Category Archives: ___c) General Clinic

Home medicine cabinet & medication expiry notes

Survival Manual/6. Medical/ c) General clinic/Medical & expiry notes

The home medicine chest (for when times are good)

What you need
•  A tube of antibiotic ointment for cuts and scrapes. If the tube touches an infected cut (especially one that’s full of pus), toss it and buy a new one.
•  A box of alcohol wipes. They’re much safer to have around than a bottle of rubbing alcohol, which is poisonous if swallowed. Use them to clean thermometers and the skin around wounds (stick to soap and water on open cuts,
since alcohol hurts).
•  Anti-diarrheal to relieve stomach upsets.
•  Antiseptic cream or liquid for cleaning cuts and  grazes.
•  Adhesive tape to secure bandages and dressings.
•  Aspirin/paracetamol/ibuprofen to relieve pain.
•  Cough formulas – chesty/dry/tickly.
•  Decongestants for stuffed, blocked nose.
•  Disposable gloves to protect against infection.
•  Hydrocortisone cream for bites & stings.
•  Mild laxatives to counter constipation.
•  Sharp scissors (with rounded ends).
•  Sun protection lotion (SPF 20 or higher).
•  Thermometer to monitor temperature (with sanitary sleeves).
•  Topical treatment for muscular pain.
•  Tweezers for removing foreign bodies
•  Anti-diarrhea medication. Your doctor may suggest this for mild cases of diarrhea.
[Photo above:  One of my two home medical cabinets, ca 2009.]

What to throw out:
By law, an over-the-counter medication must have an expiration date based on when it may have only 90 percent of its original potency. Check your medicine cabinet periodically, and discard pills in the toilet (not the bathroom trash can); pour liquids down the drain.
•  Any expired prescription drug (especially antibiotics  — some may be ineffective or even unsafe)
•  Any medicine that has changed color or developed a “funny” smell
•  Other products that may simply not work as well after their expiration dates: Painkillers, decongestants, cough suppressants, and other OTC medicines won’t be dangerous, but they may be slightly less potent.
•  Sunscreen should not be kept longer than three years (it can lose its effectiveness even earlier if regularly exposed to extreme heat).

Medication Expiration Dates
For further information on expiry dates read: <>
1.  A report of the American Medical Association (AMA) notes that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) “were unaware of any comprehensive studies that addressed the clinical impact of pharmaceutical dates and no such studies were found in the peer-reviewed scientific literature” (AMA, 2008).
2.  In everyday terms, a medication expiration date is the point at which a batch of drugs has reached the end of the longest period of time the manufacturer has tested the continued potency and safety of
a medication. This process is known as stability testing.
3.  There are a couple of things to note here. First, the manufacturer is only required to provide testing results to the FDA for the duration at which it tested a drug; it is not required to test a drug until it is no longer viable. Say the company tests a drug’s stability at two years on the shelf and determines that the drug has no changes at this point. Then the FDA will require the company to stamp the packaging with an expiration date two years from the date of manufacture. Is the drug still good after that date? Well, it wasn’t tested — so no one can say for sure.
4.  What little I did find in the research journals all essentially referenced one long-term study conducted by the FDA at the request of the military. In 2000, Laurie P. Cohen in an article for the Wall Street Journal reported that between 1993 and 1998, the military had the FDA test more than 100 drugs –- both prescription and over-the-counter –- finding that 90% of these medications were safe and effective far past their original expiration date. In some cases, eight to fifteen years beyond their expiration dates. By 2008, the number of tested medications was up to 312.
As per Joel Davis, a former FDA expiration-date compliance chief, “most drugs are probably as durable as those the agency has tested for the military” (Altschuler in Kramer, 2003). Noted exceptions to this include nitroglycerin, insulin and some liquid antibiotics.
6.  “Wisdom dictates that if your life does depend on an expired drug, and you must have 100% or so of its original strength, you should probably toss it and get a refill, in accordance with the cliché, “better safe than sorry.” If your life does not depend on an expired drug –- such as that for headaches, hay fever, or menstrual cramps –- take it and see what happens” (Altschuler in Kramer, 2003). Pasted from <>
7.  “In a study conducted by the FDA on a large stockpile of medications purchased by the military, 90% of more than 100 medications were safe and effective to use years after the expiration date. More recently, the FDA approved two-year extensions on expiration dates for a number of drugs, including the antibiotics Cipro (ciprofloxacin), penicillin, and tetracycline; the Tagamet (antiulcer/antireflux drug
 cimetidine); and Valium (diazepam), a tranquilizer. The drugs in the FDA study, however, were stored under ideal conditions — not in a bathroom medication cabinet, where heat and humidity can cause drugs to degrade”.

Note: You spend 90% of your health care dollars in the last year of your life. Insurance is something you buy that covers unlikely, but catastrophically expensive events.  End-of-life costs are not unlikely, they are inevitable. Tell your homeowners insurance company that you will have a fire that consumes your home within the next 10 years and then try to price that insurance.

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Pandemic fears good for the pharmaceutical industry?

(Survival Manual/6. Medical/c) General Clinic/Pandemic fears good for the pharmaceutical industry?)

1.  Data the drug industry would prefer you didn’t see
Child Health Safety,  Vaccines Did Not Save Us – 2 Centuries of Official Statistics.   <;

This is the data the drug industry do not want you to see. Here are two centuries of UK, USA and Australian official death statistics which show conclusively and scientifically, that modern medicine is not responsible for and played little part in substantially improved life expectancy and survival from disease in western economies.

The main advances in combating disease over 200 years have been [1]  better food and [2] clean drinking water.  [3] Improved sanitation, [4] less overcrowded and [5] better living conditions also contribute. This is also borne out in published peer-reviewed research:

•  Measles was one of the very potent infectious killers. As the graph clearly shows deaths were rampant throughout the 1800s and then began a rapid decline and virtually became a relatively benign disease by the mid 1900s causing very few deaths. By the time the measles vaccine was introduced approximately in 1968 the death rate for measles had fallen by over 99%. [Graph below]

•  Whooping cough, also known as pertussis, was an infectious killer on par with measles killing many people throughout the 1800s. Similar to measles a slow and steady decline began in the late 1800s
becoming much less of a deadly threat by the mid 1900s. By the time the whooping-cough vaccine was introduced the 1950s the death rate had also fallen by over 99%. [Graph below]

•  Scarlet fever was twice the killer that measles and whooping-cough were during the 1800s. Similar to measles and whooping-cough, scarlet fever also made a rapid fall in death rate starting in the late 1800s and becoming virtually benign by the mid 1900s. Although a scarlet fever vaccine was patented in 1924 it was never in widespread use.
•  Smallpox was a lesser killer than measles, whooping-cough, or scarlet fever, but was still an important agent of mortality.
Smallpox, like scarlet fever, became exceptionally deadly periodically interestingly in somewhat synchronized with scarlet fever. In the late 1700s a man by the name of Edward Jenner created a vaccine he believed would protect against smallpox. Jenner believed that if he could inject someone with cowpox, the germs from the cowpox would make the body able to defend itself against the dangerous smallpox. However for the next 80 years despite strong vaccination laws in England smallpox continued to take many lives culminating with a massive smallpox pandemic in 1872. Again, similar to the other infectious diseases already discussed the death rate from smallpox finally began to decline by the late 1800s and became less of a killer by the early 1900s.

This historic research shown in the form of these graphs clearly demonstrates that vaccines were not the key factors in the reduction in deaths from these deadly diseases. Both whooping-cough and measles death rates had fallen by 99% before the introduction of vaccines. A much bigger killer, scarlet fever, had its death rate also decline into virtual obscurity without the use of any vaccine. Smallpox remained a significant killer despite having a vaccine in use for approximately 80 years and then that disease’s death rate declined along at the same time as the other infectious diseases.

Can “vaccinatable” diseases “return” despite vaccination?  Yes.  If you are too poorly nourished your body is likely to lack essential nutrients needed to maintain its immune system sufficiently to withstand disease.  This will happen regardless of how many vaccinations you have had.  This was experienced in Eastern Europe following the collapse of the old Soviet Bloc and the economic chaos which ensued, leaving many in great poverty.
For the same reason vaccines do not “work” and “save” lives in impoverished African and other third world economies.  The majority of third world child deaths still occur despite vaccination.  These children need proper food, clean water to drink and wash in, and sanitation.  We give them vaccines instead. [Think about what this means to your community’s health if the electric grid infrastructure is down for an appreciable amount of time, say, for several months. Mr Larry]

2.  The Great 1918 Flu Pandemic Was Not Due to Flu … or A Virus
Apr-14-2011, J Holcombe, D Jacobson for
“A Press Release, issued by NIAID contains a striking finding and conclusion: The 20 to 40 million deaths worldwide from the great 1918 Influenza (”Flu”) Pandemic were NOT due to “flu” or a virus, but to pneumonia caused by massive bacterial infection.” William Engdahl

(LONDON) – From Engdahl’s work:
“One of the most terrifying images that has been used by spokesmen for WHO, by the pharma industry and various beneficiaries of the current “swine flu” panic is that of the 1918 “Spanish Flu” which is said to have resulted in more deaths than all World War I. Was it really a flu? Broxmeyer is convinced as others that it wasn’t.

“Lawrence Broxmeyer believes that the 1918 pandemic was due to bacteria, particularly  mutant forms of flu-like fowl, swine, bovine, and human tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. “These forms of tuberculosis are often viral-like, mutate frequently and can “skip” from one species to another. Moreover the antibodies from such viral TB forms react in the compliment fixation and later “viral” assays. They also grow on cultures which are supposed to grow only viruses,” he notes.

The NIAID press release dovetails with firsthand accounts –  of many kinds of leftover (potentially spoiled) vaccines the pharmaceutical industry wanted to offload after WWI, being forced on soldiers, as well as of aspirin use suppressing immunity and leading to pneumonias, as detailed in Saying Goodbye to Fear of the 1918 Flu.

[Photo at right 1918 flu pandemic. Could  the massive flu deaths of WWI have a direct relationship to Gulf War Disease?]

“I heard that seven men dropped dead in a doctor’s office after being vaccinated. This was in an army camp, so I wrote to the Government for verification. They sent me the report of U.S. Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson. The report not only verified the report of the seven who dropped dead from the vaccines, but it stated that there had been 63 deaths and 28,585 cases of hepatitis as a direct result of  the yellow fever vaccine during only 6 months of the war. That was only one of the 14 to 25 shots given the soldiers. We can imagine the damage that all these shots did to the men.
[Imagine 14-25 different ‘dead virus’s’ injected into your body in a short period of time. Global diseases experts point out that the modern flu can go around from pig to bird to man (Avain flu and Pig flu), becoming more dangerous and more contagious. What kind of pathogenesis might occur within  your body from its dealing with, and the interaction of 14-25 ‘dead viruses? Such vaccinations were deemed ‘safe;’ by the government and medical profession ca 1918. Today, similar, and other practices, may be seen as safe, yet the future may prove them wrongful as well. Are you interested in being part of the grand experiment? Think, before doing. A single vaccination now and again is one thing, ‘efficient, multiple vaccinations’ may be quite another. Just as we look back at the primitive medical profession of the early 1900s, in 100 years from now, future people will likewise look back at our practices and shake their heads with an incredulous smirk.]

“All the doctors and people who were living at the time of the 1918 Spanish Influenza epidemic say it was the most terrible disease the world has ever had [seen]. Strong men, hale and hearty, one day would be dead the next. The disease had the characteristics of the black death added to typhoid, diphtheria, pneumonia, smallpox, paralysis and all the diseases the people had been vaccinated with immediately following World War 1. Practically the entire population had been injected “seeded” with a dozen or more diseases — or toxic serums. When all those doctor-made diseases started breaking out all at once it was tragic.”

Could such a conglomeration of 14-25 vaccines trigger what Broxmeyer suspects – “particularly mutant forms of flu-like fowl, swine, bovine, and human tuberculosis (TB) bacteria”?

And if there were no virus that caused the 1918 “flu,” then how could another pandemic – avian, swine or otherwise – occur that is linked to the 1918 virus?

From an interview with German physician, Dr. Stephan Lanka, virologist:
“Dr Jeffery Taubenberger, from whom the allegation of a reconstruction of the 1918 pandemic virus originates, works for the US-American army and has worked for more than 10 years on producing, on the basis of samples from different human corpses, short pieces of gene substance by means of the biochemical multiplication technique PCR. Out of the multitude of produced pieces he has selected those which came closest to the model of the genetic substance of  the idea of an influenza virus, and has published these.

“In no corpse however was a virus seen or isolated or was a piece of gene substance from a such isolated. By means of the PCR technique there were produced out of nothing pieces of gene substance whose earlier existence in the corpse could not be demonstrated.

“If viruses had been present, then these could have been isolated, and out of them their gene substance could have been isolated too; there would have been no necessity for anyone to produce laboriously, by means of PCR technique – with clearly a swindle intention – a patchwork quilt of a model of the genetic
substance of the idea of an influenza virus. ….

“In order to see through this swindle one only has to be able to add up the published length pieces, in order to ascertain that the sum of the lengths of the individual pieces, which supposedly makes up the entire viral gene substance of the purported influenza virus, does not make up the length of the idea of the genome of the influenza virus model.

“Even simpler it is to ask in what publication you can find the electron microscope photo of this supposedly reconstructed virus. There is no such publication.”

Is WHO covering up a tuberculosis epidemic with fake H1N1 panic?, William Engdahl wrote,

Dr. Robert Donaldson, of the Pathological Society of Great Britain has concluded that there wasn’t “the slightest shred of evidence” that the 1918 disease was due to a “virus” or influenza.
When questioned regarding the electron pictograph of H1N1 that the CDC recently came up with on their website, … German virologist Dr Stefan Lanka, an expert on the documentation of viruses, attest[ed] to the fact that the H1N1 picture was bogus.
“The virologist wrote that he had “written the CDC many times as to who made the H1N1 photo’s and whether they where scientifically documented as to chemical characteristics and other properties.” There was never any reply.

“He concluded “If CDC refuses to cite the source of the photos,  they are fake.”  … In conclusion, without the isolation of the H1N1, there is no H1N1 infecting virus” …

“Even more bizarre is the admission by the US Government’s Food and Drug Administration … that the ‘test’ approved for premature release to test for H1N1 is not even a proven test. “More to the point … there is no forensic evidence in any of the deaths reported to date that has been presented that proves scientifically that any single death being attributed to H1N1 Swine Flu virus was indeed caused by such
a virus.”

The projection of a swine flu virus potentially killing millions worldwide, rested on the 1918 flu which was not caused by a flu (or virus).  That was the terrorizing basis on which the WHO urged new, untested H1N1 vaccines on the world. The WHO and media suggested that the avian flu was a new deadly virus that, like the 1918 flu, threatened a worldwide pandemic with millions of deaths.  Professor Albert Osterhaus at the WHO, nicknamed “Dr. Flu,” the central figure internationally in promoting the idea of pandemics that would kill millions, was exposed by Dutch media as having financial interests in vaccine development.

From WHO, ‘Mr Flu’ under investigation for gross conflict of interest  by William Engdahl
“More careful investigation into the Osterhaus Affair suggests that the world-renowned Dutch Virologist may be at the very center of a multi-billion Euro pandemic fraud which has used human beings in effect as human guinea pigs with untested vaccines and in cases now emerging resulting in deaths or severe
bodily paralysis or injury.”  ….”

In the following two sentences, Osterhaus builds to the idea of a deadly pandemic using one non-fact after another  and goes on from there to project its spread to Europe.  In suggesting a deadly threat to the entire world, he uses no facts.  He does, though, include the words “indeed” and “real.

“… if the virus manages indeed to, to mutate itself  [Indeed:”in fact; in reality; in truth; truly (used for emphasis, to confirm and amplify a previous  statement, to indicate aconcession or admission, or, interrogatively, to obtain confirmation.]

in such a way that it can transmit from human to human, then we have a completely different situation, we might be at the start of the pandemic.”

” … there is a real chance that this virus could be trafficked by the birds all the way to Europe. 

There is a real risk, but nobody can estimate the risk at this moment, because we haven’t done the experiments.”  …. 

Engdahl again:
Osterhaus claimed that bird feces were the source, via air bombardment or droppings, onto populations and birds below, of the spread of the deadly new Asian strain of H5N1. There was only one problem with the now voluminous frozen samples of diverse bird excrement he and his associated had collected and frozen at his institute. There was not one single confirmed example of H5N1 virus found in any of his samples.

“Not only was Osterhaus in a key position to advocate the panic-inducing WHO “Pandemic emergency” declaration. He was also chairman of the leading private European Scientific Working group on Influenza, which describes itself as a “multidisciplinary group of key opinion leaders in influenza [that] aims to combat the impact of epidemic and pandemic influenza.” Osterhaus’ ESWI is the vital link as they themselves describe it “between the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin and the University of Connecticut, USA.”

“What is more significant about the ESWI is that its work is entirely financed by the same pharma mafia companies that make billions on the pandemic emergency as governments around the world are compelled to buy and stockpile vaccines on declaration of a WHO Pandemic. The funders of ESWI include H1N1 vaccine maker Novartis, Tamiflu distributor, Hofmann-La Roche, Baxter Vaccines, MedImmune, GlaxoSmithKline, Sanofi Pasteur and others.

“There were no mass deaths from Avian flu, but Roche and GSK made fortunes from sale of anti-viral drugs.

Continuing from the interview  with Dr. Lanka:
[1] “The politicians and the media are taking it upon themselves to delude us into believing everything, for instance, delude us into believing that migratory birds in Asia have been infected with an extremely dangerous, deadly virus.
[2] “These mortally diseased birds then keep flying for weeks on end.
[3] They fly thousands of kilometres, and then in Rumania, in Turkey, Greece
[4] and elsewhere infect hens, geese or other poultry, with which they have had no contact,
[5] and which within a very short time get diseased and die.

“….Anyone who believes this will believe too that babies are brought by the stork. In fact the larger part of people in Germany do believe in a danger from bird flu, don’t they[?].

“Is there, then, no bird flu at all?

“Since the late 19th century, diseases of poultry in mass animal farming have been observed: Blue coloring of the crest, decrease in egg laying performance, sagging of the feathers, and sometimes these animals die too. These diseases were called bird pest.

“In present-day mass poultry farming, in particular when hens are being raised in cages, many animals die each day as a result of species-alien animal farming. Later, these consequences of the mass animal farming were no longer called bird pest, but bird flu. Since decades back, we are experiencing that a transferable virus is being maintained as the cause of this, in order to deflect from the actual causes.

“Then those 100 million hens which appear to have died from bird flu in reality have died from stress or and/or from nourishment deficiency and poisoning?

“No! If one hen lies fewer eggs or gets a blue crest and that hen is tested H5N1-positive too, then all the other hens are gassed. That is how there got to be those 100 million apparently H5N1-killed hens.

The “bird flu” generated billions in profit to the pharmaceutical industry, while on the animal side, it made and makes huge profits for agribusiness.  (A true distinction between these industries doesn’t really exist since the pharmaceutical industry supplies animal vaccines and drugs, GE-hormones, and
 antibiotics added to animal feed derived from GMOs and pesticides they are involved in producing.

“If you look at this more closely, then you see behind it a several-decades-long strategy: In the West,
the big enterprises are cleaning … up with this, because those animals which have died “from the contagious disease” are being compensated for at the expense of the general public, at the highest market price, while in Asia and everywhere where poultry are being farmed successfully, the poultry market there is being destroyed maliciously and on purpose under the leadership of the UN organization FAO.

“All big Western poultry farming enterprises, … if the market price for poultry sinks, they get an infectious disease diagnosed, so that they can get their animals sold at a higher price than would be possible with normal farming, “taken care of” at the governmentally guaranteed maximum price,  and all the animals in one single batch too.

“To bring it to the common denominator: It’s modern subvention (“grant of financial aid as from a government …”) scamming combined with paralyzing scaremongering, which as a secondary effect guarantees that nobody asks for proof.

“Of what did those 61 persons die who were demonstrated to have H5N1?

“There is only very little in the way of publicly available reports, describing what were the symptoms and how these persons were then treated. These cases clearly point in one direction: Persons with symptoms of a cold, who then had the bad luck to fall into the hands of H5N1 hunters, were killed with enormous amounts of chemotherapy supposed to restrain the phantom virus. Isolated in plastic tents, surrounded by madmen in space suits, they died, in panicky fear, from multiple organ failures.

“In the media, photos of bird flu viruses and influenza viruses constantly are being shown. Some of these photos show round formations. Are those not viruses?
“No! ….
“If you ask the picture agencies or a news agency such as the dpa from where they are getting these
 photos of theirs, then they will refer you to the American contagious-disease authority the CDC of the Pentagon. From this CDC it is that the only photo of the purported H5N1 originates too.”

The WHO and CDC are still urging H1N1 vaccines and flu vaccines (which contain the H1N1 vaccine), based on fear it could kill as the 1918 virus did, and on the avian flu as proof of deadly viruses leaping from animals to humans, able to strike at any moment, potentially killing many millions – as the 1918 virus was supposed to have done.

But there is no evidence for a virus in any of those cases: no evidence for a 1918 virus, no evidence of a H5N1 virus bolstered by spurious photos from the CDC, and no evidence of an H1N1 virus but fake photos and wildly false data from the CDC.

Based on almost a century of falsely believing the 1918 catastrophe was caused by a virus when it was not, the world has been terrorized into believing it could come back.

The bird and mammalian species took hold on the earth approximately 65 million years ago, i.e. the same time as the dinosaurs went extinct. So did the flu and other viruses of all the surviving species. Since then, all those viruses have been mating and mutating among themselves without the sky caving in due to any infection. Therefore, any talk of a bird or swine flu pandemic with the probability to kill millions of people is either a purposeful or hallucinogenic nonsense to make profit on the backs of the innocent following.
Shiv Chopra (microbiologist, veterinarian, Health Canada food safety and vaccine expert)

Truth Comes Out: 2009 H1N1 Flu Pandemic ‘deaths’ of Children Were Actually Caused by MRSA
November 8, 2011, International Business Times, By Natural News

(NaturalNews) Remember two years ago when every news show featured hysterical reports about the so-called H1N1 pandemic and how the supposed killer flu was striking down healthy kids? True, many previously healthy children became critically ill, developing severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. And some tragically died after being diagnosed with H1N1. But was that really the accurate explanation of what caused their death?
According to the largest nationwide investigation to date of the flu in children who became critically ill, scientists from Children’s Hospital Boston have found another reason to explain the severity of the youngsters illness. It turns out that it most likely wasn’t H1N1 alone that caused healthy children to become so ill many died.
Instead, these kids were unknowingly infected with something else. That additional infection, the superbug known as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), spiked the risk for flu-related deaths 8-fold in children who were otherwise believed to be totally healthy before they became ill.
Almost all of these children who were found to be infected with the superbug were immediately treated with vancomycin, considered to be best treatment for MRSA. Yet they died despite being administered this powerful antibiotic and their deaths were blamed on the flu. But the new research suggests it was the MRSA that played a huge role in killing these children.

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Eyeglass repair & emergency glasses

(Survival manual/6.Medical/c) General clinic/ Eyeglass repair & emergency glasses)

How to Repair Broken Eyeglasses at Home
eHow Health
<> Some eyeglass frame repairs are done easily at home.
You can repair your broken eyeglass frames at home if necessary. Most repairs are considered temporary and are done to help you get by until your eye care practitioner replaces your frame or glasses with new ones. Several do-it-yourself repairs are done easily with just a few tools and items you probably already own. Fix your own eyeglasses at home in just a few steps.

Things you’ll need:
•  Small screwdriver
•  Tape
•  Pliers
•  Eyeglass repair kit ( ~$4.10)
•  Towel
•  Nail polish remover
•  Fast bonding glue

1.   Spread a towel over your work area surface. In case any small parts fall, you will find them easier. Replace any missing screws. Tighten all screws by placing the frame so it is resting on your work surface with the head of the screw pointing up. Some frames have screws on the bottom side of the frame, slightly hidden. Check all sides of the frame for hidden screws. Inexpensive eyeglass repair kits are sold in most major department stores and optical retail shops and contain different sizes and types of screws commonly used in most eyeglass frames, and small screwdrivers.
2.   Reattach broken temples, the part of the frame that rests on your ear, or hinges with glue. Be sure to clean off any old glue from previous repairs with nail polish remover. Frame parts are either metal or plastic. Use the proper type of glue designed for the material you are repairing.
The hinge holds the front of the frame to the temples. The broken hinge may be attached to the front of the frame or to the temple. Use a toothpick and dab a little glue in the hole where the hinge fits. Insert the hinge and hold for 60 seconds. Depending on the repair, you may not be able to open and close the temple once the hinge is adhered. Use caution when taking your glasses on and off.
3.   Fix bent metal frames by reshaping the end piece, located at the outer edge of the top of the frame front. This holds the temples to the front of the frame and can become bent. Cover the pliers’ tips with tape to prevent scratching the metal frame. Grasp the front of the frame with one hand and cover the end piece with the pliers’ tips and compress gently. Bend slightly to widen or tighten the end piece.
4.   Repair a broken bridge, the part of a metal or plastic frame that sits on the nose, with tape or glue. Tape is a temporary fix and is bulky and unsightly, but does work in emergencies. Wrap tape tightly around the two pieces of broken frame until the frame feels stable. Have someone else hold the frame while you wrap the tape. Glue is also used to hold broken plastic frames at the bridge but does not hold long. Be careful not to get glue on your lenses.

A.  How to Repair Eyeglass Temples
eHow Health
Repair eyeglasses at home for a temporary fix.
Broken eyeglasses can ruin your day, but when immediate repair by an optician is not possible, some eyeglass problems can be mended at home, including damaged temples. Always bring them to an optician, as poorly repaired eyeglasses can result in additional vision problems or discomfort. Use these repair tips for temporary fixes.
Things you’ll need:
•  Eyeglass screws
•  Eyeglass repair kit, including tiny flat-head screwdriver
•  Lighter
•  Hot glue gun
1. Replace Screws
__a) Examine the screws that join the temples and front of your eyeglasses. Different-sized screws are used in different glasses, but eyeglass repair kits available at drug or grocery stores contain screws of various sizes.
__b) Compare the size of the screws you have purchased to the loose or broken screw in your glasses. If the screw was lost, base the size of the replacement on the size of the joint.
__c) Align the frame with the edge of the temple. The joint holes should match. Insert the screw into the joint. Tighten with the tiny screwdriver included in the
eyeglass repair kit.

2.  Steam the plastic
__a) Use heat to fix temples of plastic glasses that have been bent out of shape. While wearing gloves to protect your hands, hold the frame over boiling water. Allow steam to heat the temple.
__b) Gently touch the plastic with your thumb and forefinger to test malleability.
__c) Shape the temple as it was before it was damaged. Continue to check heat and malleability levels as you do. The temple also can be replaced with an identical or similar piece from another pair of glasses.

3.  Use hot glue
__a) Use a hot glue gun to repair metal frames when the temple is broken in two. Allow the glue gun to heat according to directions.
__b) Squeeze the handle, placing heated glue on one piece of the temple.

• Tips & Warnings: If you have non-metal frames and are not sure that your frames are plastic, do not attempt to heat them. Some frames may appear to be plastic, but are made from less malleable materials.

B.  How to Repair a Broken Eyeglass Frame
Repair a Broken Eyeglass Frame
With the help of an inexpensive eyeglass repair kit, you can perform minor repairs on eyeglass frames. The kits are sold at drugstores and hardware stores.
Things you’ll need:
•  Fast-bonding Glue
•  Orthodontic Rubber Bands
•  Magnifying Glass
•  Clear Nail Polish
•  Eyeglass Repair Kit And/or Miniature Safety Pin
•  Toothpick
•  Pliers With Tape On Tips
1. Examine the cause of the problem with a magnifying glass. Is the hinge stretched out? Is the screw loose or missing? Did the hinge break off?
2. If the hinge is stretched out, cover the tips of a pair of pliers with masking or duct tape to avoid scratching the frames and then use the pliers to bend the hinge gently back into place. Or slide an orthodontic rubber band (available from dentists) or a small rubber ring (an eyeglass repair kit may include this) over the loose hinge to hold it in place.
3. If the screw is loose, tighten it with a tiny screwdriver from the eyeglass repair kit. The tip of a paring knife will serve as a screwdriver in a pinch.
4. If the screw is lost, replace it with one of the screws from the kit, or slip a miniature safety-pin into the screw hole and close it. If the repair kit’s screw does not fit into the hole, do not force it, as that might strip the threads inside the frame.
5. Dab a tiny bit of clear nail polish on the hinge screw once you’ve tightened it to hold the screw in place. Let dry.
6. If the metal hinge has broken off the frame, wash both surfaces and scrape away any paint or old glue. Then use a toothpick to dab fast-bonding glue to the break. Hold the pieces in place for 60 seconds to allow the glue to dry.
7. If the earpiece keeps slipping off the frame or has broken off, re-adhere it with fast-bonding glue. If you get the glue on your skin, wipe it off with acetone-based nail-polish remover.

C.   How to Repair Eyeglasses With a Broken Bridge
Repair the broken bridge on your eyeglasses.
The bridge of your eyeglasses provides nearly 90 percent of the weight of your eyeglasses. So when the bridge breaks, your eyeglasses will be useless. The bridge is vulnerable to breakage, and permanent repairs are difficult to make on your own. A professional should make permanent repairs to eyeglasses; otherwise your vision can be impaired. You can make temporary repairs however, until you can take your glasses to an optician or replace them with a new pair of eyeglasses.
Things you’ll need:
•  Adhesive tape
•   Glue gun and glue stick
•  Super Glue or Gorilla Glue
•  Scissors
•  Aluminum foil
1.  Wrap the bridge of your eyeglasses in adhesive tape or a hypo-allergenic tape that won’t irritate sensitive skin. Cut a one-inch section of tape with scissors. Hold the bridge together with one hand while your wrap the tape carefully with the other around the broken bridge. Overlap the tape tightly as you wrap it.
2.  Glue the bridge of your eyeglasses together with a hot glue gun and glue stick so that the break won’t be so visible. Put a glue stick in the glue gun and plug it in. Set the glasses on a heat-proof surface, like a piece of aluminum foil. Wait until the glue stick has begun to melt in the glue gun. You can tell by pressing the trigger; you should see some glue coming from the nozzle. Hold the bridge together with one hand while pressing the trigger on the glue gun and applying hot glue to the broken ends of the bridge. Hold the bridge in place with both hands, and press together for one minute or until the glue dries.
3.  Glue the bridge of your eyeglasses together with Superglue, Gorilla Glue or other semi-permanent glue that works on plastic. Hold the glasses together with one hand over a piece of aluminum foil while squeezing glue on the broken bridge. Hold the bridge together with both hands for about one minute until the glue dries.

Emergency Glasses
Paddling Net, by Tom Watson
Without glasses, my entire mid to long-distance view is fuzzier than green bologna in the back of the ‘frig. If I were to lose or damage my glasses on a kayaking trip, I would be dead in the water as far as being able to do many activities. I am therefore diligent in bringing an extra pair – even if the prescription is a bit old – on a trip, just in case!
But what can you do should you lose or destroy the only spectacles you have? A classic Twilight Zone episode features a lone survivor of a nuclear attack. He is an avid reader who finds years worth of books undamaged in the city library. Soon after stockpiling a decade’s supply of volumes he accidentally drops and breaks his thick reading glasses. Should you ever find yourself in a similar predicament (broken glasses, that is) don’t worry; if you have duct tape, some wire or a big needle (or a sharp hawthorn or locust thorn handy) you can create a usable pair of glasses.
These glasses will be similar to Eskimo “snow goggles” made of slats of bone or other materials. The wearer would look through a narrow, horizontal slit in the eye slat. This minimized the amount of sunlight and reflective glare entering the eye from the white snowy surface below.

These emergency glasses are designed to restore a bit of your sight by working on the principle of the pinhole camera. The pinhole captures only certain straight rays of light that focus on the retina of the eye (or on the film plane of a pinhole camera). Align several of these pin holes onto an opaque surface and look through it, and voila! – each hole becomes a tiny lens offering a clearer image.
•  The first step is to take a 12″ – 14″ piece of 2″ duct tape, fold it in half lengthwise and press the adhesive backs together.
•  Step two starts by finding the center of the strip and cutting out a nose notch, then measure equally out from the notch to the center of each eye. Mark each center for the field of holes you’ll be punching through the tape.
•  Next, get a piece of wire the size of a large paper clip. In an emergency consider a large thorn from a locust or hawthorn tree. The more perfectly round each hole is, and the cleaner the edges, the better it acts like the lens on a pinhole camera.
•  You want to make a field of holes at least as wide and high as your eye is round. My pair has eight rows with about 10 holes in each row. The rows are about 1/8″ across and the holes are about 1/8″ apart. I staggered each row of hole just like the stars on the American flag are staggered. I used the heated tip of a large needle to make the holes quickly and cleanly.
There are many materials out of which this eye strip can be made. As long as you can create rows of uniform, clean-edged holes, you can use anything stiff enough, yet pliable to be worn as a mask over the eyes. Doubling a strip of duct tape back on itself gives you a perfect thickness to create these glasses.
•  You then tie on a piece of string or shoelace to each outside corner of the “glasses” and then tie the mask in place across your eyes. Finally, adjust the ban so each eye can look directly out through the field of small holes. Once in place you should see things clearly although you might have little halos around images and other visual “ghosts” but they are clear enough that you can read what would otherwise be quite blurry.
Also of interest is that the farther away the viewed object is, the less the pinholes are noticed. The honeycomb effect of the holes is more noticeable when viewing a book held close to the eyes, because the eyes are focused just a short distance in front of the glasses. When looking at a distant TV, however, the holes are hardly visible at all since the eyes are focused much farther away. Also, because of the distance, you can view the entire TV screen through one hole, an obvious benefit.
Getting back to the snow blindness goggles, the duct tape technique can also be used to make a similar pair of lenses to be worn against glare off the water. It’s not the fanciest piece of eye wear, but it is crudely functional. Besides, when you’ve got nothing else, these “glasses” can save your day.

Some advantages that pinholes have over prescription glasses
As we get into our 40’s and 50’s and inability to focus close develops, pinholes provide a simple and inexpensive solution for reading or other close work.
Bifocals or trifocals are designed to provide a clear image only at fixed distances. Pinholes provide an improved image at ALL distances. In many applications, such as alternating between watching TV and reading, they can easily take the place of those very expensive prescription lenses that are so lucrative for the anti-consumer eye doctor/optical industry alliance.
Multi-focal lenses provide a continuously variable curve that is supposed to give good vision at all distances. In reality, the distortion on either side of the center line is considerable and often too great for comfortable use. Pinholes eliminate this problem.
There is no need to continually throw away old glasses and buy new, stronger ones. Unless the pinholes break, they can be used an entire lifetime.
While pinholes are not as cheap as off-the-rack reading glasses, they are considerably cheaper than individual prescription glasses. For example, a person who is a little nearsighted but only needs clear distant vision for occasional TV viewing would find pinholes a cheaper solution than prescription glasses.
Off-the-rack reading glasses have the same lens power in each lens. Some people find these cheap glasses unsuitable because the refractive error in each eye is not the same. Pinholes are ideal for such people because these glasses do not require a similar refractive error in each eye.
There is a pincushion effect when looking through the edges of prescription glasses. That is, straight lines appear curved. This disturbing effect does not occur with pinholes.
When you lay prescription glasses down improperly, they can easily get scratched at the center of the lens, the very area you have to look through. Scratching pinholes has no effect on their performance.
Pinholes do not have to be cleaned of fingerprints and other marks that affect vision.
Using pinholes as sunglasses. Who could imagine that pinhole glasses could be better sunglasses than conventional sunglasses? Well, it’s true! This is such an intriguing and revolutionary concept that it deserves its own page. Don’t fail to read, Pinholes As Sunglasses.

Using pinholes as computer glasses. If you are looking for a way to reduce the visual stress of prolonged work at a computer, read Pinholes As Computer Glasses.
Pinholes cannot replace prescription glasses in every situation. People with over 6 diopters of myopia will probably not find pinholes useful, because pinholes cannot eliminate all of the blur. And just as it would be risky to wear ordinary glasses in situations where they could be broken and damage the eyes, there are situations where using pinholes instead of prescription glasses is not advisable. Use common sense and only wear the pinholes when the limited view does not pose a risk.


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(Survival manual/6. Medical/c) General clinic/Sprains)

A.  Sprain: First aid
Mayo Clinic Health Information
Your ligaments are tough, elastic-like bands that connect bone to bone and hold your joints in place. A sprain is an injury to a ligament caused by excessive stretching. The ligament can have a partial tear, or it can be completely torn apart.
Of all sprains, ankle and knee sprains occur most often. Sprained ligaments swell rapidly and are painful. Generally, the greater the pain, the more severe the injury is. For most minor sprains, you probably can treat the injury yourself.

General instructions for the, P.R.I.C.E., sprain treatment
1.  Protect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint. You can do this using anything from splints to crutches.
2.  Rest the injured limb. But don’t avoid all activity. Even with an ankle sprain, you can usually still exercise other muscles to minimize deconditioning. For example, you can use an exercise bicycle with arm exercise handles, working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on another part of the bike. That way you still get three-limb exercise to keep up your cardiovascular conditioning.
3.  Ice the area. Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. Try to ice the area as soon as possible after the injury and continue to ice it for 10 to 15 minutes four times a day for 48 hours. If you use ice, be careful not to use it too long, as this could cause tissue damage.
4.  Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best.
5.  Elevate the injured limb above your heart whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling.

After two days, gently begin using the injured area. You should feel a gradual, progressive improvement. Over-the-counter pain relievers, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), may be helpful to manage pain during the healing process.
See your doctor if your sprain isn’t improving after two or three days.

Get emergency medical assistance if:
•  You’re unable to bear weight on the injured leg, the joint feels unstable or you can’t use the joint. This may mean the ligament was completely torn. On the way to the doctor, apply a cold pack.
•  You have a fever higher than 100 F (37.8 C), and the area is red and hot. You may have an infection.
•  You have a severe sprain. Inadequate or delayed treatment may cause long-term joint instability or chronic pain.

B.  Knee injury
Mayo Clinic Health Information
Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. Knee pain may be the result of an injury, such as a ruptured ligament or torn cartilage. Medical conditions — including arthritis, gout and infections — also can cause knee pain.
Many types of minor knee pain respond well to self-care measures. Physical therapy and knee braces also can help relieve knee pain. In some cases, however, your knee may require surgical repair.

The location and severity of knee pain may vary, depending on the cause of the problem. Signs and symptoms that sometimes accompany knee pain include:
•   Swelling and stiffness
•  Redness and warmth to the touch
•  Weakness or instability
•  Popping or crunching noises
•  “Locking,” or inability to fully straighten the knee

When to see a doctor
•  Can’t bear weight on your knee
•  Have marked knee swelling
•  Are unable to fully extend or flex your knee
•  See an obvious deformity in your leg or knee
•  Have a fever, in addition to redness, pain and swelling in your knee
•  Fall because your knee “gives out”

Knee pain can be caused by injuries, mechanical problems, types of arthritis and other problems.
A knee injury can affect any of the ligaments, tendons or fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that surround your knee joint as well as the bones, cartilage and ligaments that form the joint itself. Some of the more common knee injuries include:
•  ACL injury. An ACL injury is the tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — one of four ligaments that connect your shinbone to your thighbone. An ACL injury is particularly common in people who play basketball or go downhill skiing, because it’s linked to sudden changes in direction.
•  Torn meniscus. The meniscus is formed of tough, rubbery cartilage and acts as a shock absorber between your shinbone and thighbone. It can be torn if you suddenly twist your knee while bearing weight on it.
•  Knee bursitis. Some knee injuries cause inflammation in the bursae, the small sacs of fluid that cushion the outside of your knee joint so that tendons and ligaments glide smoothly over the joint.
•  Patellar tendinitis. Tendinitis is irritation and inflammation of one or more tendons — the thick, fibrous cords that attach muscles to bones. Runners, skiers and cyclists are prone to develop inflammation in the patellar tendon, which connects the quadriceps muscle on the front of the thigh to the shinbone.

Mechanical problems
•  Loose body. Sometimes injury or degeneration of bone or cartilage can cause a piece of bone or cartilage to break off and float in the joint space. This may not create any problems unless the loose body interferes with knee-joint movement — the effect is something like a pencil caught in a door hinge.
•  Knee ‘locking.’ This can occur from a cartilage tear. When a portion of cartilage from the tear flips inside the knee-joint, you may not be able to fully straighten your knee.
•  Dislocated kneecap. This occurs when the triangular bone (patella) that covers the front of your knee slips out-of-place, usually to the outside of your knee. You’ll be able to see the dislocation, and your kneecap is likely to move excessively from side to side.
•  Hip or foot pain. If you have hip or foot pain, you may change the way you walk to spare these painful joints. But this altered gait can interfere with the alignment of your kneecap and place more stress on your knee joint. In some cases, problems in the hip or foot can refer pain to the knee.

Types of arthritis
•  Osteoarthritis: Sometimes called degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It’s a wear-and-tear condition that occurs when the cartilage in your knee deteriorates with use and age.
•  Rheumatoid arthritis: The most debilitating form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition that can affect almost any joint in your body, including your knees. Although rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease, it tends to vary in severity and may even come and go.
•  Gout: This type of arthritis occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joint. While gout most commonly affects the big toe, it can also occur in the knee.
•  Pseudogout: Often mistaken for gout, pseudogout is caused by calcium pyrophosphate crystals that develop in the joint fluid. Knees are the most common joint affected by pseudogout.
•  Septic arthritis: Sometimes your knee joint can become infected, leading to swelling, pain and redness. There’s usually no trauma before the onset of pain. Septic arthritis often occurs with a fever.

Other problems
•  Iliotibial band syndrome. This occurs when the ligament that extends from the outside of your pelvic bone to the outside of your tibia (iliotibial band) becomes so tight that it rubs against the outer portion of your femur. Distance runners are especially susceptible to iliotibial band syndrome.
•  Chondromalacia patellae (patellofemoral pain syndrome). This is a general term that refers to pain arising between your patella and the underlying thighbone (femur). It’s common in young adults, especially those who have a slight misalignment of the kneecap; in athletes; and in older adults, who usually develop the condition as a result of arthritis of the kneecap.
•  Osteochondritis dissecans. Caused by reduced blood flow to the end of a bone, osteochondritis dissecans is a joint condition in which a piece of cartilage, along with a thin layer of the bone beneath it, comes loose from the end of a bone. It occurs most often in young men, particularly after an injury to the knee.

Risk factors
A number of factors can increase your risk of having knee problems, including:
•  Age: Certain types of knee problems are more common in young people — Osgood-Schlatter disease and patellar tendonitis, for example. Others, such as osteoarthritis, gout and pseudogout, tend to affect older adults.
•  Sex: Teenage girls are more likely than are boys to experience an ACL tear or a dislocated kneecap. Boys, on the other hand, are at greater risk of Osgood-Schlatter disease and patellar tendonitis than girls are.
•  Excess weight: Being overweight or obese increases stress on your knee joints, even during ordinary activities such as walking or going up and down stairs. It also puts you at increased risk of osteoarthritis by accelerating the breakdown of joint cartilage.
•  Mechanical problems: Certain structural abnormalities, such as having one leg shorter than the other, misaligned knees and even flat feet, can make you more prone to knee problems.
•  Lack of muscle flexibility or strength: A lack of strength and flexibility are among the leading causes of knee injuries. Tight or weak muscles offer less support for your knee because they don’t absorb enough of the stress exerted on the joint.
•  Certain sports: Some sports put greater stress on your knees than do others: Alpine skiing with its sharp twists and turns and potential for falls, basketball’s jumps and pivots, and the repeated pounding your knees take when you run or jog all increase your risk of knee injury.
•  Previous injury: Having a previous knee injury makes it more likely that you’ll injure your knee again.

Not all knee pain is serious. But some knee injuries and medical conditions, such as osteoarthritis, can lead to increasing pain, joint damage and even disability if left untreated. And having a knee injury — even a minor one — makes it more likely that you’ll have similar injuries in the future.

Treatments and drugs
Treatments will vary, depending upon what exactly is causing your knee pain.
Medications. Your doctor may prescribe medications to help relieve pain and to treat underlying conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout.
__1.  Therapy
•  Physical therapy. Strengthening the muscles around your knee will make it more stable. Training is likely to focus on the muscles on the front of your thigh (quadriceps) and the muscles in the back of your thigh (hamstrings). Exercises to improve your balance are also important.
•  Orthotics and bracing. Arch supports, sometimes with wedges on the inner or outer aspect of the heel, can help to shift pressure away from the side of the knee most affected by osteoarthritis. Different types of braces may help protect and support the knee joint.
__2.  Injections
•  Corticosteroids. Injections of a corticosteroid drug into your knee-joint may help reduce the symptoms of an arthritis flare and provide pain relief that lasts a few months. The injections aren’t effective in all cases. There is a small risk of infection.
•  Hyaluronic acid. This thick fluid is normally found in healthy joints, and injecting it into damaged ones may ease pain and provide lubrication. Experts aren’t quite sure how hyaluronic acid works, but it may reduce inflammation. Relief from a series of shots may last as long as six months to a year.
__3.  Surgery
If you have an injury that may require surgery, it’s usually not necessary to have the operation immediately. Before making any decision, consider the pros and cons of both nonsurgical rehabilitation and surgical reconstruction in relation to what’s most important to you. If you choose to have surgery, your options may include:
• Arthroscopic surgery. Depending on the nature of your injury, your doctor may be able to examine and repair your joint damage using a fiber-optic camera and long, narrow tools inserted through just a few small incisions around your knee. Arthroscopy may be used to remove loose bodies from your knee joint, repair torn or damaged cartilage and reconstruct torn ligaments.
• Partial knee replacement surgery. In this procedure (unicompartmental arthroplasty), your surgeon replaces only the most damaged portion of your knee with parts made of metal and plastic. The surgery can usually be performed with a small incision, and your hospital stay is typically just one night. You’re also likely to heal more quickly than you are with surgery to replace your entire knee.
• Total knee replacement. In this procedure, your surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from your thighbone, shinbone and kneecap, and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high-grade plastics and polymers.

Lifestyle and home remedies
Over-the-counter medications — such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others) — may help ease knee pain. Some people find relief by rubbing their knees with creams containing such ingredients as lidocaine, a numbing agent; or capsaicin — the substance that makes chili peppers hot.

Self-care measures for an injured knee include: (Think, ‘R.I.C.E’.)
•  Rest: Taking a break from your normal activities reduces repetitive strain on your knee, gives the injury time to heal and helps prevent further damage. A day or two of rest may be all that’s needed for minor injuries. More severe damage is likely to need a longer recovery time.
•  Ice: A staple for most acute injuries, ice reduces both pain and inflammation. A bag of frozen peas works well because it covers your whole knee. You can also use an ice pack wrapped in a thin towel to protect your skin. Although ice therapy is generally safe and effective, don’t use ice for longer than 20 minutes at a time because of the risk of damage to your nerves and skin.
•  Compression: This helps prevent fluid buildup in damaged tissues and maintains knee alignment and stability. Look for a compression bandage that’s lightweight, breathable and self-adhesive. It should be tight enough to support your knee without interfering with circulation.
•  Elevation: Because gravity drains away fluids that might otherwise accumulate after an injury, elevating your knee can help reduce swelling. Try propping your injured leg on pillows or sitting in a recliner.

Although it’s not always possible to prevent knee pain, the following suggestions may help forestall injuries and joint deterioration:
•  Keep extra pounds off: Maintaining a healthy weight is one of the best things you can do for your knees — every extra pound puts additional strain on your joints, increasing the risk of ligament and tendon injuries and even osteoarthritis.
•  Get strong, stay limber: Because weak muscles are a leading cause of knee injuries, you’ll benefit from building up your quadriceps and hamstrings, which support your knees. Balance and stability training helps the muscles around your knees work together more effectively. And because tight muscles also can lead to injury, stretching is important. Try to include flexibility exercises in your workouts.
•  Be smart about exercise: If you have osteoarthritis, chronic knee pain or recurring injuries, you may need to change the way you exercise. Consider switching to swimming, water aerobics or other low-impact activities — at least for a few days a week. Sometimes simply limiting high-impact activities will provide relief.

C.  Sprained ankle
Mayo Clinic Health Information
A sprained ankle is a common injury. Sometimes, all it takes to sprain your ankle is a roll, twist or turn of your ankle in an awkward way. This unnatural movement can stretch or tear the ligaments that help hold your ankle together.
Ligaments are tough, elastic bands of fibrous tissue that connect one bone to another. They help stabilize joints, preventing excessive movement. A sprained ankle occurs when the ligaments are forced beyond their normal range of motion.
Treatment for a sprained ankle depends on the severity of the injury. Although self-care measures and over-the-counter pain medications may be all you need, a medical evaluation might be necessary to reveal how badly you’ve sprained your ankle and to put you on the right path to recovery.

Signs and symptoms of a sprained ankle include:
•  Pain, especially when you bear weight on it
•  Swelling and, sometimes, bruising
•  Restricted range of motion
Some people hear or feel a “pop” at the time of injury.

When to see a doctor
Call your doctor if you have pain and swelling in your ankle and you suspect a sprain. Self-care measures may be all you need, but talk to your doctor to discuss whether you should have your ankle evaluated. If your signs and symptoms are severe, it’s possible you may have broken a bone in your ankle or lower leg.

A sprain occurs when your ankle is forced to move out of its normal position, which forces one or more of the ligaments that surround and stabilize the bones out of its usual range of motion, causing the ligament to stretch or tear.
Examples of situations that can result in an ankle sprain include:
•  A fall that causes your ankle to twist
•  Landing awkwardly on your foot after jumping or pivoting
•  Walking or exercising on an uneven surface

Risk factors
Factors that increase your risk of a sprained ankle include:
•  Sports participation. Ankle sprains are a common sports injury. Sports that require rolling or twisting your foot, such as basketball, tennis, football, soccer and trail running, can make you vulnerable to spraining your ankle, particularly if you’re overweight. Playing sports on an uneven surface also can increase your risk.
•  Prior ankle injury. Once you’ve sprained your ankle, or had another type of ankle injury, you’re more likely to sprain it again.

If a sprained ankle is left untreated, if you engage in activities too soon after spraining your ankle or if you sprain your ankle repeatedly, you may experience the following complications:
•  Chronic pain
•  Chronic joint instability
•  Early onset arthritis in that joint

Tests and diagnosis
If the injury is severe, your doctor may recommend imaging scans to rule out a broken bone or to more precisely evaluate the soft tissue damage.
__1.  X-ray
During an X-ray, a small amount of radiation passes through your body to produce images of your internal structures. This test is good for bones but is less effective at visualizing soft tissues. Tiny cracks or stress fractures in bones may not show up, especially at first, on regular X-rays.
__2.  Bone scan
For a bone scan, a technician will inject a small amount of radioactive material into an intravenous line. The radioactive material is attracted to your bones, especially the parts of your bones that have been damaged. Damaged areas show up as bright spots on an image taken by a scanner. Bone scans are good at detecting stress fractures.
__3.  Computerized tomography (CT)
CT scans are useful because they can reveal more detail about the joint and the soft tissues that surround it. CT scans take X-rays from many different angles and combine them to make cross-sectional images of internal structures of your body.
__4.  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
MRIs use radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce detailed images of internal structures. This technology is exceptionally good at visualizing soft tissue injuries.

Treatments and drugs
Treatment for a sprained ankle depends on the severity of your injury. Many people simply treat their injury at home.
__1.  Medications
In most cases, over-the-counter pain relievers — such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Aleve, others) or acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) — are enough to handle the pain caused by a sprained ankle.
__2.  Therapy
A few days after your injury, after the swelling has gone down, you may want to start performing physical therapy exercises to restore your ankle’s range of motion, strength, flexibility and balance.
Balance and stability training is especially important to retrain the ankle muscles to work together to support the joint. These exercises may involve various degrees of balance challenge, such as standing on one leg.
If you sprained your ankle while exercising or participating in a sport, talk to your doctor about when you can begin your activity again. You may need to wear an ankle brace or wrap your ankle to protect it from re-injury.
__3.  Surgical and other procedures
If your ankle joint is unstable, your doctor may refer you to a joint specialist for evaluation. You may need a cast or walking boot to immobilize your joint so that it can heal properly. In rare cases of severe ligament tears, or if you are an elite athlete, you may need surgery to repair the damage.

Lifestyle and home remedies
For immediate self-care of an ankle sprain, try the P.R.I.C.E. approach, see top of article.

Take the following steps to help prevent a sprained ankle:
•  Warm up before you exercise or play sports.
•  Be careful when walking, running or working on an uneven surface.
•  Wear shoes that fit well and are made for your activity.
•  Don’t wear high-heeled shoes.
•  Don’t play sports or participate in activities for which you are not conditioned.
•  Maintain good muscle strength and flexibility.
•  Practice stability training, including balance exercises.
A physical therapist will often recommend use of an ankle brace for a year after a pretty strenuous injury. Sometimes, it’s necessary to wear it always. I’m in the latter category. I can’t run without it. And if I didn’t have it, I’d not be running any more. To order by shoe size see the chart below. I wear a 9.5

See discussion, various ankle braces and video at  SportsMedInfo:

Ω Category: (Survival Manual/6. Medical/c) General Clinic/ Sprains)

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Common Cold, Flu (Influenza) and Stomach flu symptoms chart

The Fall-Winter flu season is approaching. The following chart can help you determine the ailment from its symptoms, whether its a common cold, the flu or ‘stomach flu’.

.Survival Manual/6. Medical/c) General Clinic/Cold and Flu symptom chart)

Symptoms Common Cold Flu (Influenza) ‘Stomach flu’ (gastroenteritis)
Fever Uncommon in adults and older children Usual. Severe, 102°  F, but can go up to 104° F, lasts 3 to 5 days Low grade,  around 100°F
Headache Occasional Sudden onset  and can be severe Occasional
Muscle aches Mild Usual and often  severe Occasional
Tiredness and
Sometimes Often extreme,  and can last 2-3 weeks Yes
Never Usual, from  onset and can be severe Yes
Common, a lot, later becomes thicker and darker (note 1) Sometimes No
Sneezing Usual Sometimes No
Sore throat Usually starts
with sore throat
Sometimes No
Cough Mild hacking cough Usual, and can become severe No
Nausea &
No No (but possibly  with Swine Flu) Yes
Stomach pain/
No No Result from nausea and vomiting
Diarrhea No No (but possibly with Swine Flu) Yes
Acute onset No Yes Yes
Chills &
shaking at beginning of illness
No Yes Yes
1-4 days, usually 2-3 days.
Symptoms period About a week (note  2) About 7 days 4 -48 hours
1st  3 days (stay home) A day before symptoms appear until about a week after onset. From onset, then up to 2 weeks after recovery.


Symptoms Common Cold Flu (influenza) Stomach flu (gastroenteritis)
Prevention Wash your hands often; avoid close contact with anyone with a cold Wash your hands often; avoid close contact with anyone who has flu symptoms; get annual
flu vaccine, which protects against the H1N1 swine flu and two other flu
strains expected for the approaching flu season.
If by virus, it probably cannot be prevented. If by food poisoning,
avoid foods that have been incorrectly prepared or not properly refrigerated.
Bacteria often grow in poultry products, foods made with eggs, or cream products. Do not leave foods like potato salad, chicken salad, cream puffs, or chicken un-refrigerated, especially in warmer weather.
Vectors Cold virus and Influenza are easily spread
through contact with droplets from the nose and throat of an infected person during coughing and sneezing, may also be spread when a person touches a surface that has influenza viruses on it – a door handle, for instance – and then touches his or her nose or mouth. A cold virus can live on objects such as pens, books, telephones, computer keyboards, and coffee cups for several hours and can
thus be acquired from contact with these objects.
Stomach flu is highly contagious. Transmission by: Eating foods or drinking liquids that are contaminated with a stomach flu virus; having direct contact with another person who is infected and showing symptoms, sharing food or eating utensils with someone who is ill; touching surfaces or objects contaminated with a virus and then putting your hands in your mouth.
Treatment Decongestants; pain
reliever/fever reducer medicines.
pain relievers, or fever reducers are available over the counter; prescription antiviral drugs for flu may be given in some cases.
Avoid dehydration by drinking
fluids and gradually eating a bland diet such as the BRAT diet (bananas,
rice, applesauce, and dry toast). A bland diet is easily digested and is
unlikely to irritate your sensitive gastrointestinal system. Take pain killers with acetaminophen (Tylenol or Excedrin).

Note 1:  Dark mucus is natural and does not usually mean you have developed a bacterial infection,
such as a sinus infection.
Note 2:  Sometimes you may mistake cold symptoms for allergic rhinitis (hay fever) or a sinus infection. If your cold symptoms begin quickly and are improving after a week, then it is usually a cold, not allergy. If your cold symptoms do not seem to be getting better after a week, check with your doctor.

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