce, and Cat Au Gratin.

Beer roasted cat
1 cat cut into roast
1 can of Campbell’s Cream of Mushroom soup
1 cube of beef bouillon
1 clove of garlic
1 dark Beer
Cover and soak cat roast in salt water for 24 hours. Drain water and then cover and soak in beer for 6 hours. Drain and place in crock pot with your cans of soup. Add a clove of garlic, and a cube of beef bouillon. If you start to slow cook the cat in the morning with your George Foreman Cooker, you’ll have finely cooked feline in time for supper.

If a slow cooker is not available, a cat can be baked at 350 degrees for 2-3 hours in a conventional oven and still come out pretty good. Beer Roasted Cat is fantastic served with mashed potatoes, collard greens, and fresh, homemade egg rolls. When planning a full meal just remember – cat is a course best served hot!
1 cat cut in serving-sized pieces dusted in flour with salt and pepper
1/4  c. extra virgin olive oil
6 artichokes
2 ea.  1/4″ thick slices of slab bacon, diced
1  small sweet onion, diced
4 cloves garlic, minced
1 carrot, diced
1 lemon
3 small tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and diced
1/2 c. dry white wine

Cat may not be the most glamorous, or tastiest of game meats, but with a little thought and preparation, Baked Cat can make the belly of the persnicketiest diner glow with home-baked goodness.

Cat Braisé
http://catrecipes.com/recipes/braisedcat.html
[PETA Does NOT approve of the catrecipes.com website]
•  Snap the leaves off the artichokes until only the tender inner leaves remain. Snap off the stem. Trim the remaining green bits from the bottom of the artichoke, and cut off the inner leaves in a bunch at the point where they are very tender. Pare the tough green outer layer off the remaining stem, pairing the stem into a point. Now cut the artichoke bottom into quarters and remove the choke with a sharp knife from each quarter. Rinse to remove any traces of foin (“hay”) and drop them into a bowl of water acidulated with the juice of half a lemon.
• Heat 2 T olive oil in a large heavy casserole or Dutch oven. Dredge the cat pieces in seasoned flour, shaking off excess. Brown over medium heat, turning regularly, until golden on all sides. Remove cat pieces to a plate and dump any oil remaining in the pan. Add 1 T of the remaining oil and the bacon dice. (Omit bacon if you only have access to the thin-sliced vacuum packed supermarket variety.) Sauté until cooked but not “crisp”. Add the remaining T of oil and the onion and carrot. Sauté for 5 minutes, then add the artichoke quarters and the garlic, stir one minute, and add the tomatoes and the white wine. Turn up the heat and reduce until syrupy, stirring constantly, for about 5 minutes. Lay the bouquet garni on top of the vegetables. Arrange the cat pieces on top, together with any juice accumulated in the plate.
• Pour in enough broth to come halfway up the sides of the cat pieces. Cover and bring to a simmer. Continue to simmer over very low heat about 1 hour or cook in the oven at 350 degrees for the same amount of time. The cat should be just tender and part readily from the bone. Don’t overcook or it will become dry. Check the liquid level frequently and add more broth if necessary. Turn the cat pieces once.
• When done, remove the cat pieces to a warm platter and arrange the vegetables, removed with a slotted spoon, around them. Cover and keep warm. Strain the remaining pan juices into a smaller saucepan and reduce over high heat, skimming frequently, until reduced by 1/3. Pour over the platter and serve immediately. Sprinkle with finely chopped flat-leaf parsley if you like.

Beer Can Cat– Includes a Beverage!
http://catrecipes.com/index.html
Ingredients:
1 cat
1 can of beer (any brand)
1 tsp garlic powder
1 tsp onion powder
1 tsp salt
1 tsp ground pepper
1/2 tsp chili powder

Mix spices and rub over cat. Drink half the can of beer and then place beer can into rear of cat and stand cat tripod-like on BBQ.
Rotate in 30 minutes. Cook for a total of one hour.

.

B. Road Kill

1.  Road Kill: It’s Fresh, It’s Organic, It’s Free (and now, it’s DELICIOUS!)
© 2009 Chelsea Green Publishing All rights reserved.
View this story online at:< http://www.alternet.org/story/141595/&gt;
Pasted from: http://www.masterjules.net/roadkill101.htm

How broke would you have to get to eat roadkill? You know, ‘street pizza’.
Don’t freak out. This isn’t a sensationalist necrophilic bizarre fetishized kind of thing.
It’s legit. Actually, depending on several factors, it can be perfectly safe (and entirely affordable) to eat meat that has been left by the side of a highway or county road.

In fact, there may be not much of a difference from a deer you hunt, and a deer you kill accidentally. Now, this may sound a bit extreme to you. But according to Sandor Katz, lifelong activist and food lover, roadkill has been a source of food for poor people since cars were invented. So, don’t be classist. At least read more about it!

The following is an excerpt from, The Revolution Will Not Be Microwaved: Inside America’s Underground Food Movements by Sandor Ellix Katz. It has been adapted for the Web.

If you pay attention and look at the road while driving (or, even more so, while walking or biking), you will inevitably encounter roadkill. Animals moving across the landscape are often unavoidable prey at fifty-five miles per hour. Little systematic counting has been done, but extrapolating from data collected by road crews in Ohio, one analysis estimates there are an average of more than one hundred million roadkill victims in the United States each year. Dr. Splatt, the pseudonym of a high-school science teacher who for thirteen years has organized students around New England to participate in a roadkill census, comes up with a very similar estimate of 250,000 animals killed by cars in the United States on an average day. Some people see food in these unfortunate victims of our car culture and regularly pick roadkill up off the road to take home and eat.

A few passionate souls I have encountered eat roadkill almost every day. My neighbors Casper and Pixey bring roadkill stews to our potlucks. For a while they did their frying in grease rendered from a roadkill bear they came across in the mountains. On one of my friends Terra and Natalie’s visits, they had strips of roadkill venison splayed across their dashboard drying into jerky.

When I first met Terra, she was vegan. Then she and her boyfriend Ursus — who has the word vegan tattooed onto his shin — discovered roadkill and quickly became roadkill carnivores. In her zine, The Feral Forager, Terra explains how they came to start eating roadkill:

Our first feral feast of roadkill was on spring equinox of 2002. That past winter we had experimented with skinning and tanning, using a possum and a raccoon we had found on the roadside. . . . On spring equinox we were driving in the suburbs of a large southeastern city and spotted a fox dead on
the roadside. Our first thought was what a great fur it would make. We scraped it up (it wasn’t very mangled at all) and took it to our friends’ house downtown, and Ursus skinned it in the backyard while our friends assisted. When it was all done and hanging gutless and skinless from a tree, it was like
some collective epiphany: why not eat it? There was a great firepit there and several willing “freegans,” along with a few pretty hardcore vegans (including Ursus) who raised no protest. After a couple of hours on a spit, the grey fox was edible. I guess it was something about the start of a new season — it was
almost ritualistic, without trying to make it so. Some stood by and watched while four or five of us feasted on the fox. Ursus, a hardcore vegan, was perhaps the most voracious. There was something primal about his eating — like a wild man caged for years eating only bagels and bananas. Ursus tanned
the skin and later wore it around his neck like a scarf.
Terra, Ursus, Natalie, and other members of the Wildroots Collective in western North Carolina now eat roadkill nearly every day, have a good supply put away in a freezer, and have tried dozens of different species of animals found dead on roadsides.

The Wildroots folks have become enthusiastic promoters of roadkill and work hard to spread information and skills to empower other people to tap into this huge available food supply. Members of the collective do a good bit of traveling on the do-it-yourself skillsharing circuit, teaching people how to judge the edibility of a dead animal on the road and guiding them through the experience of skinning and cleaning a small animal. At the 2005 Food For Life gathering at the Sequatchie Valley Institute/Moonshadow, one of the most memorable events was the hands-on roadkill workshop, in which we learned about the cleaning, skinning, and butchering of roadkill animals. The Wildroots folks brought a roadkill groundhog with them, and our friend Justin, another roadkill enthusiast, brought a squirrel he had found on his bike ride to the gathering.
(The more slowly you travel, the more you notice not only roadkill but all sorts of roadside harvesting possibilities.)

People enthusiastically took front-row seats to see these animals get skinned. Some people shuddered in horror, had to look away, or otherwise expressed their squeamishness. But most people watched quietly, fascinated, as Natalie coached Dylan, a previously uninitiated thirteen-year- old (there with his family) through the skinning of the squirrel, and Jenny and Justin skinned the groundhog. Direct experiential education like this can be transformative. Laurel Luddite wrote about her first roadkill butchering experience, “The responsibility made me nervous at first. As I cut I began to feel confident that not only could I butcher this deer, but I could also fulfill my need for food whenever I saw some lying by the side of the road.”

Roadkill has been a source of food for poor people since there have been cars. In American culture eating roadkill generally has a pejorative classist connotation, epitomizing ignorant hillbilly behavior. Now Wildroots and other enthusiasts are embracing roadkill with a political ideology, rejecting the values of consumer culture by “transforming dishonored victims of the petroleum age into food which nourishes, and clothing which warms.” Beyond ideology, they are spreading practical information and skills to empower people.

2.  Terra’s zine, The Feral Forager, offers a basic primer for safely eating roadkill
Picking up roadkill is a good way to get fresh, wild, totally free-range and organic meat for absolutely free. When you find the roadkill you should try to determine if it is edible or not. If you saw the animal get hit then it’s obviously fit to eat (although you may have to put it out of its misery). If the critter is
flattened into a pancake in the middle of the highway then it’s probably best to leave it. Most of the time (not always), good ones will be sitting off the road or in a median where [they aren’t] constantly being pulverized.

Sometimes it can be hard to determine how fresh a carcass is. A lot of factors can contribute to how fast the meat spoils, especially temperature.
Obviously, roadkill will stay fresher longer in colder weather and spoil faster in warmer weather. It’s best to go case by case and follow your instincts.

Here are some considerations to help you decide:
•  If it is covered in flies or maggots or other insects it’s probably no good.
•  If it smells like rotting flesh it’s probably spoiled, although it is common for dead animals’ bowels to release excrement or gas upon impact or when you move the carcass.
•  If its eyes are clouded over white it’s probably not too fresh (though likely still edible).
•  If there are fleas on the animal there’s a good chance it’s still edible.
•  If it’s completely mangled, it’s probably not worth the effort.
•  Rigor mortis (when the animal stiffens) sets in pretty quickly. Most of the animals we’ve eaten have been stiff. There’s no reason to assume the animal is spoiled just because it’s stiff. . . .

3.  Potential Risks of Eating Roadkill
One of the most severe risks of roadkill is rabies. In order to assure your safety from this deadly serious brain inflammation, you may want to use rubber gloves when gutting and skinning any warm-blooded animal (warm blooded as in mammals and birds, not in regard to blood temperature). If you don’t feel the need to exercise this absolute caution, at least make sure you don’t have any open wounds on your hands or skin that touches the animal. Roadkill is usually safe from rabies because it dies quickly when the animal dies. Also, rabies will cook out of the carcass. Generally speaking, boiling the animal first (rather than just grilling it) is a good idea, especially if it’s a notorious rabies carrier (like raccoons, skunks, and foxes).

Sandor Ellix Katz is the author of the newly published The Revolution Will Not Be  Microwaved and Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of
Live-Culture Foods (Chelsea Green, 2003). He travels widely teaching people about food preservation and alternatives ways to get nourishing food. A native of New York City, he lives in Tennessee.

4.  Road kill cooking tips
a) To feast on free meat, YOU NEED THE NERVE to park at curb, wait til no one’s looking, then safely pull the corpse into the car. USE a paper or plastic bag over your hand. Set on newspapers. If the corpse was a meat eater, don’t pick it up. Cats, dogs. Just birds and animals with hooves. Recently I picked up a wounded Possum, gave it water, fruit but it died. I was too cowardly to peel it, gave it a Christian burial. Well, we’re only a few months into the GREAT DEPRESSION, not hungry enuf.
b) RITUAL CLEANSING. Drop corpse into sink of water. SEE WHAT CRAWLS OFF. A lotta stuff WILL but don’t let that get you. It’s wild life.
Nothing more or less. Humans have eaten wild life for millenia. Use strainer, pick the moving bugs off, dump in yard. I do not knowingly kill any wild life.
c)HOW TO PEEL. We who do not regularly slaughter animals call removing the skin ‘peeling’ as the only thing we’ve ever peeled is a cuke. SHARP SHORT PARING KNIFE. INSERT A new kind of “ZIPPER” down its front –from google to zatch. Remove meat from peel. Whether it’s a pidgeon or a
deer, peel it. Skin it. Whatever.
d)BURY the “peels” deep in COMPOST PILEas your family would look very unkindly at animal corpses especially with faces…being brought home and cooked in pots they use for oats in the morning and remains lying around the yard or looking up at them from the bottom of trash cans. This I know. I learned to adore ‘berdolagas’ in Mexico where maids cooked it saying that it was a great Spring delicacy, and instantly recognized purslane when I came back to USA with 4 babes and saw it growing on the curb outside our rented shack. My kids would say ‘mom, dogs pee there.
They’d then ask, “are we that poor?’ their bewildered faces turned up to me in horror. I tried to be a good mommie and not give them complexes. Instead, I took purslane seed at summer’s end and planted it in our back yard garden. But the confounded stuff would only grow on sidewalk cracks and curbs. I learned to pick purslane by flashlight.
e) 99% of road kill is only useful for pets. You should get so lucky you’d find a deer before the blood clotted. If blood is clotted, next stage is larvae. FLY LARVAE means two days old, don’t eat it. Suggested method for cooking meats for pets is adding carrots or greens to the soup. Carrots require 30 minutes, tough game meat …one hour at a slow simmer. A fast boil toughtens meat. Lower the better. Greens go in last 5 minutes.
f) Slow cooked meat is pulled off the bone when cool, carrots smashed or grated into it.
g) There’s a pound of snails a night in the average garden. Flashlight, bag. Simmer in salted water, 4 min. Turn off, cool. Pull out of shells.
Manicure instrument helps. Saute in chicken fat 10 seconds, garlic powder. Your friends will let you in their yard when you’re out.

5.  Eating Road Kill
July 16, 2010, FireSteel.com, Survival Topics, Written by Ron Fontaine
http://www.survivaltopics.com/eating-road-kill/

During the last Great Depression in the 1930’s, “road kill” was considered a table delicacy for many who would otherwise be going without meat. Deer, various birds, rabbit, bear, raccoon, even porcupine and a variety of other animals killed by vehicles and left lying on the side of the road became an important source of protein for many a family.

An important feature of road kill is that the hunting has been done for you. There the animal lay; all you need to do is pick it up, skin it out, and cook it up. A gift from the Gods a hungry man should not pass up!

[Photo: Road Killed Deer.During times of need, many people have considered road kill to be a “windfall”. This whitetail deer was struck by a vehicle while trying to cross a country road. As long as the kill is fresh and the animal was healthy, its meat is perfectly safe to eat. As with all meat, be sure to handle and prepare it properly before consumption.]

You Won’t Eat Road Kill?
Don’t think you could eat road kill? That’s simply because at this time you can afford to snub your nose at such easy free meat.

Sure, right now many of you are squeamish at the thought of eating road kill. After all, your stomachs are regularly full and probably have been for all of your life. You likely have never experienced firsthand what it is like to go hungry for several days straight – or even weeks. Your cupboards are well stocked, and as much food as you could possibly want is waiting for you at the local grocery. That could all change.

During times of natural and manmade disaster or economic collapse food sources can quickly dry up. It’s amazing how preconceived food prejudices are soon rejected when real gnawing hunger sets in. After a few months without enough food and you will think nothing of eating insects, worms, rats, or anything else that comes your way. Served with wallpaper paste a nice road kill raccoon roast would be a seriously welcome addition to the dinner table.

When you think about it, what’s the difference whether that animal was dispatched at the meat processing plant, by a hunter in the forest, or a speeding automobile? None. As long as the meat is reasonably fresh and well cooked it will not matter one iota how the animal met its end. What does matter is feeding yourself and your family; road kill could put meat on the table when food is scarce and your survival is at stake.

Road Kill is Good Food
Road kill is traditionally accepted mealtime fare in many areas. In my neck of the woods moose are almost daily hit by motorists speeding through moose country. Referred to as the “bull of the woods”, moose are often afraid of nothing and are frequently encountered crossing roads. Besides totaling the vehicle, a 1000-pound moose is usually severely injured or even killed. As you can imagine a moose of this size has considerable quantities of meat. In some cases these road killed moose are given to poor families, charitable organizations, or even the owner of the vehicle that hit it.

As when you shop for meat at the supermarket, you want to insure your road kill meat is fresh and has not “gone by”. Although obvious signs of potentially spoiled meat include smell and the presence of scavenging insects, maggots, and the like, meat can also be spoiled without these signs. You must cook all meat thoroughly in order to destroy any disease-causing organisms or parasites.

If you find road kill on a stretch of road you had just passed over several hours before, then chances are your road kill is reasonably fresh and you are in meat. As in all things, the best survivors are aware of their environment and open to opportunity as it presents itself, however unexpectedly. Road kill meat is a potentially valuable resource in times of need and not to be overlooked by the hungry survivor

See also 4dtraveler post: (Survival Manual/3. Food & Water/ Trapping)

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Seven secrets of Dutch oven cooking

(Survival Manual/3. Food & Water/ Seven secrets of Dutch oven cooking)

Issue #47, September/October, 1997, Backwoods Home magazine,   by Roger L. Beattie   Pasted from: <http://www.backwoodshome.com/articles/beattie47.html&gt;

Squatting heavily in dank basements, drafty attics, and dusty, cluttered garages, these three-legged hulks from a bygone era wait impatiently to release their treasures. Until then, they are pitted by time and tarnished by neglect. For those who will uncover the mystery, their gaping caverns can once again be brimming with magic.

From the birth of our nation, Dutch ovens have been an integral and versatile part of Americana. Sadly, today’s high-tech hustle-and-bustle lifestyle has all but forgotten the art of “leather-glove cuisine.” The coal-black cast iron ovens appear outdated, unfriendly, and forbidding. Interestingly however, with seven simple secrets revealed, the beginning camp cook and the consummate backyard chef can utilize these forgotten friends to produce a marvelous and unforgettable variety of succulent delicacies.

Dutch ovens owned by cooks who understand their subtleties are kept in places of honor, sanctuaries reserved specifically for them. On the other hand, ovens owned by cooks who can’t seem to keep the potatoes from burning to the bottom or who can never get the chicken to look anything but a pasty white, are quickly relegated to some obscure location where they will be “out of the way.” For the unsuccessful current user, the interested but uninitiated, or anyone who just wants to cook better, the seven secrets outlined below will provide a firm foundation for the creation and consumption of mouth-watering Dutch oven meals fit for even the most discriminating palates.

Secret 1: Choosing wisely
When deciding on a Dutch oven, there are a few important guidelines to keep in mind. A common question is, “Should I buy cast iron or aluminum?” Both have some advantages. Aluminum Dutch ovens weigh about one-third less than their cast iron counterparts. They require no curing, and, like the cast iron pots, can be used over open fires, buried underground, or used with coals or briquettes. However, aluminum Dutch ovens do not retain heat as well nor distribute it as evenly as cast iron. The flavoring of foods produced will also be different. Aluminum ovens sometimes give a chalky flavor to foods, whereas iron ovens give a smoked flavor to foods. Most Dutch oven aficionados use only cast iron ovens.

When buying a cast iron Dutch oven, whether new or used, look carefully at these five important areas:
1. Only buy Dutch ovens with legs. Some are manufactured with flat bottoms and are far more difficult to use. The three legs should be cleanly attached to the bottom of the oven, never cracked, bent, or broken off.

 2. Check the fit of the lid. It should lie flush with the lip of the oven all the way around, with no significant gaps.

 3. Check the casting, or thickness, of the metal, especially around the rim. There will be some inconsistencies. However, areas that are 15% (or more) thicker or thinner than the remaining areas will produce hot or cold spots during cooking and cooling. This variance in thickness will also make the oven much more likely to crack or warp.

 4. Make sure the lid has a loop handle, cleanly attached to its center.

5. Check the bail (the wire handle) attached to the oven itself. It should be easily movable and strong enough to use for carrying or hanging a heavy pot full of stew without difficulty.

If these five areas pass inspection, you’ve got a good Dutch oven.

Another purchase consideration is the size of the oven. Dutch ovens range in size from 8 to 22 inches in diameter. The most commonly used are 10-inch, 12-inch, and 14-inch ovens. The larger ovens hold more if you’re cooking for large groups, but they are huge, heavy, and hard to handle If you only buy one oven to get started, pick a 12-inch. Later you can add a 10-, 14- or additional 12-inch ovens.

Secret 2: The miracle cure
Once you have an oven, it must be cured. This process will keep your oven from rusting and produce an interior coating that will prevent food from sticking. The process is very simple. If you have an old rusty oven, scrub it well and use a fine-grade sandpaper to clean up and expose the entire surface, inside and out. Once the metal is exposed—or if you are curing a new oven—wash the entire oven well with hot soapy water. This will remove the waxy coating from a new oven and the fine metal dust remaining in an old reconditioned one.

Next, heat your Dutch oven, with the lid on, to about 200° in the oven in your home. (You can also do this in a fire, with coals or briquettes.) While the oven is hot, pour or drop in a small amount of oil, shortening, or lard, and while wearing oven mitts or heavy leather gloves, use a clean cotton cloth to wipe the entire surface well, inside and out, to coat it with the shortening, oil, or lard. When the oven is coated, heat it to 350° for an hour. If you do this in your house, expect some smoke. After an hour of heating, let the oven cool slowly. Force-cooling a cast iron oven by putting it in a freezer, snow bank, or outside during a cold rain, can crack or warp it.

Once you have your oven cured, it is ready for cooking. However, after each subsequent use and cleaning, you maintain and strengthen the cure by wiping a very light coat of oil, shortening, or lard over the dry, warm oven.

The proper cleaning of a Dutch oven is a favorite topic of many cast iron cooks. Some say that excess food must be burned off by turning the oven over in a fire, or by putting the lid on and heating the oven until the food residue inside is burned to a black crust or dust (like a self-cleaning household oven). Others claim it is a mortal sin to use any kind of soap when cleaning Dutch ovens. All, however, agree that you never scrape or scour a Dutch oven. Using metal utensils or wire scrubbers or brushes can remove the curing and allow food to stick in the exposed areas unless the oven is re-cured.

Most frequent Dutch oven users have found that wiping out excess food with a paper towel, then washing the pot with hot soapy water and a sponge will produce a clean and sanitary oven. Remember, after cleaning, be sure to dry the oven completely, then wipe a light coat of your chosen oil over the entire surface of your oven, inside and out, legs included, using a paper towel or cotton cloth. Soon your oven will have a beautiful dark brown or black coat that will be amazingly easy to keep clean.

If you use too much oil while curing or after cleaning your oven, it will become apparent the next time you use it. Each time you take out the oven, remove the lid and smell the inside. If it smells a little rancid, you used too much oil, but don’t worry. Just heat up the oven on your stove or over a fire to allow the oil to melt down and puddle in the bottom of the pot. Wipe out the old oil with a paper towel and you’re ready to go. There is no need to clean the oven again before using.

Secret 3: Power tools
You will need all the usual utensils required for cooking, such as spoons, forks, spatulas, etc. However, when you pick utensils to use with your Dutch ovens, choose items made of wood, plastic, or Teflon. Metal utensils tend to scrape off the curing when hungry eaters try to dig the last bite of food out of the oven. If areas do get scraped to the bare metal of the oven, you’ll need to re-cure it.

In addition to the utensils you are familiar with, there are other tools unique to Dutch ovens which will make your efforts safer, easier, and more successful.

1. You will need a pair of loose-fitting leather gloves long enough to cover your wrists.
When leather gloves get hot, loose ones can be flipped off easily and quickly. Tight hot gloves will stick and burn you. Some people prefer welding gloves (gauntlets), but any good thick leather gloves should do fine. Wear these gloves when working with your ovens. They will prevent numerous painful burns, dropped ovens, and ruined meals.

2. Another tool you will need is a lid lifter. There are a number of lid lifter designs to choose from. The most typical is a wire-handled hook. Many of these hooks have a small bar welded horizontally a short distance up the handle from the curve. This is to keep the lid from tilting from side to side while being lifted. Hook lifters can be very ornate or simple hay-hook-like designs. Probably the surest lid lifter is a more recent design which combines the hook with a three-legged brace. The three legs fit flush against the top of the lid, and the hook goes down the middle of the legs and under the lid handle. With this type of lifter, the hook is pulled up to tighten the lid against the three legs of the brace. This design is steady and excellent for keeping coals and ashes on the lid from accidentally becoming additional garnish for the dish being prepared.

3. Lid holders are also a necessity.This tool may be anything from a clean brick to a three- or four-legged wire rack. It is used to keep hot lids off tables and counter tops or out of the dirt when the cook is adding spices or checking the progress of meals cooking.

4. Long-handled tongs are an invaluable addition to your Dutch oven tools. Even a cheap stainless steel pair will last indefinitely. Tongs are used to place, add, or remove coals as necessary. Attempting to position coals with sticks, pliers, etc., often results in poor placement, burned hands, and generally miserable experiences.

5. A small shovel is also important. This small tool, a garden shovel or fireplace shovel, is used for moving coals from a fire, digging a long-cook pit, or burying excess extinguished charcoal.

6. The last special tool you will want to consider is a whisk broom.The broom is used to brush the dirt, ashes, etc., off the lid and side of your oven in preparation for serving. This makes the possibility of ash-flavored beans remote and cleans up the ovens nicely to prevent carrying dirt or charcoal into your camper, cabin, tent, or kitchen.

Secret 4: A fire in the belly
Here’s a secret that even most seasoned outdoor cooks don’t know: You can prevent burned bottoms, raw tops, and dried-out foods by using properly sized and spaced coals to control the interior oven temperature. Virtually all baked goods can be baked successfully at 350°, which is the ideal temperature for a Dutch oven. To establish and maintain this temperature, the first thing to remember is to use coals from a fire that are roughly the same size as charcoal briquettes.

Or, for more consistency, use briquettes. Charcoal briquettes will burn longer and more evenly than coals from a fire. Use the best briquettes you can afford. There is a difference in quality, and the more expensive brands are generally worth the additional cost.

The number and placement of the coals on and under your oven is critical. The optimal number of coals used for any oven is based on its diameter. For example, if you are using a 12-inch oven, you will need two coals per inch, a total of 24. More coals will likely burn your food and less may necessitate too long a cooking period.
To determine how many coals go under and how many go on top, remember the magic number 2:
•  2 coals per inch of oven diameter
• place 2 more coals than the oven size on the lid, and
• place 2 less than the oven size under it.

Example: For a 12-inch oven, 12 – 2 = 10 coals under the oven, and 12+2=14 coals go on the lid, for a total of 24. The same formula applies to all ovens. A 10-inch oven should have 8 coals underneath and 12 coals on the lid. A 14-inch oven should have 12 coals underneath and 16 coals on the lid.

The placement of the coals is also an important part of proper heat regulation. The proper layout for coals or briquettes under the oven is circular. Coals should be approximately one inch apart in a circle under the oven. Never place coals directly under the center of the oven. If you do, you will create a hot spot and burn whatever you are cooking. By placing the coals in a circle, the natural conductivity of the oven will distribute the heat evenly and effectively.

The coals on the lid of the oven should also be placed evenly in a circle along the flange of the outer lid. However, four of the coals should be placed toward the center of the lid, two on either side of the handle. This coal placement will produce an even, consistent temperature within the oven of approximately 350° and maintain that heat for up to two hours.

In the event that you need to generate a higher temperature inside your oven, “cheat up” the coals. Additional coals placed two at a time, one on the lid and one under the oven, will add another 50°. Two additional coals top and bottom would bring your oven’s temperature up to 450°. It is extremely rare to need a temperature of 450°, and you should never need one higher than that.

Secret 5: A cut above
Meats prepared in a Dutch oven are delectable. They have a flavor and aroma you will never duplicate using any other cooking method. While the taste is always exquisite, some Dutch oven users have difficulty producing a visually appealing meat from inside the steamy oven. The secret is simple: regardless of the spice and flavorings you use on any meat or poultry, always brown the meat first.

To brown the meat, place some oil, bacon, or any fatty item in the hot oven to produce a good covering of oil on the bottom, heat the oven, then put the meat you want to cook in the oven and sear or brown it well. This will seal in natural juices and provide the outer texture and color more typical of grilled or fried meats. Once the meat is well browned on all sides, drain off any leftover fat drippings, add whatever seasonings you like, put on the lid, and cook the meat for 30 to 35 minutes per pound of beef, pork, or lamb, or 25 to 30 minutes per pound of poultry.

Secret 6: Garden pride
Garden vegetables are a magnificent addition to any Dutch oven dinner. Most Dutch oven vegetables are prepared in a sauce of some type, but they may be steamed or boiled as you would on a traditional stove. However, if you choose to bake or roast Dutch oven vegetables, they should cook for approximately three minutes per inch of oven diameter. A l0-inch oven full of squash should cook for about 30 minutes, a 12-inch oven full for 36 minutes. Vegetables to be cooked in sauces, such as sour cream potatoes, broccoli in cheese sauce, or new peas and potatoes in white sauce, should be brought to a rapid boil first, the water discarded, the sauces added, then baked for the proper time noted for other vegetables.

Secret 7: If you knead the dough
Good Dutch oven breads seem to be a rarity. However, marvelous corn breads, biscuits, rolls, and sourdough loaves are surprisingly easy to perfect in the old black pot. The larger the oven the better when it comes to cooking breads. A 14-inch oven serves nicely to produce three loaves of bread or up to three dozen rolls or biscuits. To successfully brown breads, however, you must alter the cooking process for the last five to eight minutes of the traditional 25-30 minute, 350° baking time.

First, put a light coat of oil on the interior of a cool oven (including the lid), and let the rolls or bread complete their final rise in the oven prior to applying the coals. Second, place the oven on the coals with the proper number of coals on top as noted earlier. (Remember: no coals directly under the center of the oven.) Third, when there are five to eight minutes left in the cooking time, lift the lid, lightly brush the tops of the breads with butter, replace the lid, then take all the coals from under the oven and distribute them evenly on the top. With all the heat now on the lid, check the bread every couple of minutes until you think it looks perfect. After brushing the coals and ashes from the lid, remove it, tilt the oven over a bread board, and your perfect bread will gently fall out.

Now that you know the seven secrets, here is a trio of fabulous tried-and-true recipes you can easily make with your old, new, or reincarnated Dutch oven.

 Prairie chicken
Using the correct number of coals under the oven, brown both sides of enough clean, uncoated chicken pieces to cover the bottom in a hot Dutch oven with a bubbling ¼ inch of oil. When the chicken is browned to your liking, remove the excess oil from the oven and discard. Season the chicken generously with the following pre-mixed coating:

2 Tablespoons each, parsley flakes & thyme
1 Tablespoon each, marjoram, oregano, celery salt, & rosemary
1 teaspoon each, garlic salt, onion salt, ginger, ground black pepper, sage, & paprika

Put lid on oven, arrange coals as noted earlier (top and bottom) and cook for 45 minutes to one hour.

Italian zucchini
Coat and marinate zucchini or summer squash (one per person) for 30 minutes in a mixture of ½ olive oil and ½ lemon juice (A half cup of each will coat enough zucchini for 20 people.) Place one layer of the marinated vegetables in the bottom of the Dutch oven. (A 10-inch oven works great for up to 15 people.) Sprinkle salt, pepper, and a good coating of grated Romano cheese over the layer, then repeat the process, layer upon layer, until all the zucchini is used or until the oven is almost full. Sprinkle extra Romano cheese on the top layer. Place the lid on the oven and cook as noted earlier with the proper number and placement of coals. Cook for 30 to 35 minutes. This is a marvelous tart and tasty vegetable treat, guaranteed.

Trailside beans
½ pound bacon, sliced in small pieces
½ pound ground beef
½ diced onion1 diced red bell pepper
1 diced green bell pepper
Two 33-oz. cans of pork and beans
½ cup brown sugar
¼ cup of Worcestershire sauce
2 Tablespoons of white vinegar

Cook bacon and ground beef well in a 12-inch Dutch oven. Use 24 coals all on the bottom to start, then separate and place the coals as noted earlier during the baking stage. Before removing excess oil, sauté diced onion, diced red bell pepper, and diced green bell pepper with the meats until the onions and peppers are soft. Drain off excess oil. Add pork and beans, brown sugar, Worcestershire sauce, and white vinegar. Stir well, place lid on oven, and cook with repositioned coals for 90 to 120 minutes.

Check for moisture content every 15 to 20 minutes. (Some ovens allow too much moisture to escape.) If there is not a soupy layer of liquid covering the beans, add water, a little at a time, and stir to maintain the moisture content.
Eat this with hot biscuits and jam, and you’ll understand why cowboys always looked so happy on those long, hard, dusty cattle drives.

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The Zeer pot emergency refrigerator

(Survival Manual/3. Food & Water/Zeer pot refrigerator)

A.  Zeer pot fridge
Pasted from <http://practicalaction.org/zeer-pot-fridge-2>

How a clay pot refrigerator can help beat hunger
In hot climates, food doesn’t stay fresh for long. Tomatoes go off in just two days. After four days carrots and okra are rotten. With no means of preserving their crops, poverty-stricken families have been battling hunger and even famine.
One ingenious solution is the zeer pot. Using this simple technology, the same vegetable can last for up to 20 days. This all natural refrigerator offers families, who already succeed in food production, their right to food preservation and really can help to improve their everyday lives; for now and for the future.

A simple technology that brings fresh hope
The zeer pot is a simple fridge made of local materials. It consists of one earthenware [or metal] pot set inside a larger earthenware clay pot, with a layer of wet sand in between.
•  The space between the two pots is about 2 inches (50mm) on either side.
•  Moisture from a layer of wet sand allows for evaporation.  As the moisture evaporates it cools the inner pot, keeping up to 26 pounds of fruit and vegetables fresher for longer.
•  The pots should be covered with a ceramic lid or cloth. They should be kept in a well-ventilated area but out of direct sunlight. The pots worked best when they were stood on a metal frame that allowed air to circulate under them as well as around the sides.

.
B.  What: For less than $2 for a clay pot system to refrigerate up to 12 kg of produce
. [It may cost $2.00 in Africa, but not $2.00 in the USA, see my expense list and photos, below. Mr Larry]
Pasted from <http://www.brinq.com/workshop/archives/2005/01/08/keeping-it-cool-clay-pot-refrigeration>

This is a relatively old story but a great one. In 2000 Mohammed Bah Abba was awarded the Rolex Award for Enterprise for his innovative Pot-in-Pot system to provide affordable, electricity free, refrigeration in arid Nigeria. Mohammed took an old local understanding of the cooling properties of evaporating water, combined it with the ancient tradition of making clay pots, and turned into a useful, world-changing innovation: a “desert refrigerator” that helps reduce food spoilage and increases income by increasing the shelf-life of farmers’ produce for sale.

Eggplants, for example, stayed fresh for 27 days instead of three, and tomatoes and peppers lasted for three weeks or more. African spinach, which usually spoils after a day, remained edible after 12 days in the Pot-in-Pot storage.”

The Pot-In-Pot system consists of two earthenware terracotta pots of different diameters, one placed inside the other. The space between the two pots is packed with sand, the sand is kept wet by pouring water into the sand about twice a day. Produce is placed within the inner pot and then covered with a damp cloth, and the system is left in a dry ventilated area. As the water in the sand evaporates throughout the day, the law of thermodynamics ensures the temperature in the inner pot drops. Our bodies use the same technique to keep us cool.

How well does it cool? Well,one quantitative study was performed in Ramona, CA by student Garret Rueda in his 2003 entry to the state Science Fair. Rueda found the average daily temperature drop inside the system was 23.5 F (4 C), keeping produce at 59F (15 C), while the outside temperature is 82.4F (28 C) .

Finally, the Rolex Awards Committee makes a great point about ideas vs. innovation in their article about the Pot-in-Pot award: “Good ideas are indeed rare, but good ideas that actually become good projects and bring lasting benefits are even rarer still,” In other words, an innovation is an idea that is brought to life and changes people’s lives.

C.  Off-Grid SHTF Survival: Ancient Technology for Refrigeration
September 25th, 2011, Tess Pennington
Pasted from <http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/off-grid-shtf-survival-ancient-technology-for-refrigeration_09252011>

As most of our readers understand, in a collapse, be it natural or man-made, there is a distinct possibility that we may experience a cascading power-failure from which there may be no recovery for the majority of the population for weeks or months at a time. You’ll have no way of keeping short-term perishable food fresh, especially meats. But what if you were able to create a refrigerator out of just sand, water and a couple of clay pots, giving you the ability to keep meat cool for a few days at a time? In our view, that could significantly alter your survival preparation plans for the better. In addition to food, for those with critical needs that require refrigeration of medicine, this could be a life saver. This ancient technique is one you’ll want to consider, test, and archive in your personal planning and preparedness strategies .

 SHTF Survival: Clay Pot Refrigeration
by Tess Pennington
Have you ever wondered what our ancestors did without refrigeration? How were they able to prevent their food from spoiling? Some of our ancient civilizations did in fact have refrigeration and used simple items they had on hand to create it.

The zeer clay pot refrigerator keeps food cool (icy cold) without electricity by using evaporative cooling. Essentially, a porous outer earthenware pot, lined with wet sand, contains an inner pot (which can be glazed to prevent penetration by the liquid) within which the food is placed. The evaporation of the outer liquid draws heat from the inner pot.

In a short or long-term disaster where power is out, knowing essential skills on how to prevent foods from spoiling as quickly, will help you survive longer and stay healthier. Further, having this simple device can also help you have a diverse diet during a disaster and prolong food fatigue. The best part is that making this device is incredibly cheap, very effective, and doesn’t require any electricity, which is perfect for those disasters where the power is affected and you have no fuel to power your generators.

All that is needed to create a clay pot refrigerator is two terra-cotta pots, one larger than the other, as well as some sand, water, and cloth. To make the “fridge”, you just put one pot inside the other, and fill up the spaces with wet sand, which keeps the inside of the pots cold. You will also need to put a wet towel over the top to keep the warm air and light from getting in.

Rather than re-inventing the wheel, perhaps we could learn a thing or two from our ancient ancestors. Using what they had available to them, our ancestors seemed to have many of the modern-day conveniences we have today.

D.  Impact of the  Zeer pot
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pot-in-pot_refrigerator
 Construction
A zeer is constructed by placing a clay pot within a larger clay pot with wet sand in between the pots and a wet cloth on top. The device cools as the water evaporates, allowing food stored in the inner pot to be kept fresh for much longer in a hot, dry climate. It must be placed in a dry, ventilated space for the water to evaporate effectively towards the outside. Evaporative coolers tend to perform poorly or not at all in climates with high ambient humidity, since the water is not able to evaporate well under these conditions.

If there is an impermeable separation layer between the food and the porous pots, undrinkable water such as seawater can be used to drive the cooling process, without contaminating the food. This is useful in arid locations near the ocean where drinkable water is a limited commodity, and can be accomplished by using a pot that is glazed on the inner wall where the food is stored.
Extended operation is possible if the pots are able to draw water from a storage container, such as an inverted airtight jar, or if the pots are placed in a shallow pool of water.
Pot-in-pot refrigeration has had multiple positive impacts on the population that uses them beyond the simple ability to keep food fresh for longer periods of time and decreasing instances of food-related disease.
•  Increased profits from food sales: As there is no rush to sell food to avoid spoilage, farmers are able to sell their produce on demand and can command higher prices.
•  Increased opportunities for women: Women can sell food directly from their homes, decreasing their dependence on their husbands as sole providers. Also, because girls traditionally take food to market to sell, and because food in the zeer stays fresh long enough that they can go to market once a week rather than once a day, there is more time for them to attend school.
•  Rural employment opportunities: Farmers are able to support themselves with their increased profits at market, slowing the move into cities. Also, the creation of the pots themselves generates job opportunities.
•  Increased diet variety because food is available for longer into the year.

Effectiveness
Food  –    Refrigerated shelf life  –  Shelf life with zeer

Carrots                  4 days                                   20 days
Eggplant            1-2 days                                   21 days
Guava                    2 days                                   20 days
Meat                       1 day                                   ~14 days
Okra                      4 days                                    17 days
Rocket                   1 day                                        5 days
Tomatoes             2 days                                    20 days
.

E.  Mr. Larry’s Zeer pot emergency  refrigerator
Parts list:
1) 16″ terra cotta clay pot, Home Depot, $19.98.
2) stock pot, IMUSA, aluminum, 16 qt covered pot with tempered glass lid, Wal-Mart, $19.94
3) plastic ‘cover’ Lowes Garden center, $14.04 (this was an 18″ tray that normally sit s under a pot)
4) bath towel, Wal-Mart, $2.97
5) Quikrete Play sand, #50 lbs, Lowes, $3.28

(Photos above: (L) My zeer pot. I’m using an aluminum interior pot. It’s felt that a thin metal interior pot will cool your perishables faster and maintain a lower temperature than a terra-cotta  interior pot. Also shown is a 50 lb bag of sand and a cheap towel that would be wetted and used to cover the pot when in use. The aluminum pot came with a glass top and I bought an 18″ plastic flower-pot base which is being used as a cover. (R) My zeer set up along side the house. To a passer-by who happens to see it, the zeer pot looks like a simple planter that’s being used as a ‘table’ for a smaller planter. Meanwhile, my zeer is set up and ready for use. The frig is currently sitting on three bricks, raised a couple of inches off the ground. On my next trip to Lowes or Home Depot, I’ll buy a short metal planter stand to set it 6-12 above the ground to increase the opportunity for draft, hence evaporation, across the bottom of the pot.

Photo above: (L) A home-made zeer pot using two nestled terra-cotta pots. (R) A native zeer showing a  quantity of tomatoes and green string beans being cooled.

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The following YouTube video link demonstrates the construction of a zeer pot frig and goes on to test the temperature drop within the interior pot:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcuSlaecvIw&feature=related

(end of article)

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Pine Needle Tea – Vitamin C

 (Survival Manual/ 3. Food & Water/ Pine Needle Tea-Vitamin C)

 A Native Cure for Scurvy (or just because you’d like some tea)
http://www.survivaltopics.com/survival/a-native-american-cure-for-scurvy/
As survivors, we take pride in our ability to live where others might fail. Sometimes one small detail can make the difference between life and death.
To fully utilize the bountiful resources nature provides requires knowledge and experience. And in any survival environment the best place to get that is from the people who call it home. The following is a case study.

In late 1535, the French explorer Jacques Cartier and his men became ice-bound near present day Quebec, Canada while attempting to sail downriver to the Atlantic Ocean. They built a fort and were forced to hunker down for the long northern winter.
Short on supplies, by December, scurvy took a heavy toll and over 50 men died. All of those who managed to hold on to life were so weak as to be of little use in fending off the angry Iroquois Indians who surrounded them. And winter had only just started.

Indian Cure for Scurvy
In desperation Cartier sought out the son of an Iroquois Chief, Dom Agaya, and asked him how it was that the Indians stayed healthy while all his own men were falling to scurvy.
Fortunately for Cartier, Dom Agaya shared the secret.
The means of survival for Cartier’s men was close at hand the entire time. Dom Agaya simply pulled a few needles from the closest white cedar tree (some say a pine) and boiled them into tea. When Cartier and his men drank this pine tea they almost immediately felt better. Within eight days the entire tree had been stripped bare and all the men were cured of scurvy.
You see, Pine needles contain five times the amount of vitamin C, as lemons, for the cure of scurvy.

How to make Pine Tea, the Native American Cure for Scurvy
•  Grab a handful of pine needles, about 1/4 cup is all you need.
•  Place in boiling water for ten to fifteen minutes.
•  Add lemon and honey if available.
You now have 100% of the US RDA requirement for vitamin C.
Drink up and enjoy your woodsy brew, it tastes and smells like the pine forest from which it came.

So there you have it – as long as there is an evergreen tree handy, the knowledgeable survivor will never suffer from scurvy. And what became of the Indians who helped Jacques Cartier and his men survive that terrible winter of 1535 – 1536? Cartier kidnapped Dom Agaya, his father the Chief, and several others and brought them to France where they died. The photos above show how to make Pine Needle tea; 1, 2, 3.

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Throwing sticks

(Survival Manual/3. Food & Water/Throwing sticks)
<http://www.woodcraftwanderings.org/hunting.html>

Background
The throwing stick is one of the first weapons used by early humans and cultures all around the world. In essence, it is a short stave or wooden club thrown as a projectile to hunt small game such as rabbits or waterfowl. In flight, it rotates rapidly cracking the target with one of the ends and either maiming or killing it.

As a survival tool, the throwing stick is one of the most effective and easiest tools to obtain. Other than a weapon, it can also be used as a digging tool for making fire-pits and underground shelter. A curved limb will suffice as a throwing stick. Ancient throwing sticks were believed to be made of hardwood with a weighted or curved end to one side to impart momentum so the stick stays straight and does not wobble in mid-flight.

[Image at right: Ancient Egyptian throwing sticks.]

All throwing sticks and their variations are about 2 to 3 feet long pieces of thick hardwood, usually about the circumference of the user’s wrist. When they are thrown, they spin, creating the image of a sort of blurry disc.

 A well designed throwing stick uses the principles of an airfoil shape and gyroscopic stability; the oldest of these dates back 200,000 years to ancient Poland. The Australian hunting boomerang, used into modern times, uses the bent shape and a symmetric airfoil cross-section to provide stability and low drag for long, accurate throws. Most throwing sticks do not return, a good thing, since they are large, heavy, and dangerous. Throwing sticks of both the non-returning and returning variety, have been found in many ancient cultures, ranging from Egypt to North America.

[Above, an Egyptian hunting water fowl with throwing sticks in a marsh, image from a ca. 1350BC hieroglyph.]

In the worst possible outdoor scenario such as a survival setting, utilizing throwing sticks can not only keep you from going hungry, but can keep you alive until rescue. Although the use of throwing sticks in modern times is extremely limited, in the days of old they were very popular. In their truest sense throwing sticks are an art form, but for a stranded outdoor person they are simple to make and with a very brief period of practice they can produce moderately good results. Throwing sticks are very good for killing small game such as rabbits, squirrels and water fowl, and should be immediately incorporated into every survival situation at the earliest opportunity.

Emergency throwing stick:  A basic throwing stick can be fashioned from a dead tree branch about the thickness of a human wrist, and the length of the person using the stick’s arm from armpit to finger tips. A stick of the appropriate thickness but of excessive length can be broken easily by using a standing forked tree as a lever. In this manner making a throwing stick does not involve any tools, utilizes fallen and dry timber, and saves the precious energy of the individual in a difficult circumstance. Once a throwing stick is made it should be kept with the person at all times, simply because one never knows when an opportunity will present itself to come upon prey.

Use: The techniques used in actually throwing the sticks are self-explanatory, and no more difficult than throwing a baseball or football. Obviously, when hunting it helps to get as close to the target as is possible in a stealthy manner to augment accuracy. The stick should rest on the shoulder, with the hand on the other end. The throwing sticks can be released in a diagonal, vertical or horizontal manner – whichever is most comfortable for the user. The horizontal throw is preferred for ducks or geese on sitting water, as the stick has a greater chance of finding success when it skips off the water. In every case, the throwing stick will spin end over end striking the prey with good force. It is important to move in quickly on game that is hit, as it may only be stunned and might get away.

 The throwing stick
Variations of the throwing stick or rabbit stick can be found in many cultures all over the world, also known as a throwing club, throwing wood, baton, kylie, or the well-known returning and non-returning boomerangs of the Australian aborigine’s. Used for hunting small mammals and birds, typically made from medium or hardwood, 12 to 24 inches in length with one end either weighted by a thicker heavier section or a curve. This extra weight or curve imparts momentum to the stick when thrown, increasing flight stability. I don’t fully understand the physics and subtleties of the various different designs, but there seems to be four basic styles:
1)  club,
2)  equal single bend (a stretched ‘V’ shape, less   than 45 degrees),
3)  unequal single bend (a stretched ‘L’ shape) and
4)  double bend (a stretched ‘Z’ shape), examples are shown in the figure at right.

From reading around and searching the web, you don’t normally see a straight, constant diameter throwing stick, the exception to this is when metal, typically lead is used to weight one end.
Throwing sticks having a bend are normally thinned downed flat i.e. a bi-convex or thin oval, improving their aerodynamic profile, reducing weight, therefore, allowing them to travel greater distances.
This profile is optimized for the returning boomerang, forming an aerofoil profile i.e. a flat bottom and a curved top, allowing the boomerang to generate lift.
A common characteristic of these throwing sticks is that their edges are thinned down to a point, concentrating the kinetic energy on impact.

Club type throwing sticks have a solid bulge, protuberance e.g. circular or oval, at one end and tend to be shorter than curved throwing sticks. Again the club end may be pointed to concentrating the kinetic energy on impact e.g. pointed, forked, tear drop or conical.

How to throw
Throwing sticks with a bend are thrown using an overhand, sideways throwing action, imparting a spinning motion on the stick. This sideways spinning flight path increases the probability of making contact with the target. Some quotes on using throwing sticks:
•  “ The throwing arm moved with a broad sweep using the whole arm but with some degree of wrist snap at the end of the action”
•  “First, align the target by extending the non-throwing arm in line with the mid to lower section of the target. Slowly and repeatedly raise the throwing arm up and back until the throwing stick crosses the back at about a 45-degree angle or is in line with the non-throwing hip. Bring the throwing arm forward until it is just slightly above and parallel to the non-throwing arm. This will be the throwing stick’s release point.”
•  “The throwing wood is a crooked piece of wood, which is able to fly with or without having a grip. Generally it is thrown and then rotates in the air, but occasionally it also can be used as a club. Unlike the throwing club, the throwing wood does not concentrate on the effect of hitting. Only the variant which returns to the thrower is called a boomerang.”
•  “Such a basic club can be thrown either overhand (when, for instance, you’re trying to hit the side of a tree) or sidearm (when you’re in an open area, where brush won’t interfere with the stick’s flight). In using the first method, point your left foot at the target (if you’re a right-hander southpaws can simply reverse these directions). Then, holding the smaller end of the stick loosely in your right hand, bring the weapon back over your shoulder and hurl it, with good end-over-end spin, straight at the mark. At the moment of release, your shoulders should face the target squarely. The sidearm throw is similar to the motion used in stroking a tennis ball with the racket. Point the left toe at the target, bring the stick to a cocked position at your side, and throw it, squaring your shoulders and snapping the club as if you were cracking a whip to give it spin.”
“What I remember from Tom’s class was to pick a stick that was the length of the distance from your armpit to your wrist, and about 2 inches around. Such a stick will weigh between 2 and 3 pounds. If you throw it at any animal, any hit will break something, like a rib. We learned both an overhand throw, and a sidearm throw, where we would actually bounce the stick off the ground just short of the target, so it would bounce up and take the target out. On rabbits which sit so close to the ground, this particularly throw is used, unless there is brush between you and the sitting rabbit.”

Club type throwing sticks can be thrown using a more targeted throwing action. Again, thrown using an overhand throwing motion, however, this time no sideways spin is used i.e. the club is thrown straight, heavy end first, this end making contact with the target. The handle increasing leverage and speed allowing the club to be thrown further and faster. Some books suggest that a twisting flick should be added just before release i.e. rotating the club in line with the directions of travel, improving its stability in flight.

Making a throwing stick

[Photos above are of an equal length, single bend throwing stick. The equal length single bend throwing stick is cut down and  shaped using an axe and wood rasp then sanded to give a more aerodynamic profile.]

To make a throwing stick that contains a bend the simplest solution is find a piece of wood with a suitable natural bend, although this is sometimes easier said than done. However, as this type of throwing stick is normally thinned down to a flat profile, any unwanted bends or bumps can be minimized or removed completely with a bit of judicious trimming.

When a suitable piece of wood cannot be found the wood can be formed into a curve by heating and bending. One technique I’ve read about is to heat green wood over hot coals to make it pliable, then placed it between two rocks, placing a heavy pressure rock on top to form the bend. Alternatively the wood could be steamed to make it more flexible, removed from the rocks when cooled.

[Above: Long single bend throwing sticks: Length~25 inches, Width ~1-1/2 inch, Thickness ~ 1/2 to 3/4 inch. The bend is naturally formed and further shaped to improve its aerodynamic profile.]

Comparing these throwing sticks with some traditional non-returning Australian aboriginal boomerangs from the central desert, they may need to be thinned down a little more. However, some examples from Tasmania and eastern Australia are of a similar size (or a little bigger) i.e. approx 2.5 feet long and 1 inch wide tapering at the ends slightly. Not sure what the best balance between weight, width and aerodynamic profile is. Note, its common to have scratches or shallow groves carved into one end, to form a non-slip grip.

To assess the performance of each of these throwing sticks they were tested at various distances. The equal length single bend throwing stick, flew like a lead balloon. Over short distances it was ok, but as it slowed down it would lose stability allowing the broad face to flip-up, causing it to fall out of the air. To improve its flight path stability the stick’s width and thickness were reduced.
This problem highlights the conflicting requirements involved in making a throwing stick i.e. to produce a flat, stable, long flight path requires a light weight, thin stick, however, to increase impact force requires a weighted, heavy, thick stick. Increasing a sticks weight can also have a negative effect on its throwing distance, requiring the release angle to be increased (relative to the ground) to improve distance.

[Short range club throwing stick. Length~12 inches,  handle width ~1 inch,  head diameter ~3 inches.]

I had the chance to experiment with a couple of different throwing sticks recently. The environment in which I used them included a mix of terrains, from fields, open wood land to dense forest. From practicing with these sticks, I’ve come to the conclusion that I need a lot more practice and that trees seem to have a strange magnetic attraction on throwing sticks i.e. doesn’t seem to matter what you aim a,t a tree always gets in the way. I found the larger heavier throwing sticks are more difficult to aim, either releasing them too early or too late, overshooting or undershooting the target. I’m guessing this is due to the large amount of physical force / movement required in throwing these sticks i.e. a long arm swing and body twist, rather than a quick sharp arm / wrist flick.

The advantage of the larger sticks is that the area covered by its rotational plane is significantly bigger than that of a smaller throwing stick, therefore, somewhat compensating for this aiming difficulty. Even so I still found it more difficult to consistently hit a target with this type of stick.

Another disadvantage of the longer throwing stick is when you are in woodland i.e. finding a flight path through the trees. In these situation you have to throw the stick in the vertical plane to avoid the trees, limiting the advantage of this longer length. In woodlands, a shorter throwing stick is easier to use (and carry.
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Mr. Larry’s throwing sticks, 2011

[The photographs above are my throwing sticks. In order to compare before and after images, the top 4 sticks in the top photograph are also the top 4 finished sticks in the lower photograph.]

The tools I used to form my throwing sticks were: hammer and chisel, small hatchet, 4-1/2 inch small angle electric grinder, bench vise, wood hasp with plastic handle, several grade of sand paper. I’d estimate it took between 2-3 hours from start to finish for each throwing stick. The use of a band saw, which I did not have, would have reduced the labor time considerably.

In the lower image (top to bottom): Throwing sticks #1-#3 have been cut to shaped and sanded flat on the top and bottom surface, while remaining at least ¾ inch thick. #5 is thin, about ½ inches thick and several inches wide. #1 – #3 and #5 are flat on the bottom with tops slightly beveled on the forward and trailing edge. In cross-section they somewhat resemble an airplane wing. These four are meant to be thrown like a boomerang with the snap of the wrist so they whirl in horizontal flight toward their target.

#4 is a short-range club throwing stick, meant for direct body impact, as opposed to leg injury as  the whirley-wings shown above.

#6 on the bottom is a striking club, with a somewhat pointed nose and rounded heal. This would dispatch a small animal up through medium size dog.

The wood for these throwing sticks were sawn from fallen tree limbs in the woods where I walk. The wood might be oak, but I’m not sure what trees lost what limbs during the storm. My ‘sticks’ , except the short-range club, measure about 22 inches long (wrist to armpit). On most I’ve either filed grooves into, or wrapped twine or cord on the handle end. All were stained dark oak and subsequently given a couple of coats of polyurethane spray to toughen the wood and for preservation. The twine handles were additionally painted with a generous coat of liquid polyurethane.
I made two additional  throwing sticks, similar to #1 & #3 in shape, which were not finished and are used for target practice on occasion when I’m doing walking exercises.

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Bread and cracker

(Survival manual/3. Food & water/Bread & cracker)

 Trail breads for home, camping or a survival situation
← For when & where there is no power →

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 Ash Cakes, A slightly cinnamon tasting, sweet trail bread.
Ingredients:

1   cup self rising flour 3   tsp cane (brown) sugar)
1/3   cup whole wheat flour 1/3   cup raisins (or other dried fruit)
¼   cup diced pecans (or other nuts) 4-5   Sprinkles of cinnamon
½   tsp salt  

Mix dry ingredients above , then slowly add no more than 2/3 cup warm water, stirring until the mix consolidates into dough. Knead with fingers and slowly add more flour until the mixture is no longer sticky. Make into about 6-8 hand size cakes. May be fried in a very lightly greased pan (I use a griddle-lp) or cooked on tin foil over medium heat or campfire coals. Turn when one side is browned and cook the other.

When served: Butter and cover a with jam or honey. The name, Ash Cakes, makes them sound wild and wooly, but they actually go very well with a breakfast at home.
Recipe from the book: The Modern Hunter Gatherer: A Practical Guide To Living Off the Land
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Bannock, An excellent trail bread.
Ingredients: (premixed for convenience)

3/4 cup flour ~1/4 tsp salt
1 Tbsp baking powder  

Build your fire and let it burn down to coals, start heating your 7″+ fry pan.

Mix flour, baking powder and salt, the slowly add water and mix into a stiff dough. Don’t add too much water as you want it like bread dough not like a thin pancake mix. Lightly coat pan with butter or cooking oil. Add dough to medium hot pan and spread it to the size of pita bread. Cook one side until it won’t break in half when turned, then flip over and cook the other side. Add a little more butter or oil. The bread will rise 1/2 to 3/4  of its wet size. Check for doneness by sticking it with a sliver of wood until no dough sticks to it.
From the book: Buckshot’s Complete Survival Trapping Guide

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Oat Scones, Served for breakfast with an eggs, melon or fruit. Slice the one to eat lengthwise and spread with your favorite jam. A tasty breakfast supplement whose leftovers are excellent snacks.
Ingredients:

2 cups flour 2 Tbsp. sugar
2 cups oats *2/3 cup cooking oil
1 scant Tbsp. salt 1 cup milk
1 Tbsp. baking soda 1 cup fruit, i.e. raisins or chopped apple

* Reduced fat recipe: Replace 2/3 cup cooking oil with- 1/3 cup cooking oil and 1/3 cup applesauce and 1/2 apple peeled and chopped.

Procedure:
Mix dry ingredients. Add milk and oil. Mix with a fork to a soft dough. Pat out on a floured surface to 1/2 inch thickness. Cut into triangles or squares of about 2-1/2 inches on a side. and bake at 400°F for 15 minutes or until brown. Makes 15 to 20. Oat scones are a cross between a biscuit and a crunchy bread. Oat scones are very good warm. Butter and coat with honey  or jam. Recipe makes easily enough for two people for 2-3 breakfasts bread replacement.
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Making Bread When the Power is Out
http://urbansurvivalsite.com/making-bread-when-the-power-is-out/
“Early on in my survival preparations, I bought lots of whole wheat flour and yeast packets for bread making. Flour is a lot cheaper than MRE’s and it takes up less space. Then one day my wife said, “If a disaster happens and the power is out, how are you going to bake bread?” Great question! And I felt pretty stupid because I didn’t have an answer. After a little research, I learned that as long as you can get a fire going, there are many things you can do with your bread ingredients.

Fry It: Donuts are just fried bread and sugar. Simply mix the dough as instructed and let it rise. Instead of forming a loaf, split it into two large pieces and pat them down until they’re about a 1/2 inch thick. Now let them rise again until them rise until they’re a full inch thick. Meanwhile, heat a pan of oil over your fire and when the bread is read, slip one of the pieces into the pan. When the bottom is brown, flip it over and fry the other side. Repeat with the other piece. When your bread is ready, drain off the excess oil, tear off a piece and enjoy. A little butter and honey or syrup and some powdered sugar will make them a delicious treat that is good anytime, whether you’re in a disaster scenario or not.

Boil it: Bagels are bread that is boiled and then baked. First form your dough into a bagel shape and let it rise. While you’re waiting, get a fire going and place a pot of water over it. When the dough has doubled in size and the water is boiling rapidly, slip your bagels into the water. When the bread is firm, remove it and let it dry. Finally, fry the bagels in a lightly oiled skillet. This creates a crust and improves the taste.

Bake it: Yes, not everything has to be baked in an oven. All that is necessary is heat from above and below. This can be done with most outdoor grills, but if your grill doesn’t have a cover, just use a bucket or something similar to capture the heat and direct down toward the bread. You’ll want as much heat coming from above as below, which means you don’t want your bread to be too close to the flame. Try putting something underneath the bread pan such as a brick. If you don’t have a grill, create a makeshift oven. First put the bottom pan on some warm coals. Then put a lid, baking sheet, or another pan on top. Finally, stack some hot coals on top, Dutch oven style.”
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Baking bread in a Solar oven
Makes a 1.5 lb loaf of braided white bread:

Ingredients: Add to mixing pan,
1 cup water
3-1/4 cups flour
3 Tbsp sugar
1-1/2 Tbsp dry milk
1-1/2 tsp salt
2 Tbsp butter
2 tsp Rapid Rise yeast

Remove the dough to a lightly floured surface and cut it into 3 equal size sections. Roll each section into a snake approximately 18 inches long. Connect the three snakes at the top and braid, then shape the braid into a ring.

Place the braided ring into a buttered baking pan and cover with a hot, damp towel. Let the dough rise in a warm place for about 45 minutes, until it has almost doubled in volume. Just before baking, baste the dough’s top surface with margarine.
 
[Images above: Left: My Global Solar Oven, shown baking a 1-1/2 lb loaf of bread.  The reflector panels are highly     reflective, anodized aluminum. The oven is both set up and taken down in 30 seconds.
Right: A 1-1/2 pound loaf of bread, just baked in the solar oven.  A process that was easier and more effective than I imagined.]

Cover and bake in the solar oven  for about 1-1/2 hours, until a toothpick inserted into the center comes out clean. My loaf completed baking in 1 hours 20 minutes, at 300°F, with a lid on the baking pot. After baking and while still warm, the loaf crust was basted with margarine again.

When the process was finished, the oven wiped down and put away, I sat for a moment to think about my first two solar cooking experiences.  I was surprised at how easily and effectively the oven had baked both a chicken and a loaf of bread. The process was so easy, that on a clear day, anyone could cook with solar heat. I found baking in the solar oven easier than baking in a household electric oven, where timing seemed more critical. With the solar oven, when the appropriate cooking temperature for meat was reached, it’s was done; when the bread dough steamed, then developed a golden crust and becomes dry inside, it was done.

The solar oven could consecutively used to bake a chicken (3 hours) and a loaf of bread (1.5 hours) during one sunny day; starting at 9:00AM, the items would be finished just after 1:30PM.

My records from baking that first loaf of bread in the Global Solar Oven

Time Oven air temperature Notes
10:20 AM 302°F Preheated solar oven. Began baking dough, inside a covered oblong roasting pan.
10:40 305°F  
11:10 300°F Steam escaping covered baking pan and fogging oven window. Unlatched door to allow a slight draft which eliminated condensation. Bread is browning nicely.
11:30 300°F  
11:50 300°F Bread baked. Crust is brown and crunchy. Interior dry. Removed from   oven after 1 hour 30 minutes of baking; the loaf  was probably finished after 1 hour 20 minutes. Shook from baking pan and set on wire rack, basted hot bread with margarine and allowed to cool.

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Flatbread
It’s estimated that the first bread was made around 10,000 years BC and was more than likely flatbread, made simply of ground grains (flour) and water that was mashed and baked.

Flat Bread is an unleavened bread usually made without yeast, it ‘s flat, not fluffy,  hence its name. Flat Bread is rolled into various thicknesses and cooked either by baking or roasting on the griddle. Basic flat bread dough is made using flour, water and salt. (Yeast is used at times, to make flat breads that use whole wheat flour.)

Other ingredients can be added for a particular taste, such as;
•  1/2 tsp quantities of a herb, or
•  1/2 tsp of spice (basil, chili powder, curry powder, black pepper…),
•  up to 1/2 cup of a precooked vegetables (onion, bell pepper, diced jalapenos…),
•  minced meat, or
•  1/3 cup Parmesan cheese, or
•  1/2 cup chopped nuts,
•  1-3 tsp sugar,
•  olive oil or sesame oil, etc.

This is a great, easy flat bread recipe that makes a delicious side dish to any meal. These can be used for making pita sandwiches, pizza or pretty much anything.

Prep Time: 15 minutes
Cook Time: 5 minutes
Total Time: 20 minute
Yield: Makes 6 or 8 breads

Ingredients:
•  3 cups all purpose flour  (or use Self Rising flour and skip the Baking Powder or Baking Soda)
•  1 cup water
•  3 tablespoons cooking oil /shortening
•  1 teaspoon salt,
•  2 teaspoons baking powder
•  pinch of baking soda
•  Any extra ingredients are added to the flat bread dough for flavor and to create variety. Some flat breads are even stuffed (see list above)

Preparation:
1. 
Combine the dry ingredients then add the water and form into a dough. Use small amounts of flour to keep the dough from being too sticky.
2.  Form dough balls a little larger than a golf ball.
3.  Roll dough into a circle about 1/8 inch thick-a thin round disk 5-7 inches in diameter.
4.  Prick the surface of the dough with a fork and cook on an oiled, medium heat griddle/skillet.
5.  Turn with a spatula. Watch these flat bread disks closely because they cook fast. Serve warm.

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Soda crackers
Ingredients
•  2 cups flour
•  1/2 cup butter (or margarine)
•  3/8 cup milk (3 oz)
•  1/2 teaspoon vinegar
•  1/4 teaspoon baking soda
•  1/4 teaspoon salt

Preparation
1. 
Work the butter into the flour with a fork or pastry cutter.
2.  To the milk, add the vinegar, baking soda, and salt. Then add this to the butter-flour mixture.
3.  Form the dough into a ball.
4.  Roll out the dough very thin – directly onto a flat non-greased baking sheet, make it in a rectangle or square as much as possible.
5.  Next, place a ruler on the dough, and perforate the dough along the side of the ruler with a fork (Scoring the dough to the size of the cracker you desire). With a fork, poke 4 sets of holes in each cracker.
6.  Wipe the top surface with a little water on your finger and lightly sprinkle with salt.
7.  Bake the crackers at 375° F for about 12 to 15 minutes or until crisp. The crackers should not get too brown, just a sprinkling of brown on top.
8.  Remove from oven and cool, cut along score marks into cracker sizes. If not crisp, bake an additional 10 min at 360° F.

Nutrition
297 calories, 16g fat, 33g carbohydrates, 5g protein per serving.
This recipe makes 12 crackers
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Graham Crackers
Ingredients
•  2 cup  Whole wheat flour
•  1/4 tsp  Salt
•  1/4 tsp  Baking powder
•  1/4 tsp  Cinnamon
•  3 Tbls  Butter
•  1/8 cup  Honey
•  1/8 cup water

 Preparation
• 
Sift together flour, salt, baking powder, and cinnamon into a bowl.
•  Melt together the butter and honey. Pour into dry ingredients
•  Mix with a fork, then push the dough together with your hands. Don’t knead or over mix.
•  Place the dough on a well-floured surface, and roll it out very thin, with a well-floured rolling pin to not more than 1/8 inch thick.
•  Cut rectangles (approximately 1-1/4 x 3 inches) with a knife, and prick them with a fork.
•  Place on a lightly-greased baking tray, and bake for just 10 minutes in a 375 degrees F. oven.
•  Cool on a rack. Tends to continue drying as it sits.

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Wasa Crispbread: for everyday use and as an emergency bread reserve.
Crispbread has been baked in Sweden by Wasabröd since 1919, and is now sold in over 40 countries around the world. The crispbread dates back to medieval times when it was baked in Sweden and Finland to preserve the crop over the long and cold winters.
Wasabröd crisp bread has a shelf-life of approximately 12 months under normal storage conditions.

Wasa Crispbreads are a healthy alternative to loaf bread and are available in a variety of flavors. They have the  crisp texture of a cracker, are made with whole grains and low in fat, and they leave you feeling satisfied. When eaten with other nutrient-rich foods, they become part of a healthy diet packed with vitamins, minerals, fiber and other nutrients.  They are versatile, healthy and delicious, and can be eaten instead of bread at breakfast, lunch and dinner, or as a light snack. You can use the crisp breads to replace crackers with soups, salads, or for your favorite toppings. You can combine the crunch of Wasa Crispbread with spreads, meat, cheese, or fruits and vegetables. Just consider them somewhere between a slice of bread and a cracker, a tasty food product that can also be stored for a year.

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