Category Archives: __6. Medical

Ampicillin

(Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Ampicillin)
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Disclaimer The information, ideas, and suggestions in the 4dtraveler.net blog are not intended as a substitute for professional advice. Before following any suggestions contained in this post, you should consult your personal physician. Neither the author or Word Press shall be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising as a consequence of your use or application of any information or suggestions in this blog.

Ampicillin brand names:Omnipen, Polycillin, Principen

 A.  What is ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampicillin>
Ampicillin is an antibiotic in the penicillin group of drugs. It fights bacteria in your body.
Ampicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections,  bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection.
Ampicillin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

 Ampicillin has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. Until the introduction of ampicillin, penicillin therapies had only been effective against Gram-positive organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci. Ampicillin also demonstrated activity against Gram-negative organisms such as H. influenzae, coliforms and Proteus spp.  Ampicillin is part of the aminopenicillin family and is roughly equivalent to its successor, amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity. It can sometimes result in reactions that range in severity from a rash (in the case of patients that may unwittingly have mononucleosis) to potentially lethal allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. However, as with other penicillin drugs, it is relatively non-toxic and adverse effects of a serious nature are encountered only rarely.

Ampicillin is closely related to amoxicillin, another type of penicillin, and both are used to treat urinary tract infections, otitis media, uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae, salmonellosis and Listeria meningitis. It is used with flucloxacillin in the combination antibiotic co-fluampicil for empiric treatment of cellulitis; providing cover against Group A streptococcal infection whilst the flucloxacillin acts against the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium. Of concern is the number of bacteria that become resistant to Ampicillin necessitating combination therapy or use of other antibiotics.
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampicillin>

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B.  What is the most important information I should know about ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/mtm/ampicillin.html>
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ampicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as amoxicillin (Amoxil), carbenicillin (Geocillin), dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen), oxacillin (Bactocill), penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids), and others.

Before using ampicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Ceclor, Ceftin, Duricef, Keflex, and others, or if you have asthma, kidney disease, a bleeding or blood clotting disorder, mononucleosis (also called “mono”), or a history of any type of allergy.

Ampicillin can make birth control pills less effective, which may result in pregnancy. Before taking ampicillin, tell your doctor if you use birth control pills. Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Ampicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking ampicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Preparations
Capsules: 250 and 500 mg. Powder oral suspension: 125 and 250 mg/5mL. Powder for injection: 250 mg, 500 mg, 1g, and 2 g.

Storage
Capsules and powder should be kept at room temperature between 15 C (59 F) and 30 C (86  F). After mixing the powder with water, it can be used for up to seven days if stored at room temperature or 14 days if refrigerated. It must be shaken before each use and should be kept well-sealed.

Prescribed for
Ampicillin is used for treating infections of the middle ear, sinuses, stomach and intestines, bladder, and kidney caused by susceptible bacteria. It also is used for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea, meningitis, endocarditis and other serious infections.

Dosing
The usual oral dose range for most infections is 250 to 500 mg 4 times daily for 7-14 days. When used to treat gonorrhea, a single 3.5 gram dose (seven 500 mg capsules) is administered with probenecid (Benemid). The probenecid slows down the elimination of ampicillin so that ampicillin remains in the body longer. Food in the stomach reduces how much and how quickly ampicillin is absorbed. Therefore, ampicillin should be taken either 1 hour prior to or 2 hours following a meal for maximal absorption; however, for persons who experience nausea or stomach distress after taking ampicillin, it may be taken with meals.

Specific Ampicillin dosing information
•  Usual Adult Dose for Bronchitis: Bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours for 5 to 10 days, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Endocarditis: Enterococcal: Ampicillin 2 g IV every 4 hours plus gentamicin 1 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 4 to 6 weeks.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Gastroenteritis: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Intraabdominal Infection: 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours in combination with other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.  Duration: 10-14 days.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Leptospirosis: Moderate to severe: 0.5 to 1 g intravenously every 6 hours. Mild: 500 to 750 mg orally every 6 hours.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Peritonitis: CAPD-associated peritonitis: 250 to 500 mg orally twice daily and/or 100 to 125 mg/L exchange intraperitoneally, with or without other antibiotics depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pneumonia: Beta-lactamase negative, penicillin-susceptible: 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours, in combination with other antibiotic(s) depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: As an alternative to penicillin G: 2 g IV as a loading dose, followed by 1 g every 4 hours until delivery.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pyelonephritis: 500 mg to 2 g IV or IM every 4 to 6 hours with or without other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection. Duration: 2 to 3 weeks.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Septicemia: 1 to 2 g IV every 3 to 4 hours, in combination with other antibiotics.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Shigellosis: 500 mg orally every 6 hours for 5 days
•  Usual Adult Dose for Skin or Soft Tissue Infection: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours or 1 to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Surgical Prophylaxis: Liver transplant: Ampicillin 1 g plus cefotaxime 1 g IV at induction, then every 6 hours for 48 hours after closure.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Typhoid Fever: Severe, fully susceptible: 25 mg/kg IV or IM every 6 hours for 10 to 14 days. Carrier state: 1.5 g orally or IV with probenecid 500 mg every 6 hours for 6 weeks. Fluoroquinolones or amoxicillin are considered the drugs of choice.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Otitis Media: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Pharyngitis: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Sinusitis: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: 500 mg orally or 1 to 2 g IV or IM every 6 hours, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Adult Dose for Urinary Tract Infection: Mild, uncomplicated: 250 to 500 mg orally every 6 hours. Severe, complicated: 500 mg to 2 g IV every 4 to 6 hours with or without other antibiotics, depending on the nature and severity of the infection.
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis: Low to moderate risk: 50 mg/kg IV or IM 30 minutes before procedure.
High risk: 50 mg/kg plus gentamicin 1.5 mg/kg, both intramuscularly or IV 30 minutes before procedure. Follow with ampicillin 25 mg/kg IV or IM, or amoxicillin 25 mg/kg orally, 6 hours after initial dose.
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Skin or Soft Tissue Infection: IV: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 12 g/day).  Oral: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 2 to 3 g/day).
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: IV: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 12 g/day). Oral: 6.25 to 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours (maximum 2 to 3 g/day).
•  Usual Pediatric Dose for Surgical Prophylaxis: Liver transplant: Ampicillin 50 mg/kg plus cefotaxime 50 mg/kg at induction and every 6 hours for 48 hours after closure.

What other drugs will affect ampicillin? Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:
•  allopurinol (Zyloprim);
•  methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall);
•  probenecid (Benemid);
•  a sulfa drug (such as Bactrim or Septra); or
•  a tetracycline antibiotic such as demeclocycline (Declomycin), doxycycline (Adoxa, Doryx, Oracea, Vibramycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn, Vectrin), or tetracycline (Brodspec, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap).

This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with ampicillin. Tell your doctor about all the prescription and over-the-counter medications you use. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start using a new medication without telling your doctor.
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C.  What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking ampicillin?
Pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/mtm/ampicillin.html>
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to ampicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as:
•  amoxicillin (Amoxil, Amoxicot, Biomox, Dispermox, Trimox);
•  carbenicillin (Geocillin);
•  dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen);
•  oxacillin (Bactocill); or
•  penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids, and others).

To make sure you can safely take ampicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially cephalosporins such as Omnicef, Cefzil, Ceftin, Keflex, and others), or if you have:
•  asthma;
•  kidney disease;
•  a bleeding or blood clotting disorder;
•  mononucleosis (also called “mono”);
•  a history of diarrhea caused by taking antibiotics; or
•  a history of any type of allergy.

FDA pregnancy category B. Ampicillin is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Ampicillin can make birth controll pills less effective, which may result in pregnancy. Before taking ampicillin, tell your doctor if you use birth control pills. Ampicillin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are taking ampicillin. 

How should I take ampicillin?
•  Take exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
•  Take the medicine with a full glass of water. Ampicillin should be taken on an empty stomach, at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after eating a meal.
•  To be sure this medicine is helping your condition, your blood will need to be tested often. Your liver and kidney function may also need to be tested. Visit your doctor regularly.
•  If you are being treated for gonorrhea, your doctor may also have you tested for syphilis, another sexually transmitted disease.
•  Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Ampicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.
•  This medication can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using ampicillin.
•  Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light.

What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Overdose symptoms may include confusion, behavior changes, a severe skin rash, urinating less than usual, or seizure (black-out or convulsions).

What should I avoid while taking ampicillin?
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking ampicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Ampicillin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:
•  fever, sore throat, and headache with a severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
•  diarrhea that is watery or bloody;
•  fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms;
•  easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness;
•  urinating less than usual or not at all;
•  agitation, confusion, unusual thoughts or behavior; or
•  seizure (black-out or convulsions).
•  Less serious side effects may include
•  nausea, vomiting, stomach pain;
•  vaginal itching or discharge;
•  headache;
•  swollen, black, or “hairy” tongue; or
•  thrush (white patches or inside your mouth or throat).

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

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D. Fish Cillin
AMAZON.COM: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps, $27.97 free S&H

Product Features
Standard pharmacy quality Ampicillin antibiotic. Labeled for use in fish tanks, in pull apart capsules for easy use – 250 mg. strength

Product Description
Fish Cillin exerts a bactericidal action on gram positive and some gram negative bacteria. Useful for control of some common bacterial diseases of fish including Aeromonas and Pseudomonsa denera and Mysobbacterial group (gill diseases & chondrococcus). Directions: Add contents of one capsule (250 mg) into aquarium for each 10 gallons of water to be treated. While duration of treatment depends on type and severity of infection, it is recommended that extended medication baths continue for a minimum of 5 days and for not more than 10 days. Discontinue treatment if no improvement is noted within 5 days.

Customer reviews:
•  Pharmacy Grade Product, January 11, 2011, By moonjogger (MI)
This review is from: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
This is an excellent product. Is all 100% sealed and is Usp grade antibiotic. Manufacturer is West-ward Pharmisuiticals of New Jersery. This very same tablet is what Walgreens and Rite aid are despensing for their Generics. OF COURSE, I was thrilled that my fish would not suffer from any kind of ill effects from any kind of odd fillers or additives that may have been added. Fish are very sensitive to any kind of changes in their enviourment. Thus I am 100 % confident in the Knowing that all are safe with this Antibiotic.
•  SAVED MY DOG’S LIFE., November 1, 2007, By LAVERN A. WOJCIECHOWSKI (Ohio)
This review is from: Fish Cillin (Ampicillin 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
I WISH I WOULD HAVE FOUND THESE EARLIER. I lost my Scotty (12 years old and Sheppard 13 years old in 2006). The vet could not save them. It cost a lot of money and no dogs to show for it. When my Scottie’s twin sister got sick in April of 2007 I gave her four tablets a day and on the fourth day she started to eat again. This was the same time that the tainted dog food was happening. I still have her and she was 13 in July and this is November. Plus I saved hundred of dollars in vet bill and have a dog to show for it.

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See also the informative YouTube videos with, “Patriot Nurse”. The following link takes you to her discussion of the, “Top 5 Antibiotics for SHTF”:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOfthwm_v3E&feature=relmfu

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See also the book, “The Doom and Bloom(tm) Survival Medicine Handbook” (Keep your loved ones healthy in every disaster, from wildfires to a complete societal collapse), by Joseph Alton, M.D. and AMY ALTON, A.R.N.P., sold through Amazon.com

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(See also 4dtraveler article : (Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Antibiotic Uses)

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Survival and physical fitness

(Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ c) General Clinic/ Survival & physical fitness

“No man who is not willing to help himself has any right to apply to his friends, or to the gods.”
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Demosthenes (384–322 BC, Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens)

1.  Survival & Physical Fitness
2011, No More Dependence, posted in Health/Hygiene
Pasted from:

Being physically fit is important for numerous reasons. Besides the most valuable benefit of increasing one’s own health (and thereby decreasing the risk for infections, diseases, common illness, etc.), being physically fit increases energy levels, boosts self-confidence, improves mental clarity, and generally improves quality of life.

Striving towards physical fitness may not be as fun as getting new gear or as tangible as buying 100 lbs of beans, but No More Dependence sincerely believes that regular exercise, combined with a sensible diet, is one of the most fundamental and practical survival skills to possess.

Ultimately, when weighing likely risks and potential real world survival scenarios, an individual who is generally regarded as physically fit, will have a greater likelihood of survival than his or her out of shape, or weaker, counterpart.

That being said, we’re not advocating everyone should spend every day in a gym exercising, we’re merely observing that as individuals who strive to be prepared and rely less on others, being in shape is a solid tactical advantage.

[Photo: 1968, teenage boys out for a hike.]

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[Photo: fast forward to 2012, teenage girls out for a hike.]

2.  First and foremost to being a Prepper is a mental attitude: That of “I am responsible for me”. If you are relying on the government or others to take care of you then you are a dependent of them, not an independent citizen capable of supporting themselves. And that is exactly what a Prepper is or strives to be – an Independent Citizen capable of supporting themselves. Throw out the attitudes and beliefs that if something happens you’ll let others take care of you. In fact, throw out the notion that nothing bad will ever happen to you – chances are extremely high that it will! Whether it’s a personal, family, neighborhood, city, state, national or world event – bad things happen every single day – dodging them all is pretty near impossible.
Becoming a Prepper requires independence and self-reliance in all areas of our lives including finances, utilities, food, clothing, health, devices and furniture, to name a few key areas.

————–  a major health issue ————-

3.  Being lazy can kill you: Physical inactivity responsible for 5 millions deaths every year
Wednesday, July 18, 2012, NYDaily News, by AFP RELAX NEWS
Pasted from: http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/lazy-kill-physical-inactivity-responsible-5-millions-deaths-year-article-1.1116883

Having a couch potato lifestyle is a risk factor comparable to smoking or obesity, say experts in the medical journal The Lancet, which described physical inactivity as failing to do 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five times a week, 20 minutes of vigorous activity three times a week, or a combination of the two.

Here’s some extra motivation to get off the couch and get in shape: A report in the medical journal The Lancet claims that physical inactivity kills about five million people every year.

“Roughly three of every 10 individuals aged 15 years or older — about 1.5 billion people — do not reach present physical activity recommendations,” experts said in a report that described the problem as a “pandemic.”

The picture for adolescents is even more worrying, with four out of five 13- to 15-year-olds not moving enough, it said.

Physical inactivity was described for the study as failing to do:

1) 30 minutes of moderate physical activity five times a week, or
2) 20 minutes of vigorous activity three times a week, or
3) or a combination of the two.

Inactivity increases with age, is higher in women than in men, and more prevalent in high-income countries, the researchers found.

A second study, comparing physical activity levels with population statistics on diseases like diabetes, heart problems and cancer, said lack of exercise claimed more than 5.3 million of the 57 million deaths worldwide in 2008.
It said inactivity was a risk factor comparable to smoking or obesity.

Lack of exercise causes an estimated six percent of coronary heart disease cases, seven percent of type 2 diabetes (the most common form) and 10 percent of breast and colon cancers, it said.
Reducing inactivity by 10 percent could eliminate more than half a million deaths every year, the report said, adding that the estimates were conservative.
The human body needs exercise to help the bones, muscles, heart and other organs function optimally, but populations are walking, running and cycling less and less as they spend more time in cars and in front of computers, the investigators said.

The Lancet series called for global efforts to promote physical exercise by improving pedestrian and cyclist safety on city roads, for example, more physical education at school or promoting access to free public exercise spaces.
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4.  Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, study says
July 18, 2012, CNN, By Matt Sloane
Pasted from: <http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/18/health/physical-inactivity-deaths/index.html>
Researchers say physical inactivity has become a global pandemic.

 Story Highlights
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Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, series of studies in Lancet say
• Researchers suggest public health officials treat inactivity as a pandemic
• Inactivity often rises with age and is higher in women as well as in high-income countries
• Studies: Exercise events and better public transportation help improve physical activity

(CNN) — Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, according to a series of studies released in British medical journal The Lancet, putting it on par with the dangers of smoking and obesity. The results also suggest that public health officials treat this situation as a pandemic.
Specifically, Harvard researchers say, inactivity caused an increase in deaths from coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, breast and colon cancers and caused more than 5.3 million deaths in 2008 worldwide.
If physical inactivity rates were to go down by even 10% to 20% worldwide, they say, it could save between a half-million and 1.3 million lives each year. This could also raise global life expectancy by almost a year.

“This summer, we will admire the breathtaking feats of athletes competing in the 2012 Olympic Games,” wrote Dr. I-Min Lee, a Harvard researcher and the lead author of an article accompanying the series of studies. “Although only the smallest fraction of the population will attain these heights, the overwhelming majority of us are able to be physically active at very modest levels, which bring substantial health benefits.”
This series of five studies was specifically timed to be released just days before the start of the 2012 Olympics in London next week, and each of the studies focused on one specific issue related to physical inactivity and its effect on global health.

Adults and children at increased risk
The first in the group of five studies suggested that one-third of adults, and close to 80% of adolescents worldwide, are at increased risk of disease as a result of physical inactivity.
According to the report, some 1.5 billion adults worldwide face a 20% to 30% increased risk of heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers.
Researchers also found that inactivity levels varied widely across the globe, with the lowest levels in Bangladesh (5%) and the highest levels in Malta (71%).
“In most countries, inactivity rises with age and is higher in women than in men [34% vs 28%],” wrote Dr. Pedro C. Hallal, a professor at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas in Brazil. “Inactivity is also increased in high-income countries.”

Why are some people more active?
The second study looked at why certain people and groups of people exercise while others do not.
The study authors found that previous research focused on individual-level factors such as age, sex and socioeconomic status, and they were conducted primarily in high-income countries. But they suggest future research focus on middle and lower-income countries.

“Research has been heavily concentrated in a few developed countries, most of which have stable or falling rates of noncommunicable diseases, rather than in low-income countries where understanding of evidence-based strategies for increasing physical activity is poor,” wrote Adrian Bauman, a researcher from the University of Sydney in Australia. “Targeting factors known to cause inactivity is key to improving and designing effective interventions to increase activity levels.”
Bauman and his colleagues found that health status, being male, young or wealthy tend to make people more physically active, as does family and societal support for physical activity.

What works to promote physical activity
The third article in The Lancet series looked at what specific programs and types of programs work to promote physical activity.
“Because even moderate physical activity such as walking and cycling can have substantial health benefits, understanding strategies that can increase these behaviors in different regions and cultures has become a public health priority,” wrote Gregory Heath, a researcher from the University of Tennessee and the lead author of this study.

Heath and his team found that the use of mass-media campaigns to promote exercise, as well as signs to remind people to be active — taking the stairs, for example — had some effect on getting people more active.
The team also found that free, public exercise events, creating an environment that was conducive to exercise (bike lanes and walking trails), and improving public transportation were more likely to improve physical activity.

“Overall, our findings showed the interventions to have consistent and significant effects on physical activity and behaviors,” Heath wrote. “Even though in some instances the effect sizes of these interventions were rather modest, they were large enough to translate into real population-level benefits if rolled out on a larger scale.”

Using mobile phones to get people active
The fourth study found that technology, and specifically cell phone technology, could be significant in helping people get fit.
“With the high prevalence of both physical inactivity and the rapid growth of the mobile phone sector in low-income and middle-income countries, there is a potential for population-level effects that could truly affect global health,” wrote Dr. Michael Pratt, a researcher from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Researchers believe that with more than 4 billion text messaging users worldwide, this could be an effective way to deliver health-conscious messages, particularly in low-income countries.
According to this report, Pratt and his team estimated that using Internet-based technologies could be twice as effective in middle-income countries as in high-income countries, given that 71% of the world’s population lives in these countries and many have access to cell phones.
“This is a big challenge, but marked progress in countries such as Colombia and Brazil suggests that it is also an achievable challenge,” he wrote.

Obesity should be considered a pandemic
The final report suggests that physical inactivity should be recognized as a global pandemic and should be treated like any other infectious-disease pandemic would be.
“The role of physical inactivity continues to be undervalued despite robust evidence of its protective effects,” wrote Harold Kohl, a researcher at the University of Texas School of Public Health and lead author of this study. “The response … has been incomplete, unfocused and most certainly understaffed. … The effect of this tardiness has been to put physical activity in reverse gear compared with population trends and advances in tobacco and alcohol control and diet.”

Kohl called on countries — low, middle and high-income — to work across disciplines to fix this problem.
“Physical inactivity is an issue that crosses many sectors and will require collaboration, coordination and communication with multiple partners,” he wrote, citing specifically city and community planners, transportation engineers, schools, parks and recreation officials and the media.

He says that almost 75% of World Health Organization member countries have some sort of plan to improve physical activity, but only 55% of the plans have been put into effect and only 42% of the plans in effect are well-funded.
“Substantial improvements in the infrastructure of planning and policy, leadership and advocacy, workforce training and surveillance must be realized,” he said.
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5.  Two out of Three Very Obese Kids Already Have Heart Disease Risk Factors: High Blood Pressure, Cholesterol, Blood Glucose Evident Even in Under-12s
23 July 2012, ScienceDaily,
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120723193205.htm

Two out of three severely obese kids already have at least one risk factor for heart disease, suggests research published online in “Archives of Disease in Childhood”.
The prevalence and severity of childhood obesity has been rising worldwide, but little research has been carried out on the underlying health problems that children with severe weight problems have, say the authors.
They base their findings on data supplied by pediatricians to the Dutch Paediatric Surveillance Unit between 2005 and 2007.

During this period, doctors treating all new cases of severe obesity in children from the ages of 2 to 18 across The Netherlands were asked to supply information on their patients’ cardiovascular risk factors, including high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, and blood fats (lipids).
The definition of severe obesity started at a body mass index (BMI) of 20.5 for a 2 year old, at 31 for a 12 year old, and at 35 for an 18 year old.
Over the three years, most (87% to 94%) of pediatricians submitted their monthly findings on every severely obese child they treated to the surveillance unit, providing information on 500 children in all.

When pediatricians were contacted again, with a request for further data, 363 responded and 307 of their children were correctly classified as severely obese.
Just over half (52%) of these 307 children were boys. They tended to be more severely obese at the younger end of the age spectrum; the reverse was true of girls. Full information on cardiovascular risk factors was available for 255 (83%).
Two out of three (67%) had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Over half (56%) had high blood pressure; a similar proportion (54%) had high levels of low density ‘bad’ cholesterol; one in seven (14%) had high fasting blood glucose; and just under 1 per cent already had type 2 diabetes.

And “remarkably” say the authors, almost two thirds (62%) of those aged 12 and under had one or more cardiovascular risk factors. Only one child’s obesity was attributable to medical rather than lifestyle factors.
Nearly one in three severely obese children came from one parent families.
“The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in [these children] is worrying, considering the increasing prevalence worldwide of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents,” write the authors.
“Likewise, the high prevalence of hypertension and abnormal lipids may lead to cardiovascular disease in young adulthood,” they add.
And they conclude: “Internationally accepted criteria for defining severe obesity and guidelines for early detection and treatment of severe obesity and [underlying ill health] are urgently needed.”
The above story is reprinted from materials provided by BMJ-British Medical Journal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
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6.  We’re getting sicker: More Americans have a chronic health condition
Vitals on NBCNEWS.com
http://vitals.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/07/31/13053268-were-getting-sicker-more-americans-have-a-chronic-health-condition?lite

MyHealthNewsDaily
More than one in five middle-aged U.S. adults, and nearly half of adults over age 65, have more than one chronic health condition, such as hypertension and diabetes, according to a new government report.
The report said that in 2010, 21.3 percent of women and 20.1 percent of men between ages 45 and 64 had at least two chronic health conditions. In 2000, the rate among men was 15.2 percent, and among women it was 16.9 percent.
Increases were also seen in adults older than 65, with 49 percent of men and 42.5 percent of women reporting in 2010 that they had at least two chronic health conditions. In 2000, the rates were 39.2 percent of men and 35.8 percent of women.

Treatment for people with multiple chronic conditions is complex, the researchers said. By looking at trends in the rates of people with more than one condition, researchers are better able to make decisions about managing and preventing these diseases, and they can make better predictions about future health-care needs, they said.
The increases were due mainly to rises in three conditions: hypertension, diabetes and cancer, according to the report. These increases may be due to more new cases, or due to people living longer with the conditions because of advances in medical treatments.

The report also said that middle-aged adults with at least two chronic conditions had increasing difficulty, between 2000 and 2010, in getting the care and prescription drugs they needed because of cost. In 2010, 23 percent reported not receiving or delaying the medical care they needed, and 22 percent said they didn’t get the prescriptions they needed. In 2000, these rates were 17 percent and 14 percent, respectively.

The CDC does not consider obesity itself to be a health condition; rather, it is a risk factor for other conditions, such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes. The obesity rate in the U.S. increased in the United States over the past 30 years, but has leveled off in recent years, the report said.
The report is based on data gathered during the National Health Interview Survey, in which participants complete a detailed questionnaire about their health status and health-related behaviors. Participants reported whether a physician has diagnosed them with any of nine chronic health conditions: hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, current asthma and kidney disease.

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Tetracycline

(Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Tetracycline)

Disclaimer The information, ideas, and suggestions in the 4dtraveler.net blog are not intended as a substitute for professional advice. Before following any suggestions contained in this post, you should consult your personal physician. Neither the author or Word Press shall be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising as a consequence of your use or application of any information or suggestions in this blog.
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http://www.medicinenet.com/tetracycline/article.htm
http://www.drugs.com/tetracycline.html

 Brand names: Sumycin, Ala-Tet, Brodspec, Emtet-500,Ornacycline, Panmycin, Robitet 500, Sumycin, Tetra 500, Tetracap, Tetracon

 DRUG CLASS AND MECHANISM: Tetracycline, is a broad spectrum antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections, including: Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and other respiratory tract infections; acne; skin infections, genital and urinary systems; and the infection that causes stomach ulcers (Helicobacter pylori). It also may be used as an alternative to other medications for the treatment of Lyme disease and for the treatment and prevention of anthrax (after inhalational exposure). It is first-line therapy for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (Rickettsia), Q fever (Coxiella), psittacosis and lymphogranuloma venereum (Chlamydia), and to eradicate nasal carriage of meningococci. Tetracycline tablets were used in the plague outbreak in India in 1992. Tetracycline is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics, which work by preventing the growth and spread of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. The first drug of the tetracycline family, chlortetracycline, was introduced in 1948.

PREPARATIONS: Capsules: 250 and 500mg; Oral Suspension: 125 mg/5 ml (teaspoon).

STORAGE: Tetracycline should be stored at room temperature (below 86 F).

PRESCRIBED FOR: Tetracycline is used for treating several types of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. Some examples include infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and skin. It also is prescribed for nongonococcal urethritis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, syphilis, and acne. It is used in combination with other medications to treat Helicobacter pylori, the bacteria associated with ulcers and inflammation of the stomach and duodenum.

DOSING: Tetracycline should be taken on an empty stomach, at least two hours before or after meals or snacks. Do not take tetracycline with food, especially dairy products such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream. For most infections, tetracycline is taken two to four times daily for 7 to 14 days. The usual adult dose is 1-2 g/day in 2 or 4 divided doses. Drink a full glass of water with each dose of tetracycline. [translated into milligrams, 1000-2000mg/day, 4 each 250 mg or 2 ea 500 mg-lfp]

DRUG INTERACTIONS: Tetracycline should not be taken at the same time as aluminum, magnesium, or calcium-based antacids (Mylanta, Maalox), calcium carbonate (Tums, Rolaids)]; iron supplements; bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol), and dairy products. These agents bind tetracycline in the intestine and reduce its absorption into the body.
Tetracycline may enhance the activity of the blood thinner, warfarin (Coumadin), and result in excessive “thinning” of the blood, necessitating a reduction in the dose of warfarin. Phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and barbiturates (such as phenobarbital) may enhance the elimination of tetracycline. Tetracycline may reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.

PREGNANCY: Tetracycline antibiotics can impair development of bone in the fetus. Therefore, tetracycline is not recommended during pregnancy unless there is no other appropriate antibiotic.

NURSING MOTHERS: Tetracycline is secreted into breast milk. Since tetracycline can impair the development of bone in infants, nursing mothers should not use tetracycline.

SIDE EFFECTS: Tetracycline is generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects are diarrhea or loose stools, nausea, abdominal pain, rash, and vomiting. Headache and dizziness may also occur. Tetracycline may cause discoloration of teeth if used in patients below 8 years of age. Exaggerated sunburn can occur with tetracycline (photosensitivity). Therefore, sunlight or sunlamp exposure should be minimized during treatment.

 What side effects can this medication cause?
Tetracycline may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
•  upset stomach
•  diarrhea
•  itching of the rectum or vagina
•  sore mouth
•  redness of the skin (sunburn)
•  changes in skin color

Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately:
•  severe headache
•  blurred vision
•  skin rash
•  hives
•  difficulty breathing or swallowing
•  yellowing of the skin or eyes
•  itching
•  dark-colored urine
•  light-colored bowel movements
•  loss of appetite
•  upset stomach
•  vomiting
•  stomach pain
•  extreme tiredness or weakness
•  confusion
•  joint stiffness or swelling
•  unusual bleeding or bruising
•  decreased urination
•  pain or discomfort in the mouth
•  throat sores
•  fever or chills

What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet. 

What should I do if I forget a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one.

 Brand names
•  Ala-Tet
•  Brodspec
•  Emtet-500
•  Ornacycline
•  Panmycin
•  Robitet 500
•  Sumycin
•  Tetra 500
•  Tetra brand of tetracycline
•  Tetracap
•  Tetracon

B.  Fish Cycline
AMAZON.COM: Fish Cycline (Tetracycline 250 mg) – 100 Caps, $13.79  + free Shipping
by Thomas Laboratories

Product Features
•  Exerts bacterial action on gram-positive
•  And some gram-negative bacteria
•  For ornamental and acquarium fish only

Product Description
Non-prescription tetracycline labeled for fish or aquarium use for the control of common bacterial infections. Each capsule contains 250 mg tetracycline. Directions: Add contents of capsule to aquarium water at the rate of 1 per 10 gals. Repeat in 24 hours. Continue treatment for 5-10 days.

[Read as: 10 gallons water per 250mg tetracycline * 8.3 pounds water per gallon water =83 pounds of water per 250mg Amoxicillin or 500mg Amoxicillin per 166 lbs body weight.]
BE CAREFUL WITH TETRACYCLINE! Make sure you know the expiration date and mark it down on EVERY bottle you store it in. After it expires Tetracycline becomes toxic.

Customer reviews:
1) It’s Tetracycline, pure and simple, February 16, 2007, By K. Yates “This review is from: Fish Cycline (Tetracycline 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
‘Tired of $75 to ??? (Where is the limit?) doctor’s visits to get an antibiotic for an infection? If you are savvy enough to know when you have what, you may want to know that the exact same antibiotic is available to dope your fish tank and retard the growth of unhealthy bacteria. And you won’t go to the pharmacy and pay $50 to $100 for 30 to 50 caplets. This is a bottle of 100 caplets for less than $28 or, at least it was when I reordered from the vet supply house that ships it. (Where I also found 100 – 500mg caps for the same price.)’
2) I haven’t died yet!, June 14, 2009, By lisa simpson ” This review is from: Fish Cycline (Tetracycline 250 mg) – 100 Caps (Misc.)
‘I have used these Thomas Labs antibiotics for years. They are USP grade- United States Pharmaceutical grade. If you really want to pay $85 for an office visit, $30 for a strep screen, then $30 for 30 Amoxicillin capsules, then go for it! But I don’t have that kind of $$$$$!’

See also the informative YouTube videos with, “Patriot Nurse”. The following link takes you to her discussion of the  “Top 5 Antibiotics for SHTF”:

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOfthwm_v3E&feature=relmfu

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See also the book, “The Doom and Bloom(tm) Survival Medicine Handbook” (Keep your loved ones healthy in every disaster, from wildfires to a complete societal collapse),  by  Joseph Alton, M.D. and AMY ALTON, A.R.N.P., sold through Amazon.com

.

 

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Malaria

(Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ b)Disease/ Malaria)

Pasted from <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/malaria/DS00475/DSECTION=prevention>
Pasted from <http://www.getawayafrica.com/index.php?id=432>

Definition
Malaria produces recurrent attacks of chills and fever. Caused by a parasite that’s transmitted by mosquitoes, malaria kills about 1 million people each year worldwide.

While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. A vaccine to prevent malaria is currently under development.

If you’re traveling to locations where malaria is common, take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now immune to the most common drugs used to treat the disease.

[Map above: Places currently affected by Malaria.]

Symptoms
A malaria infection is generally characterized by recurrent attacks with the following signs and symptoms:
•  Moderate to severe shaking chills
•  High fever
•  Profuse sweating as body temperature falls

Other signs and symptoms may include:
•  Headache
•  Nausea
•  Vomiting
•  Diarrhea

Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after a bite from an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for months, or even years.

 When to see a doctor
Talk to your doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria can lie dormant in your body for months. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.

Causes
Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that’s transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites.

Mosquito transmission cycle
•  Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
•  Transmission of parasite. If you’re the next person this mosquito bites, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
•  In the liver. The parasites then travel to your liver — where they can lie dormant for as long as a year.
•  Into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
•  On to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with your malaria parasites and can spread them to the next person it bites.

Other modes of transmission
Because the parasites that cause malaria affect red blood cells, people can also catch malaria from exposures to infected blood, including:
•  From mother to unborn child
•  Through blood transfusions
•  By sharing needles used to inject drugs

Risk factors
The biggest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit tropical areas where the disease is common. Many different subtypes of malaria parasites exist. The variety that causes the most lethal complications is most commonly found in:
•  African countries south of the Sahara desert
•  The Indian subcontinent
•  Solomon islands, Papua New Guinea and Haiti

Risks of more severe disease
People at increased risk of serious disease include:
•  Young children and infants
•  Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
•  Pregnant women and their unborn children

Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no access to health care also contribute to malaria deaths worldwide.

 Immunity can wane
Residents of a malaria region may be exposed to the disease so frequently that they acquire a partial immunity, which can lessen the severity of malaria symptoms. However, this partial immunity can disappear if you move to a country where you’re no longer frequently exposed to the parasite.

Complications
Malaria can be fatal, particularly the variety that’s common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 90 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.

In most cases, malaria deaths are related to one or more of these serious complications:
•  Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur.
•  Breathing problems. Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe.
•  Organ failure. Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening.
•  Severe anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in severe anemia.
•  Low blood sugar. Severe forms of malaria itself can cause low blood sugar, as can quinine — one of the most common medications used to combat malaria. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or death.

Recurrence may occur
Some varieties of the malaria parasite, which typically cause milder forms of the disease, can persist for years and cause relapses.

Tests and diagnosis
Blood tests can help tailor treatment by determining:
•  Whether you have malaria
•  Which type of malaria parasite is causing your symptoms
•  If your infection is caused by a parasite resistant to certain drugs
•  Whether the disease is affecting any of your vital organs
Some blood tests can take several days to complete, while others can produce results in less than 15 minutes.

Treatments and drugs
The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:
•  Which type of malaria parasite you have
•  The severity of your symptoms
•  Your age
•  Whether you’re pregnant

Medications
The most common antimalarial drugs include:
•  Chloroquine (Aralen)
•  Quinine sulfate (Qualaquin)
•  Recommended treatment Quinine can be given by the oral, intravenous or intramuscular routes. Quinine or quinine-containing compounds such as Quinimax ® should not be given alone for the treatment of malaria as short courses, e.g. 3 days, owing to the possibility of recrudescence (200).

When administered to patients with uncomplicated malaria, quinine should be given orally if possible, by one of the following regimens:
*  Areas where parasites are sensitive to quinine: Quinine, 8 mg of base per kg three times daily for 7 days.
*  In Areas with marked decrease in susceptibility of P. falciparum to quinine Quinine 8 mg of base per kg three times daily for 7 days plus Doxycycline 100 mg of salt daily for 7 days (not in children under 8 years of age and not during pregnancy); a pharmacologically superior regimen would include a loading dose of 200 mg of doxycycline followed by 100 mg daily for 6 days. or  Tetracycline 250 mg four times daily for 7 days (not in children under 8 years of age and not in pregnancy).

•  Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
•  Mefloquine
•  Combination of atovaquone and proguanil (Malarone)

The history of antimalarial medicine has been marked by a constant struggle between evolving drug-resistant parasites and the search for new drug formulations. In many parts of the world, for instance, resistance to chloroquine has rendered the drug ineffective.

Prevention
If you’re going to be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about drugs you can take — before, during and after your trip — that can help protect you from malaria parasites.
In general, the drugs taken to prevent malaria are the same drugs used to treat the disease. Your doctor needs to know where you’ll be traveling so that he or she can prescribe the drug that will work best on the type of malaria parasite most commonly found in that region.

Doxycycline: Travellers who cannot take Mefloquine should take Doxycycline to prevent malaria if they are traveling in a malaria area. This drug is taken every day at an adult dose of 100 mg, to begin on the day before entering the malaria area, while there, and continued for 4 weeks after leaving. If Doxycycline is used, there is no need to take other preventive drugs, such as Chloroquine.

Possible side effects include skin photosensitivity that may result in an exaggerated sunburn reaction. Wearing a hat and using sunblock can minimize this risk. Women who take Doxycycline may develop vaginal yeast infections and should discuss this with their doctor before using Doxycycline.

Doxycycline should not be used by:
•  pregnant women during their entire pregnancy,
•  children under 8 years of age or
•  travellers with a known hypersensitivity to doxycycline

No vaccine yet
Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.

 Reducing exposure to mosquitoes
In countries where malaria is common, prevention also involves keeping mosquitoes away from humans. Strategies include:
•  Spraying your home. Treating your home’s walls with insecticide can help kill adult mosquitoes that come inside.
•  Sleeping under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, are especially recommended for pregnant women and young children.
•  Covering your skin. During active mosquito times, usually from dusk to dawn, wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.
•  Spraying clothing and skin. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to use on clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin.

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Amoxicillin

(Survival Manual/ b. Medical/ c) General Clinic/ Amoxicillin)

Disclaimer
The information, ideas, and suggestions in the 4dtraveler.net blog are not intended as a substitute for professional advice. Before following any suggestions contained in this post, you should consult your personal physician. Neither the author or Word Press shall be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising as a consequence of your use or application of any information or suggestions in this blog.

Pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/amoxicillin.html>
Pasted from <http://www.medicinenet.com/amoxicillin/article.htm>
Pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoxicillin>

Amoxicillin brand names: Amoxil, Dispermox, Moxatag, Trimox, Wymox

A.   Amoxicillin and its use
.
 Below, pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/amoxicillin.html>
What is amoxicillin?
Amoxicillin is a penicillin antibiotic. It fights bacteria in your body.
Amoxicillin is used to treat many different types of infections caused by bacteria, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and E. coli or salmonella infection. Amoxicillin is also sometimes used together with another antibiotic called clarithromycin (Biaxin) to treat stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. This combination is sometimes used with a stomach acid reducer called lansoprazole (Prevacid).
Amoxicillin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Important information about amoxicillin
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amoxicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen), dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen), oxacillin (Bactocill), penicillin (Beepen-VK, Ledercillin VK, Pen-V, Pen-Vee K, Pfizerpen, V-Cillin K, Veetids), and others.

Before using amoxicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to cephalosporins such as Omnicef, Cefzil, Ceftin, Keflex, and others. Also tell your doctor if you have asthma, liver or kidney disease, a bleeding or blood clotting disorder, mononucleosis (also called “mono”), or any type of allergy.

Amoxicillin can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking amoxicillin. Take this medication for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Amoxicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.

Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking amoxicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to.

Preparions: Capsules: 250 and 500 mg. Tablets: 500 and 875 mg. Chewable tablets: 125, 200, 250, and 400 mg. Powder for suspension: 50 mg/ml ; 125, 200, 250, and 400 mg/5 ml. Tablets for suspension: 200 and 400 mg
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Below, pasted from <http://www.medicinenet.com/amoxicillin/article.htm>
Storage: Store Amoxil capsules as well as 125 and 250 mg dry powder at or below 20°C (68°F); tablets, chewable tablets, as well as 200 and 400 mg dry powder should be stored at or below 25°C(77°F). Store Trimox capsules and unreconstituted powder at or below 20°C (68°F) and chewable tablets at room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Powder that has been mixed with water should be discarded after 14 days. Refrigeration is preferred but not required for powder mixed with water.

Prescribed for: Amoxicillin is used to treat infections due to organisms that are susceptible to the effects of amoxicillin. Common infections that amoxicillin is used for include infections of the middle ear, tonsils, throat, larynx (laryngitis), bronchi (bronchitis), lungs (pneumonia), urinary tract, and skin. It also is used to treat gonorrhea.

Dosing: For most infections in adults the dosing regimens for amoxicillin are 250 mg every 8 hours, 500 mg every 8 hours, 500 mg every 12 hours or 875 mg every 12 hours, depending on the type and severity of infection.

For the treatment of adults with gonorrhea, the dose is 3 g given as one dose.

For most infections, children older than 3 months but less than 40 kg are treated with 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours, 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours, 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours or 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours depending on type and severity of the infection.
Amoxicillin can be taken with or without food.

 Drug interactions: Amoxicillin is rarely associated with important drug interactions.

Side effects: Side effects due to amoxicillin include diarrhea, dizziness, heartburn, insomnia, nausea, itching, vomiting, confusion, abdominal pain, easy bruising, bleeding, rash, and allergic reactions. Individuals who are allergic to antibiotics in the class of cephalosporins may also be sensitive to amoxicillin.

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Below, pasted from <http://www.drugs.com/amoxicillin.html>
Before taking amoxicillin
Do not use this medication if you are allergic to amoxicillin or to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as:

  • ampicillin (Omnipen, Principen);
  • dicloxacillin (Dycill, Dynapen);
  • oxacillin (Bactocill); or
  • penicillin (Bicillin C-R, PC Pen VK, Pen-V, Pfizerpen, and others).

To make sure you can safely take amoxicillin, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs (especially cephalosporins such as Omnicef, Cefzil, Ceftin, Keflex, and others), or if you have any of these other conditions:

  • asthma;
  • liver disease;
  • kidney disease;
  • mononucleosis (also called “mono”);
  • a history of diarrhea caused by taking antibiotics; or
  • a history of any type of allergy.

FDA pregnancy category B. Amoxicillin is not expected to harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Amoxicillin can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking amoxicillin. Amoxicillin can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

 How should I take amoxicillin?

  • Take amoxicillin exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.
  • You may take amoxicillin with or without food.
  • Shake the oral suspension (liquid) well just before you measure a dose. Measure the liquid with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.
  • You may place the liquid directly on the tongue, or you may mix it with water, milk, baby formula, fruit juice, or ginger ale. Drink all of the mixture right away. Do not save any for later use.
  • The chewable tablet should be chewed before you swallow it.
  • Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole. Breaking the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time.
  • To be sure this medicine is helping your condition and is not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested often. Your liver and kidney function may also need to be tested. Visit your doctor regularly.
    • If you are being treated for gonorrhea, your doctor may also have you tested for syphilis, another sexually transmitted disease.
    • If you are taking amoxicillin with clarithromycin and/or lansoprazole to treat stomach ulcer, use all of your medications as directed. Read the medication guide or patient instructions provided with each medication. Do not change your doses or medication schedule without your doctor’s advice.
  • Take amoxicillin for the full prescribed length of time. Your symptoms may improve before the infection is completely cleared. Amoxicillin will not treat a viral infection such as the common cold or flu. Do not share this medication with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have.
  • Amoxicillin can cause unusual results with certain medical tests. Tell any doctor who treats you that you are using this medication.
  • Store this medication at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. You may store liquid amoxicillin in a refrigerator but do not allow it to freeze. Throw away any liquid amoxicillin that is not used within 14 days after it was mixed at the pharmacy.


What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose. 

What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
Overdose symptoms may include confusion, behavior changes, a severen skin rash, urinating less than usual, or seizure (black-out or convulsions).

 What should I avoid while taking amoxicillin?
Antibiotic medicines can cause diarrhea, which may be a sign of a new infection. If you have diarrhea that is watery or bloody, stop taking amoxicillin and call your doctor. Do not use anti-diarrhea medicine unless your doctor tells you to. 

Amoxicillin side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Call your doctor at once if you have a serious side effect such as:

  • white patches or sores inside your mouth or on your lips;
  • fever, swollen glands, rash or itching, joint pain, or general ill feeling;
  • severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash;
  • pale or yellowed skin, yellowing of the eyes, dark colored urine, fever, confusion or weakness;
  • severe tingling, numbness, pain, muscle weakness; or
  • easy bruising, unusual bleeding (nose, mouth, vagina, or rectum), purple or red pinpoint spots under your skin.

Less serious amoxicillin side effects may include:

  • stomach pain, nausea, vomiting;
  • vaginal itching or discharge;
  • headache; or
  • swollen, black, or “hairy” tongue.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

 What other drugs will affect amoxicillin?
Tell your doctor about all other medicines you use, especially:

  • An antibiotic such as azithromycin (Zithromax), clarithromycin (Biaxin), erythromycin (E.E.S., EryPed, Ery-Tab, Erythrocin), or telithromycin (Ketek);
  • Sulfa drugs (Bactrim, Gantanol, Gantrisin, Septra, SMX-TMP, and others); or
  • A tetracycline antibiotic such as demeclocycline (Declomycin), doxycycline (Adoxa, Doryx, Oracea, Vibramycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn, Vectrin), or tetracycline (Brodspec, Panmycin, Sumycin, Tetracap).

This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with amoxicillin. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.
.

Below, pasted from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amoxicillin>
Modes of Delivery
Amoxicillin is usually taken orally, commonly as a tablet or a suspension, but can also be injected. There is recent research with mice that indicates successful delivery using intraperitoneally injected amoxicillin-bearing microparticles.

Side-effects
Side-effects include nausea, vomiting, rashes, and antibiotic-associated colitis. Loose bowel movements (diarrhea) also may occur. Rarer, but patient-reported, side-effects include mental changes, lightheadedness, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, sensitivity to lights and sounds, and unclear thinking. Immediate medical care is required upon the first signs of these side-effects.

The onset of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin can be very sudden and intense – emergency medical attention must be sought as quickly as possible. The initial onset of such a reaction often starts with a change in mental state, skin rash with intense itching (often beginning in fingertips and around groin area and rapidly spreading), and sensations of fever, nausea, and vomiting. Any other symptoms that seem even remotely suspicious must be taken very seriously. However, more mild allergy symptoms, such as a rash, can occur at any time during treatment, even up to a week after treatment has ceased. For some people who are allergic to amoxicillin the side effects can be deadly.

Use of the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination for more than one week has caused mild hepatis in some patients. Young children having ingested acute overdoses of amoxicillin manifested lethargy, vomiting and renal dysfunction.

 Nonallergic amoxicillin rash
Somewhere between 3% and 10% of children taking amoxicillin (or ampicillin) show a late-developing (>72 hours after beginning medication and having never taken penicillin-like medication previously), often itchy rash, which is sometimes referred to as the “amoxicillin rash.” The rash can also occur in adults.

The rash is described as maculopapular or morbilliform (measles-like; therefore, in medical literature, it is called “amoxicillin-induced morbilliform rash”). It starts on the trunk and can spread from there. This rash is unlikely to be a true allergic reaction, and is not a contraindication for future amoxicillin usage, nor should the current regimen necessarily be stopped. However, this common amoxicillin rash and a dangerous allergic reaction cannot easily be distinguished by inexperienced persons, and therefore a healthcare professional should be consulted if a rash develops.

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B.    Fish Mox (Amoxicillin)
AMAZON.COM: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin), 250mg, 100 Capsules, $16.28 + free shipping.
•  Standard pharmacy quality Amoxicillin antibiotic
•  Labeled for use in fish tanks, in pull apart capsules for easy use – 250 mg. strength

Product Description
Fish-Mox exerts a bactericidal action on gram positive and some gram negative bacteria. Useful for control of some common bacterial diseases of fish including aeromonas and pseudomonas genera and mysobacterial group (gill diseases, chondrococcus).

Add contents of one capsule (250 mg) into aquarium for each 10 gallons  of water to be treated. It is recommended that extended medication baths continue for a minimum of 5 days & for not more than 10 days. Discontinue treatment if no improvement is noted within 5 days.
[10 gallons water per 250mg Amoxicillin * 8.3 pounds water per gallon water =83 pounds of water per 250mg Amoxicillin
or 500mg Amoxicillin per 166 lbs body weight.]

 Customer reviews:
‘For most infections, the dosage weight of this drug is 500mg for an average 160-200 lbs adult, taken 2 to 3 times a day. Take a total of 1 Gram (1000  mg) per day, using 500mg Fish Mox that would be two pills a day. Water mass is considered in determining dosage, since this is a Penicillin class of drug. You can double the dosage for short term, serious infections. A bottle should cost $25 for 100 Pills. It’s a human grade pharmaceutical medication, the same pills humans take.’ Pasted from <http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message813524/pg1>

1)  Review of product “Fish Mox“, February 11, 2007 By Cathy F. Elkiss (Gettysburg, PA USA This review is from: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules (Misc.) “I run a sanctuary for abandoned and homeless cats in my community, and I like to keep a supply of amoxicillin and ampicillin on hand for treating the occassional upper respiratory infections to which these animals are prone. They are both excellent products – safe, inexpensive, easy to use and most important, effective. Thank you! Cathy Elkiss”
2)  It’s The Real Stuff!!, April 17, 2009 By A.A.Roxx (PA) This review is from: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules (Misc.) “I had a bad sinus infection, tried to get a doctors appointment and was told I had to wait 2 weeks. I ordered the Fishmox received it fast from Amazon, took it 4 times a day and within 5 days the sinus infection was gone! Stayed on it for 10 days total. I saved $100 doctors visit and $90 Amoxicillin purchase (I have no medical insurance). It is real Amoxicillin. It worked for me.’
3)   Pharmaceutical Grade Amoxicillin, February 25, 2011 By J. Ellison (Silverton, oregon) – This review is from: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules (Misc.) “Fish-Mox is pharmaceutical grade Amoxicillin made in Tolleson AZ, & is same as Human Antibiotic. Capsule has FDA lot & Registration number printed on each Cap. Is non-suspended yellow powder in a pull-apart gelatin capsule. It’s the Real-McCoy; Excellent value. JE Oregon”
4)  Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules, February 2, 2011 By nubbles. This review is from: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules (Misc.) ‘This is the real deal pharmacy grade Amoxicillin, 250mg, 100 caps. Of course it’s for aquarium use only, but if you accidentally take some yourself, for let’s say calming your abscessed tooth down, you will be very OK. and if your dog accidentally eats a couple a day it might accidentally calm down his ear yeast infection. Order with confidence! and upon arrival you can inspect the pills, enter the ID on them ‘westward 938’ into google and you will see info from FDA and others telling you these are the real deal.”
5)  100% Amoxicillan, See Below……, December 10, 2010 By Westfin. This review is from: Fish Mox (Amoxicillin) 250mg, 100 Capsules (Misc.) “I just received my order of Fish Mox, which will be used for my fish, but I was curious so I looked up the name and number from one of the capsules and here are the results: <http://www.drugs.com/imprints/west-ward-938-15375.html>&#8221; [“West-ward 938”, Pill imprint West-ward 938 has been identified as Amoxicillin 250 mg. Amoxicillin is used in the treatment of urinary tract infection; bacterial infection; bladder infection; bronchitis; upper respiratory tract infection (and more), and belongs to the drug class aminopenicillins. There is no proven risk in humans during pregnancy”….]

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See also the informative YouTube videos with, “Patriot Nurse”. The following link takes you to her discussion of the  “Top 5 Antibiotics for SHTF”:

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOfthwm_v3E&feature=relmfu

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See also the book, “The Doom and Bloom(tm) Survival Medicine Handbook” (Keep your loved ones healthy in every disaster, from wildfires to a complete societal collapse),  by  Joseph Alton, M.D. and AMY ALTON, A.R.N.P., sold through Amazon.com

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Filed under Survival Manual, __6. Medical, ___c) General Clinic

Antibiotic use

 (Survival Manual/ 6. Medical/ d) Medicine & Supplement/ Antibiotics use)

Disclaimer The information, ideas, and suggestions in the 4dtraveler.net blog are not intended as a substitute for professional advice. Before following any suggestions contained in this post, you should consult your personal physician. Neither the author or Word Press shall be liable or responsible for any loss or damage allegedly arising as a consequence of your use or application of any information or suggestions in this blog.

Below pasted from <http://www.survivalistboards.com/showthread.php?t=152129&page=2>
I.    Antibiotic Usage and Duration of Treatment
Under normal circumstances, antibiotics are intended to be used for approximately one to two weeks. This duration is prescribed in order to kill more slowly growing germs, such as those initially in spore forms that require incubation for disease expression.

Emergency situations may require less careful treatment durations. This is particularly true if antibiotic shortages occur as expected following a biological weapons attack. In this case, rationing may be necessary and helpful in saving more lives. The shortest duration of antibiotic coverage recommended following a biological attack is from the onset of symptoms to at least 72 hours after the person’s symptoms completely disappear.

Ideally, antibiotic prophylaxis (for prevention of disease) should begin as soon as a biological weapons attack is confirmed for individuals at risk of exposure. In other words, it is best to leave risky environments in advance of possible exposures. Certainly, urban populations are at greatest risk for biological and chemical weapons attacks.

Three self destructive self medication tendencies
1. Don’t assume if a little medication is good then a lot must be better.
2. Don’t stop taking the medication too soon, this only educated the microbes without killing the entire culture.3. Don’t take too small a dose to cure the ailment. Learn the correct dosage by reading medical texts, nursing manuals and pill books. In the case of veterinary supplies, users must learn to interpret  densities; learn to extrapolate that out into the correct dosages set out in literature for your specific needs.

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A.  Shelf life
Your prescription medicines, including your antibiotics, probably had about a two-year expiration date from the time of their production. Your pharmacist puts a one-year expiration date on your particular bottle of medicine because of the time that has lapsed since production as well as the uncontrolled variables in storage outside the pharmacy. The practice is followed to increase the likelihood that the medicines you take are of the proper potency and quality.

Typically, the shelf life of a medicine is that period during which the potency of the medication drops a certain amount — often 10 percent. It can be less than this 10 percent figure when a drug is not effective unless a very precise amount of medicine is delivered in each dose. Conversely, if the dosage of the drug is less crucial, the potency of the drug can drop more than 10 percent and still be effective.

How long it takes for a drug to drop a certain percentage of its strength is influenced by the chemistry of the active and inactive ingredients. The condition in which a medicine is stored also influences its shelf life. Most are given a shelf life assuming that they will be stored in a 70-degree medicine cabinet in a closed container. Heat, humidity, air circulation and sunlight can dramatically shorten the shelf life of most medicines. In other words, don’t expect that open bottle of aspirin that has been rattling around in your car for two years to be much good.

Diseases tend to mutate out of reach of modern high powered antibiotics. As a practical matter, every microbe is developing an antibiotic resistance. Antibiotics fail to kill all the targeted microbes on the first pass through. If only one in a billion is resistant to an antibiotic treatment, that microbe reproduces its billions engendering even more organisms that are not killed, and so it goes until we have a non curable disease.
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B.  Antibiotics 101
Antibiotics are a class of drugs that treat bacterial infections by stopping growth of bacteria or killing the bacteria directly. It’s important to remember that antibiotics are ineffective in treating infections causes by viruses, which include the majority of colds, sore throats (with the exception of streptococcus-induced, or so-called “strep throat”), coughs, and flu-like illnesses.

In fact, taking antibiotics when they are not really necessary will not speed your recovery and can even contribute to a problem known as antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic resistance refers to the capacity of many bacteria to become resistant to a particular antibiotic so that it is no longer effective against these bacteria. It is known that the increasing use of antibiotics when they really aren’t needed has contributed to this problem and has led to the evolution of many bacterial strains that no longer respond to treatment with common antibiotics; a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance.

The evolution of antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus [methicillin-resistant Staph aureus or MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)] has received much attention in recent years, and a new strain of the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which can cause intestinal illness in people taking antibiotics for other conditions, has arisen which is much more difficult to treat and is associated with a higher death rate.

The following points are critical to remember when taking any antibiotic:

  1. Take all the medication that your doctor has prescribed for the recommended length of time. Because antibiotics tend to work fairly rapidly, you may feel much better after taking only a few days’ worth of a prescribed seven-day course of antibiotics. Never stop taking the medication because you feel better. Taking the full prescribed course of antibiotics ensures that the infection is eradicated and won’t recur.
  2. Because your doctor chooses antibiotics based upon your individual medical history along with the type of bacteria likely to be causing your infection, never assume that an antibiotic prescribed for someone else will be effective for you – never “borrow” antibiotics. Sharing any prescription medications is a dangerous practice and can even be deadly. Likewise, never “save up” antibiotics for your own later use.
  3. Antibiotics generally work rapidly. Be sure to ask your doctor when to expect results and find out what you should do if you experience no improvement after a couple of days.
  4. Antibiotics can cause a number of side effects. Nausea, diarrhea, and allergic reactions are some known side effects of antibiotics. Antibiotics also may kill naturally-occurring bacteria that protect the body from yeast infection, so yeast infections may occur while you are taking antibiotics. Be sure to ask your doctor what kind of side effects you may experience with a particular antibiotic. Always call your doctor if the side effects are severe or worrisome.
  5. If your doctor directs you to stop taking an antibiotic or switch to a different antibiotic, properly dispose of all unused medication. Ask your pharmacist about take-back programs and places where you can return unused or expired medications for safe disposal. A person needing an antibiotic should be evaluated by a physician each time an antibiotic is needed – don’t save old antibiotics to treat future infections.
  6. Ask your doctor or pharmacist whether or not you should take the medication with food and if you should change your habits during the course of treatment (for example, avoiding direct sunlight, not drinking alcohol or eating certain foods).
  7. Be certain that you have a clear idea of the directions for taking an antibiotic. If you have questions, ask. For example, does “four times a day” mean every six hours even in the night, or just at meals and at bedtime?

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C.  Preventive Foresight Regarding Pharmaceutical Supplies
The likeliest source of breaking news concerning a biological or chemical attack, launched by terrorists or other foes, is the mainstream media. By the time you hear such reports, it is likely that hospital emergency rooms, and doctor’s offices, will be full of ailing victims. It typically takes a day or longer for symptoms of infectious diseases to manifest. The first signs and symptoms of a covert attack include inexplicable headaches and flu-like symptoms.

Such is the case with anthrax. The first indication of an anthrax attack, providing the strain had not been modified, is cattle becoming sick and dying. This can happen in a matter of hours. Moreover, this is an indication to begin antibiotic prophylaxis.
Under such trying circumstances, you can expect there to be tremendous demand for medical supplies and pharmaceuticals in the wake of a terrorist attack. It is, therefore, highly advisable to consider beforehand what medical supplies might be essential for your survival and the protection of your loved ones.
Obviously, people on a regimen of prescription drugs should stock, perhaps, a three months supply in a cool, dark, and dry closet or basement.
Antibiotics can be purchased in bulk from pharmacists or livestock and veterinarian supply stores.

In case you need to leave your home or workplace in an emergency, try to plan, in advance, transporting your antibiotics and other medicinal requirements with you. Maintain access to standard emergency kits, particularly during times of possible trouble. Keeping one in your car is a good idea, providing the car doesn’t overheat.

Given these constraints, diabetics, on the move in an emergency, should try to keep their insulin at room temperature until they are resettled. Above 80 degrees and while freezing insulin will begin to degrade.
In general, when traveling or storing antibiotics and medications in your car, be aware of extreme temperatures. Extreme heat and cold often inactivates, like insulin, many medicines.

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D.  A Simplified Guide to Antibiotics and Their Uses
1.  Penicillins
The original penicillin-G (Pen G), along with more the common penicillin-V (Pen V), are used to fight gram-positive bacteria, such as anthrax. Pentids, the brand name for penicillin-G, come in 400 and 800mg pills. Brand names for penicillin-V include V-Cillin-K and Pen Vee K. The basic Pen G may be purchased from farm and veterinary stores for far less expense than through pharmacies, though make sure you only buy the refrigerated brand. The active ingredients in the unrefrigerated variety are far lower and potentially inadequate.

Pen G must be taken on an empty stomach. This is not as critical for Pen V. A dose of 250mg (i.e., 400,000 units), for people weighing 50 pounds or more, is taken four times daily. A rule of thumb for children weighing less than 50 pounds, the dosage should be reduced by 20% for every 10 pounds of less body weight.

These penicillins are more likely to cause allergic reactions, and fatalities, than synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin. Some of the allergic reactions are caused by procaine (Novocain) that is added in some Pen G formulas.

 Ampicillin
Brand names of this synthetic penicillin include Principen, Omnipen, Polycillin and Totacillin. These are also affective against gram-positive microbes such as anthrax.
Dosages of ampicillin are the same prescribed for penicillin. This antibiotic should be taken, ideally, on an empty stomach.
Strains of anthrax that resist penicillin may be more susceptible to destruction by ampicillin. Also, ampicillin may be more helpful than penicillin for killing a broader spectrum of infections.

 2.  Cephalosporins
These are also effective against anthrax. One gram of Cephalexin taken every six hours is recommended. Brand names for this are Keflex, Keflet and Keftab. One gram of the related Cefadroxil, brand named Duricef, should be taken every twelve hours.
Erythromycin (Macrolide family of antibiotics)
Erythromycin and its relatives provide a broader spectrum of coverage than penicillins. Brand names of Erythromycin Pediamycin, Erythrocin, Eryc, EES, Ery-Tab, PCE, Ilosone, and E-Mycin. Other related antibiotics, such as clarithromycin (Biaxin) and azithromycin (Z-pak or Zithromax) may also be effective. A liquid form of erythromycin, called Gallimycin, is available for injection. The oral dose of this injectable product is the same.

Taken on an empty stomach, this may be used to treat more difficult cases of anthrax. If upset stomach occurs, it should be consumed with a bit of food. Avoid eating citrus fruits or products, which deactivate these antibiotics during digestion. Note: Fatal heart attacks may result from taking these antibiotics in combination with Seldane (terfenadine), Hismanal, or Seldane-D.
For individuals weighing 150 pounds or more, a 500mg dose is recommended. People weighing less should reduce their dosage proportionately.

3.  Aminoglycosides
These antibiotics that are effective against anthrax, tularemia, and the Bubonic plague, include: Streptomycin, Gentamycin, and Neomycin. They can all be extremely toxic. Primary organs at risk for destruction by the aminoglycosides include the kidneys and inner ears.

Each of the aminoglycosides must be injected, and cannot be taken orally. The oral dosage forms of these antibiotics are effective only against gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections of the stomach and intestines.

Gentamycin (Garacin) powder can be purchased in bulk. It cannot be absorbed when taken orally, but it can be effective against certain biologicals striking the GI tract such as botulism.

Streptomycin, taken two to four times daily, in one to four gram doses, equally spaced throughout the day. It can be used in combination with tetracycline until the person’s fever breaks. Then the tetracycline can be continued alone. Otherwise, streptomycin should be used consistently for a week to ten days.

Gentamycin, is effective against tularemia and the plague. It should be injected intramuscularly or intravenously every eight hours in emergency measures of 1.7mg per kilogram body weight. As soon as symptoms of disease disappear, the dose should be reduced to 1.0mg per kilogram of body weight for the remaining 7-10 day period.

This antibiotic is available in bulk through veterinary stores. It is likely that this less expensive product may be successfully used orally to defend against the plague or tularemia germs infecting the gut.

Neomycin, when given in doses of 500mg, four times daily, may be helpful against anthrax, plague, and tularemia, though it has not been traditionally prescribed for these. Use this only if the other aminoglycoside antibiotics are unavailable.

4.  Fluoroquinolones
In daily doses of 300mg per kg. of body weight (i.e., 65mg. per pound), Ciproflavoxin (Cipro) is effective against tularemia and anthrax. The daily dose should be divided into four doses taken every six hours for two weeks. Following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 on the Pentagon and World Trade Center, this extremely expensive drug has been in high demand as the FDA’s antibiotic of choice against anthrax. Disturbing politics regarding this selection and its manufacturer-Bayer-may be found at http://www.tetrahedron.org.

5.  Chloramphenicol
Effective against anthrax, tularemia and plague, Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin) has a relatively high rate of lethal side effects. Thus, persons allergic to safer antibiotics should only use it, or in the event other medications are unavailable. More expensive than other antibiotics, this injectable product can also be consumed orally and absorbed effectively into the bloodstream. Ideally, taken on an empty stomach, it may be consumed with food to reduce stomach upsets.

Chloramphenicol has the same spectrum of activity as erythromycin. Thus, it should never be given with erythromycin unless under emergency conditions at the first sign of biowarfare-induced illness. It may, however, be taken with Tetracycline for a broader spectrum of effectiveness. This combination may be wise if it is unclear which biological weapon is causing illness, and if rationing is not in effect.
The injectable form of chloramphenicol tastes awful! For people weighing 200 pounds or more, 2,500mg doses recommended.

6.  Tetracyclines
Tetracyclines (brand named Sumycin and Achromycin-V) are broad-spectrum antibiotics available from farm supply shops and veterinary stores in the form of oxytetracycline. These can be used effectively against all most strains of anthrax, plague, and tularemia.

Oxytetracycline comes in bulk powder form under the brand name Terramycin-343. It also comes in combination with livestock feed (Advance Calf Medic). This could be used in a pinch if other antibiotics were unavailable. There are 3 grams of active antibiotic in each pound of feed. A low dose could be provided by consuming almost 1.5 ounces; a high dose twice that could be measured and eaten.

Two newer classes of tetracycline are Doxycycline and Minocycline . Brand names for these tetracyclines include the Doxycyclines-Vibramycin, Vibra-tabs, Monodox and Doryx; and the Minocyclines called Minocin.

Tetracycline is typically taken four times a day, doxycyclines once per day or twice per day when taken with Minocycline. The two newer cyclines can be taken with food, not the older tetracycline. They, thus, tend to cause fewer stomach upsets. Doxycycline is typically less costly than traditional tetracycline, and Doxycycline and Minocycline provide a broader spectrum of antibiotic effectiveness than the old standard. Stains of biological weapons the may have been manufactured to resist tetracycline might be more susceptible to the newer cyclones.

Tetracycline should be taken one hour before or two hours after antacids, laxatives, and calcium supplements.

As a rule of thumb, four 250mg doses of tetracycline are prescribed daily, that is, one dose every six hours for your typical 100-pound person. For persons weighing less than 100 pound, reduce this dose accordingly. For instance, if a 100-pound person receives 1,000mg per day, then a 50-pound person would receive 500mg per day, or four 125mg doses q. 6 hours. The Doxycycline dosage is typically 200mg the first day, and 100mg doses following for up to ten days. The oxytetracycline (Terramycin) dose is the same as standard tetracycline. Another alternative tetracycline, called demeclocycline (Declomycin), may be substituted for standard tetracycline employing the same dose schedule as well.

Throw away any tetracycline that is out of date. Old tetracycline can cause serious problems with the kidneys.
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E.  Preserving and Administering Your Antibiotics
Most antibiotics and drugs can be preserved by refrigeration, so long as they are kept dry. If traveling through extreme temperatures, antibiotics should be encased in Styrofoam containers, at best, and efforts should be made to avoid heat or freezing cold.

Warning: No drug should be consumed beyond its expiration date, especially Tetracycline antibiotics. Severe reactions may result from this expired antibiotic. However, when faced with a life-or-death situation, as might be presented with biological warfare or bioterrorism, such chances might have to be taken.

Antibiotics are typically administered orally or by injection. However, if the patient is comatose, the oral route may be circumvented rectally by using a plastic oral syringe available in most drugstores. This should be inserted as deeply into the rectum as possible. Use of a few drops of water, then larger amounts of cocoa butter, for dissolving the antibiotic. Cocoa butter is available in most drugstores in sticks that are melted in a jar placed in hot water. The butter is commonly used for suppositories and will hold the antibiotic for absorption better than water. Water may run out of the rectum and thereby precious antibiotic may be lost. So if water is all you have, use as little as possible to dissolve and inject the measured amount of powdered antibiotic.

Antibiotic tablets can be crushed and powdered by placing them between two napkins on a hard surface and pounding them with another flat hard object or instrument.

The absorption of active antibiotic is less, given the rectal route of administration. For this reason, the dosages should be increased to compensate.

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II.   Self medication observations:

•  Medications designed for horses especially are higher purity and therefore higher quality than the exact same medication designed for human use. Generally, they are stronger (more potent) and safer as well. In fact, just about any medication designed for a farm type animal is at least as good as human grade and frequently it is higher quality than human grade medications.
Pasted from <http://www.survivalistboards.com/showthread.php?t=14441>

•  Ok, I have taken fish penicillin for a nasty tooth infection. Cleared it right up. Came in 250 mg tablets and took 2 every 6 hours. I would not suggest taking large animal antibiotics, but the fish stuff is great. My new husband has been taking them for years.
Pasted from <http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=001w9g>

•  In response to JIT’s comment, RE: a 25 gram goldfish; this is the thing. A 250 mg tablet of penicillin treats a 10 gal aquarium, which weighs approximately 83 pounds. So if you weigh 160 pounds, the dose would be 500 mg. of penicillin. Funny, that works out to just about what my doctor prescribed for me the last time. I used to manage a pet shop that specialized in aquarium fish and accessories, plus their medical needs. We went ’round and ’round with the health dept. trying to abolish our ability to sell these types of antibiotics; because it was becoming known at that time (about 5-8 years ago) that people were using the meds on themselves. I find it interesting that the Health Dept. main reason for wanting to outlaw the sales, was not fear that the drugs weren’t safe for humans; but their main argument was that most people are unlearned in the proper dosages they should use and might harm themselves due to simple ignorance.
Pasted from <http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=001w9g>

•  Hmmm, I am a veterinarian and I buy the conventional drugs from the exact same suppliers as your pharmacist in most cases.
They are the same generics you get at any drug store. I recommend cipro, amoxi, and doxycycline as basics in a survival situation.
There are a few antibiotics that animals get that are not safe for humans… enrofloxicin (Baytril) is not metabolized well by humans, and Chloramphenical is rarely used in humans, but has very very serious, often lethal side effects. Clinadamycin is commonly used in pets but can cause pretty bad diarrhea in humans.
At any rate, antibiotics should only be used in emergency situations. We have already created some superbugs by misuse, and the drugs are not harmless in our own bodies, no matter how innocuous they may seem.
Pasted from <http://204.74.214.194/forum1/message813524/pg2>

•  I have used and will continue to keep fish Mox and Fish Mycin on hand for various problems. The brands sold by Thomas pharmaceuticals are prescription grade and work very well. I get bronchitis and have gotten walking pneumonia in the past, as well as ear-throat infections for my kids, and having antibiotics on hand makes solving these problems easy. I mentioned it to my GP physician and he said just to be careful with them. (he knows that I am) they even have a fish cypro (which I plan on having on hand next time I place an order as it will wipe out an anthrax infection)
Pasted from <http://204.74.214.194/forum1/message813524/pg2>

•  The animal antibiotics are high quality. Many people have valuable race horses, show dogs and cats and if their antibiotics were not quality the vets would get sued.
Doxycycline, tetracycline, oxytetracycline are available over the counter for live stock in farm supply stores.
Doxycycline is very good because it successfully fights the biowar/new/emerging/chronic diseases.
Like MRSA, Lyme, CFS, Gulf War Illness, MS, arthritis, diabetes, chrones,
Pasted from <http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message813524/pg1>

•  10 to 30 mg/kg per day is a good rule of thumb. If there is no doctor to diagnose and treat, then stick with the 30 mg/kg per day (split into two doses morning and evening) to treat most common infections that a person would get without a doctor being readily available.
Pasted from <http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message813524/pg1>

•  I also had a friend of mine look up the fish meds in a PDR, it’s the EXACT same pill. Not made crudely not made cheaper than regular meds.. same pill, same stamp and same factory.
Pasted from <http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message813524/pg1>

•  I asked my obgyn and he put it this way, “If for any reason there was no medical supply to be had and the fish antibiotics were all that were available, and the person would probably suffer/die/ if not given treatment, then what would you think I would tell you to do? Do not use them when the regular meds are available but I would rather have them than nothing”.
Pasted from <http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=001oWS>

•  Go to www.michaelhyatt.com and visit his Discussion Forum. Go to Health. Go to the archives under Health. You will find reams of advice on vet antibiotics. Nurses moderate the Health area, and an occasional doctor contributes. They reassured us that these vet antibiotics are IDENTICAL to the ones, produced by the SAME pharmaceutical houses, even in the same pill color/shape as the human antibiotics. They explained that the drug houses will only charge what the traffic will bear: thus, the high cost to US citizens for the same medications they sell cheaply in Mexico, Canada, and all other countries!! They know people would not pay high for pet antibiotics.
Pasted from <http://www.greenspun.com/bboard/q-and-a-fetch-msg.tcl?msg_id=001oWS

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III.  Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Rapidly Between Bacteria
Apr. 13, 2011, ScienceDaily
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110411163918.htm
“…More and more bacteria are becoming resistant to our common antibiotics, and to make matters worse, more and more are becoming resistant to all known antibiotics. The problem is known as multi-resistance, and is generally described as one of the most significant future threats to public health Antibiotic resistance can arise in bacteria in our environment and in our bodies. Antibiotic resistance can then be transferred to the bacteria that cause human diseases, even if the bacteria are not related to each other…

The research team has studied a group of the known carriers of antibiotic resistance genes: IncP-1 plasmids. Using advanced DNA analysis, the researchers have succeeded in mapping the origin of different IncP-1 plasmids and their mobility between different bacterial species. “Our results show that plasmids from the IncP-1 group have existed in, and adapted to, widely differing bacteria. They have also recombined, which means that a single plasmid can be regarded as a composite jigsaw puzzle of genes, each of which has adapted to different bacterial species,” says Peter Norberg, a researcher in the Institute of Biomedicine at the University of Gothenburg. This indicates very good adaptability and suggests that these plasmids can move relatively freely between, and thrive in, widely differing bacterial species.

“IncP-1 plasmids are very potent ‘vehicles’ for transporting antibiotic resistance genes between bacterial species. Therefore, it does not matter much in what environment, in what part of the world, or in what bacterial species antibiotic resistance arises. Resistance genes could relatively easily be transported from the original environment to bacteria that infect humans, through IncP-1 plasmids, or other plasmids with similar properties, as ‘vehicles’,” says Professor Malte Hermansson of the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Gothenburg…

It has been known for some time that plasmids are important in the spread of antibiotic resistance. The research team’s findings show that IncP-1 plasmids can move, and have moved, between widely differing bacterial species and in addition have interacted directly with one another, which can increase the potential for gene spreading.”

 

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Supplement and Dietary topics

(Survival Manual/6. Medical/d) Medicine & Supplement/Supplement & Dietary)

Vitamins, Supplements, Nostrum & Diet: Items that may be particularly useful in a survival-hardship scenario.
This article is primarily composed of commercial product descriptions about supplements that could make the difference in a SHTF situation.

Bragg  organic apple cider vinegar
[Some people swear by this product. I bought a small bottle and used it for several weeks. It has a clean refreshing taste when mixed into several ounces of cold water, however, vinegar is just too tart for my taste. I didn’t feel any better or worse from trying the beverage, it just wasn’t for me. Mr Larry]
Bought from Amazon.com: Bragg  Organic Apple Cider Vinegar, 2 ea 16 oz bottles.  .
•  Preparation: 1 teaspoon organic apple cider vinegar per 8 oz cup water, sip.
•  Apple cider vinegar is an ancient folk remedy touted to relieve just about any ailment you can think of.
•  In recent years, apple cider vinegar has been singled out as an especially helpful health tonic.
•  Some small studies have hinted that apple cider vinegar could help with several conditions, such as diabetes and obesity.
•  If you drink a lot of water throughout the day, consider adding just a splash of apple cider vinegar to your glass/container each time you fill it up. Drink this on hot summer day, especially before working out, your body will feel very cleansed. If you prefer a warm drink, try 1 tsp vinegar in hot water– you will feel energized, but not adrenalized.
•  There are several things you will notice within a day or two of drinking Apple Cider Vinegar: your allergies will disappear, your face will have a healthy & youthful glow, you will look & feel more vital, you will have consistent energy, and you will more easily —-digest your food.
•  Vinegar is a disinfectant, but it doesn’t kill as many germs as common cleaners.
•  Apple cider vinegar is highly acidic. The main ingredient of apple cider vinegar is acetic acid. Apple cider vinegar should always be diluted with water or juice before swallowed. Pure apple cider vinegar could damage the tooth enamel and the tissues in your throat and mouth.
•  Long-term & frequent use of apple cider vinegar could cause low potassium levels and lower bone density.
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Vitamin B-12 (Finest Natural, 1000 mcg. 2x 150 tablet bottles, Walgreens Drug Store) Dietary Supplement Tablets.
•  Vitamin B-12 contributes to normal brain function and nervous system health, take 1000 micrograms every day.  A low level of vitamin B12 has been associated with memory loss and other cognitive deficits, asthma, depression, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, tinnitus, diabetic neuropathy and low sperm counts.
[If things go bad, you’ll want what to maxamize your brain functions. Being out of your typical daily element will already have you operating at a few percent less than optimum. It’s the functionuing of that cranial encased organ that allows us to learn and use complex symbols and methodologies to thrive. Mr Larry]
•  Several surveys have shown that most strict, long-term vegetarians are vitamin B12 deficient. Many elderly people are also deficient because their production of the intrinsic factor needed to absorb the vitamin from the small intestine decline rapidly with age.
•  Vitamin B12, vitamin B6 as well as folic acid play a vital roles in recycling homocysteine into methionine, one of the 20 or more essential building blocks from which our bodies builds new proteins. Without sufficient amounts of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, the recycling of homocysteine into methionine becomes inefficient and homocysteine levels can increase. Quite a few studies indicate that high levels of homocysteine are associated with higher than normal risks of both heart disease and stroke. Increasing consumption of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 is now believed to dramatically decrease homocysteine levels. And some studies also show lower risks of cardiovascular and heart disease among individuals with higher intakes of folic acid, those who use quality multivitamin supplements, or those with higher amounts of serum folate (the form of folic acid found in the body). Notwithstanding, there are other studies that show little or no meaningful association between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease.

Some of the top vitamin B-12-rich foods are:

Eggs Some species of fish supply small amounts
Cheese Vegetables and fruits are very poor sources

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Calcium tablets
(Tums Ultra 1000 160 tablets): consume enough calcium every day to maintain adequate blood and bone calcium levels.
•  Recommended calcium intake for adults is 1,000 to 1,300 milligrams daily. Multi-vitamins typically do not contain more than 200 to 250 mg of calcium. Tums are 1000 mg /tablet with 40% elemental Ca. [In a SHTF situation, you’ll may get your daily calcium requirement from taking Tums to ease an upset stomach. lp]
•  The bones and teeth in your body are largely made of calcium. The bones and teeth represent 99% of the total calcium found in your body, with the other 1% residing in the bloodstream.
•  If your body cannot achieve its daily requirements, it will begin to sap the calcium from your teeth and bones, making them fragile and weak, and resulting in problems such as arthritis and osteoporosis. A calcium deficiency can also cause palpitations of the heart and hypertension. In addition to supplying bones and the bloodstream, calcium helps the body to properly heal from wounds and promotes heart function. Also, calcium aids in blood clotting and helps nerves communicate with each other better. In general, this is one of the top minerals your body needs to be successfully healthy.
•  Do not to take calcium supplements (Tums) with tetracycline or doxycycline antibiotics.

Some of the top calcium-rich foods are:

Cheese Dark leafy greens like spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens. Fortified soymilk (Not all soymilk is a good source of calcium, so it’s best to check the label.)
Yogurt Fortified cereals such as Total, Raisin Bran, Corn Flakes (They have a lot of calcium in one serving.) Enriched breads, grains, and waffles
Milk Fortified orange juice
Sardines Soybeans

 

Vitamin C  (Spring Valley 500 mg x 250 tablets, Walmart). Vitamin C is one of the safest and most effective nutrients. It may not be the cure for the common cold, but the benefits of vitamin C include protection against immune system deficiencies, cardiovascular disease,  eye disease, and even skin wrinkling.
•  Vitamin C plays an important role in fighting and controlling harmful infections. It’s also considered a powerful antioxidant that can neutralize free radicals that can harm the body, and vitamin C helps make collagen, a tissue required for healthy teeth, bones, gums, and blood vessels.
•  It’s not practical for most people to consume the required servings of fruits and vegetables needed on a consistent basis, whereas taking a once-daily supplement is safe, effective, and easy to do. Only 10% to 20% of adults get the recommended nine servings of fruits and vegetables daily.
•  There is no real downside to taking a 500-milligram supplement, except that some types may irritate the stomach. The safe upper limit for vitamin C is 2,000 milligrams a day, and there is a great track record with strong evidence that taking 500 milligrams daily is safe.

The top Vitamin C-rich foods are:

Strawberries Bell Peppers Broccoli
Acerola Cherry 1 cherry = 1 orange Guava Cauliflower
Citrus Fruits: orange, grapefruit, lemon, lime Brussels Sprouts Tomatoes
Papayas Melons Select Herbs: cilantro, chives, thyme, basil, parsley
Blackcurrant Dark leafy greens: kale, mustard greens, chard, spinach
Kiwi Amalaki Fruit

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Vitamin D-3
(Spring Valley 1000iu x 100 soft gels, Walmart)  Protect bone, joint, and immune health. vitamin D3 is extremely useful in absorbing calcium and phosphorus from the intestines so the two key minerals can be used by the body. Vitamin D3 is the vitamin that is used by humans. Receiving approximately 15 minutes of sunlight per day, if you are able, will provide you with all the Vitamin D you need. The FDA suggests that you consume 200 to 400 IU per day of Vitamin D if you are less than 50 years old. If you are over 50, it is suggested that you consume 600 IU. For many individuals, the best way to obtain the recommended daily intake is by taking a good multivitamin.

What can high-vitamin D foods do for you?
•  Help optimize calcium metabolism
•  Help optimize phosphorus metabolism
•  Help prevent type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, heart attack, congestive heart failure, and stroke
•  Help prevent falls and muscle weakness
•  Help prevent osteoporosis while maintaining bone integrity
•  Help regulate insulin activity and blood sugar balance
•  Help regulate immune system responses
•  Help regulate muscle composition and muscle  function
•  Help regulate blood pressure
•  Lower risk of excessive inflammation
•  Lower risk of some bacterial infections
•  Support cognitive function, especially in older persons
•  Support mood stability, especially in older  persons
•  Help prevent chronic fatigue
•  Help prevent the following types of cancer: bladder, breast, colon, ovarian, prostate and rectal

If you live north of the line connecting San Francisco to Philadelphia, chances are very good that aren’t getting enough vitamin D. The same is also true if you don’t, or can’t, get outside in the sunlight for at least a 15-minute daily walk. A recent study of individuals admitted to a Boston hospital showed that nearly 60% were experiencing vitamin D deficiency at some level or another.

***Vitamin D3 is both a vitamin and a hormone. It acts as a vitamin when it binds with calcium for proper absorption. Humans cannot digest calcium without adequate amounts of Vitamin D3.
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This Vitamin Can Radically Reduce Damage from low level Radioactivity
3 June 2011, FoodConsumer.com
http://www.foodconsumer.org/newsite/2/other_diseases/vitamin_d_0604110615.html
How Does Vitamin D3 Protect Against Radiation-Induced Damage?
Scientists have identified a total of nearly 3,000 genes that are upregulated by vitamin D3, so it makes sense that it would have “multifaceted protective actions,” as researchers noted in the International Journal of Low Radiation.

The report found that the most active molecular form of vitamin D3 (also known as calcitriol) — may offer protection against a variety of radiation-induced damages, including those caused by background radiation or a low-level nuclear incident, through the following mechanisms:
•  Cell cycle regulation and proliferation
•  Cellular differentiation and communication
•  Programmed Cell Death (PCD)
•  Anti-angiogenesis (a process that stops tumors from making new blood vessels, which means they stop growing)

The protective mechanisms are so strong that researchers suggested vitamin D3 should be considered among the prime (if not the primary) non-pharmacological agents to protect against sub-lethal low radiation damage and, particularly, radiation-induced cancer.

It’s unclear how much vitamin D is necessary to protect against radiation-induced cancer, but researchers have found that daily intakes of vitamin D by adults in the  range of 4,000 to 8,000 IU are needed to maintain blood levels of vitamin D metabolites in the range needed to reduce the risk of breast and colon cancers by about half.
Earlier studies have shown that optimizing your vitamin D levels could help you to prevent at least 16 different types of cancer including pancreatic, lung, ovarian, prostate, and skin cancers, so it’s not a stretch to add radiation-induced cancer to that list.
It has been my experience that many are still nervous about taking doses larger than 1,000 to 2,000 units per day. This is unfortunate as most adults without sun or safe tanning bed exposure will need 6,000-8,000 units of vitamin D per day to attain healthy vitamin D levels.

Three Points to Remember About Vitamin D
When using vitamin D therapeutically, it’s important to remember the following:
1.  Your best source for vitamin D is exposure to the sun, without sunblock on your skin, until your skin turns the lightest shade of pink. While this isn’t always possible due to the change of the seasons and your geographic location (and your skin color), this is the ideal to aim for. Vitamin D supplementation or use of a safe tanning bed can fill the gaps during the winter months outside of the tropics, when healthy sun exposure is not an option.
2.  If you supplement with vitamin D, you’ll only want to supplement with natural vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Do NOT use the synthetic and highly inferior vitamin D2, which is the one most doctors will give you in a prescription unless you ask specifically for D3.
3.  Get your vitamin D blood levels checked! The only way to determine the correct dose is to get  your blood level tested since there are so many variables that influence your vitamin D status. I recommend using Lab Corp in the United States. Getting the correct test is the first step in this process, as there are TWO vitamin D tests currently being offered: 1,25(OH)D and 25(OH)D.

Foods high in Vitamin D3 include:

Salmon, mackerel,   cod Cod liver oil Beef liver
shrimp Fortified cow’s   milk
sardines Whole eggs

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Distilled spirits
Brandy, gin, rum, tequila, vodka and whiskey are typically the most stable distilled spirits. These can be stored for a long time. These liquors have an indefinite shelf life and once opened may begin to lose certain flavor qualities over a period of time. Depending upon your storage methods, this can be anywhere from several months to several years.
Most distilled spirits do not age or mature in the bottle. This means that your 20 year old, unopened bottle of bourbon or whiskey will taste relatively the same as first day it was bottled. However, like beer certain liquors can “go bad” after a few months in an opened bottle. This may cause your liquor to loose some of its character or flavor.
When alcohol is consumed, it gets special privileges and needs no digestion. The alcohol molecules diffuse through the stomach wall as soon as they arrive and can reach the brain and liver in minutes. This reaction is slightly slowed when there is also food in your system, but as soon as the mixed contents enter the small intestine, the alcohol grabs first place and is absorbed quickly.
Alcohol and weight loss are enemies, but an occasional drink can have a place in a healthy lifestyle. In fact, many experts note the health benefits of consuming a single drink per day, including a reduced risk for high blood pressure. If you are exceeding one drink daily, you might be sabotaging your weight loss plans. Alcohol only add empty calories to your diet. Research shows that if you drink before or during a meal, both your inhibitions and willpower are reduced. In this state, you are more likely to overeat—especially greasy or fried foods—which can add to your waistline. Drinking might help induce sleep, but the sleep you get isn’t very deep, as a result, you get less rest. Alcohol can also increase the amount of acid that your stomach produces, causing your stomach lining to become inflamed. Over time, excessive alcohol use can lead to serious health problems, including stomach ulcers, liver disease, and heart troubles.
Example: Seagrams 7 Crown: 1 shot=1.5 fl oz=97 calories
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Echincea (Spring Valley 760 mg x 100 capsules, Walmart)  One of the most popular herbs in America today. Echinacea is used to shorten the duration of the common cold and flu and reduce symptoms, such as sore throat (pharyngitis), cough, and fever. Contains substances that enhance the activity of the immune system, relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and have hormonal, antiviral, and antioxidant effects. For general immune system stimulation, during colds, flu, upper respiratory tract infections, or bladder infections. [This is not taken daily like a common multivitamin, Echincea is only taken for a few days when you have already become ill]
•  Named for the prickly scales in its large conical seed head, the herb resembles the spines of an angry hedgehog (echinos is Greek for hedgehog).
•  Results of archeological digs indicate that Native Americans may have used echinacea for more than 400 years to treat infections and wounds and as a general “cure-all.”
•  Throughout history people have used echinacea to treat (treat is different than cure) scarlet fever, syphilis, malaria, blood poisoning, and diphtheria. Although this herb was popular during the 18th and 19th centuries, its use began to decline in the United States after the introduction of antibiotics. Echinacea preparations became increasingly popular in Germany throughout the 20th century.
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Magnesium (Finest Natural  250 mg x 300 tablets, Walgreens Drug Store).  Dietary Supplement Tablets. Magnesium is an essential mineral and plays an important role in energy metabolism, protein synthesis, neuromuscular transmission and bone structure, energy support. (Equate Multivitamin provides 50 mg of the 400 recommended below)

The “Recommended Daily Allowance”, or RDA, for Magnesium in the United States is approximately:
•  400 mg per day for men
•  300 mg per day for women
Given that magnesium is also important to help your body absorb calcium, it is crucial to get a healthy dose of this mineral.

Some of the top magnesium-rich foods are:

Leafy Green Vegetables: Spinach, romaine lettuce more   than iceberg lettuce. Nuts: Almonds, cashews and Brazil nuts.
Whole   Grains: Buckwheat flour, barley, cornmeal, oat bran and bulgur, instead of white flour and white rice Cereals: Whole grain cereals containing bran, oats and buckwheat have magnesium.
Beans: black beans, white bean, soybeans, navy   beans and lima beans.Tomato paste. Drinks: Coffee, cocoa and tea
Spices: Flavoring your food with magnesium rich spices can give   your diet the nutrient boost it needs. Sprinkle on sage, basil, lemongrass, peppermint, parsley and paprika Chocolate: A surprise magnesium source, this sweet   treat is the highest in magnesium of any food, but a chocolate craving can often be a sign of magnesium deficiency. Don’t always reach for a chocolate   bar to get your fix, other magnesium rich foods are healthier choices.

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Multivitamin (Equate Mature Complete Multivitamin, 220 tablets, Walmart )    In general, a good daily multivitamin/mineral supplement improves your overall bodily functioning and boosts both your physical and mental health and well-being.  Even though multivitamin pills may be beneficial they don’t provide sufficient nutrition in themselves for peak health or disease prevention.
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Omega-3 Fish Oil One-Per-Day (Finest Natural soft gels, Walgreens Drug Store). Omega 3s are necessary for many vital functions in the body and have been shown to: Support heart health, Support mental performance and proper brain function, Support a healthy mood, Support healthy skin, nerve and joint function.
Nearly 20% of the US population are so low in DHA and EPA that tests are unable to detect any in their blood.
There is evidence from multiple studies supporting intake of recommended amounts of DHA and EPA in the form of dietary fish or fish oil supplements lowers triglycerides, reduces the risk of death, heart attack, dangerous abnormal heart rhythms, and strokes in people with known cardiovascular disease, slows the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques (“hardening of the arteries”), and lowers blood pressure slightly. However, high doses may have harmful effects, such as an increased risk of bleeding.

Good food sources of plant based ALA :

Fish or soft gel   supplements soybeans cauliflower Brussels sprouts
walnuts tofu broccoli

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Antioxidants
Cells in the human body must constantly fight against harmful substances called free radicals. Free radicals can damage the body’s DNA, the inside lining of artery walls, eye proteins and just about any substance or tissue in the body. Many free radicals are created by the body as an inevitable byproduct of processes that occur on a regular basis in the body. Free radicals also come from the foods we eat and even the air we breathe.

However, the human body isn’t completely defenseless against free radicals. Antioxidants we extract from the foods we eat can help protect us against harmful free radicals. Hundreds of antioxidants are found in fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods that we can east. The most common antixodants are vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene and other similar carotenoids. Minerals such as selenium and manganese which are needed by enzymes that destroy free radicals can also be found in many whole food products.

The Logical Conclusion
A regular run-of-the-mill multivitamin supplement isn’t going to make up for a bad diet. While it will provide a dozen or so of the vitamins known to maintain health, it only is going to offer a mere shadow of what’s made available to the body from eating plenty of good foods including fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Instead, a daily multivitamin provides a sort of nutritional safety net not a solution. While a majority of the populations gets enough vitamins to avoid common deficiency related diseases, very few people get enough of five essential vitamins that may be key in preventing many chronic diseases. These include:
•  Folic acid
•  Vitamin B6
•  Vitamin B12
•  Vitamin D
•  Vitamin E
A common, store-brand RDA  multivitamin can supply you with enough of these vitamins. And it’s about the least expensive health insurance you can buy.

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Top 10 lists of the healthiest food on the planet:
List #1:
1. 
Olive Oil contains monounsaturated (good) fats, which have been shown to have some excellent health benefits, such as possibly lowering your risk of diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
2.  Blueberries are one of the 10 healthiest foods out there and contain powerful antioxidants that may help lower LDL cholesterol. In fact, these antioxidants were rated #1 in antioxidant activity in a recent Tufts Unioversity studythat compared 40 fruit and vegetables.
3.  Yogurt contains healthy bacteria that helps boost your immune system, fight infection and improve your gastrointestinal health. Yogurt may also help prevent osteoporosis, lower cholesterol and reduce your risk for high blood pressure. It is an excellent source of calcium and B vitamins. Be sure to choose low fat and low sugar yogurts.
4.  Broccoli makes the 10 healthiest foods list because it’s high in antioxidants and loaded with vitamin C, calcium and folic acid. Broccoli is a proven cancer fighting food – eating broccoli stimulates the body to create natural cancer fighting substances and diets including broccoli have been shown to prevent a number of different types of cancers. Broccoli is also high in soluble fiber and low in calories.
5.  Spinach prevents muscle & bone loss and has been linked to decreased risk of cancer and heart diseases. It’s also very high in antioxidants and vitamins A, C, and K, as well as potassium and folate. Spinach is one the healthiest foods you can eat – calorie for calorie, not many foods can match the nutritional benefits and low calorie content of spinach and other green, leafy vegetables like kale and Swiss chard.
6.  Tomatoes are high in lycopene, which is a powerful antioxidant that has a ton of health benefits, including helping prevent cancer. Tomatoes are packed with vitamins A and C, as well as potassium. Eating tomatoes also decreases the risk of developing heart disease, increases prostrate health and may lower cholesterol.
7.  Apples aid in lowering cholesterol; prevent numerous types of cancer; and have health benefits related to many other conditions, including Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and diabetes. Apples are extremely high in antioxidants and contain high amounts of vitamin C and fiber. However, apples tend to be one of the most contaminated fruits with pesticides. [Half of a large apple every morning with breakfast is tasty.]
8.  Salmon is loaded with heart healthy omega-3 fatty acids, which have been linked to a decreased risk of sudden-death heart attacks, heart disease, memory loss, and Alzheimer’s. Salmon has also been shown to help control symptoms of arthritis and depression as well. Be sure to choose wild salmon over farm raised (farm raised salmon contain lots of contaminants.
9.  Sweet potatoes are one the top 10 healthiest foods list for good reason: they’re nutrient-rich foods that contain high amounts of fiber, potassium, and vitamins A and C. Sweet potatoes also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and have been shown to stabilize blood sugar levels (making you feel fuller for longer periods of time) and have cancer and heart disease fighting properties.
10.  Almonds round out the 10 healthiest food list. Almonds are loaded with healthy monounsaturated fats and also contain protein, firer, potassium, and calcium. They are rich in vitamin E and potassium and have been shown to lower cholesterol levels, lower your risk of heart disease and diabetes, and they have cancer fighting properties as well.

List #2
1.  Lemons: A single lemon contains more than 100% of the daily-recommended value of Vitamin C.
2.  Broccoli: You can get more than 100% of the daily-recommended amount of Vitamin K from a medium-size stalk of broccoli. In addition, you will also get 200% of the daily-recommended amount of Vitamin C from this wonderfully healthy food.
3.  Dark Chocolate: Just by eating a quarter of an ounce of this deliciously healthy food every day will effectively reduce blood pressure.
4.  Potatoes: A single red potato has 66 micrograms of folate, which the body needs for building cells. You would have to eat an entire cup of broccoli or spinach to get the equivalent. Just one sweet potato has nearly eight times the amount of Vitamin A you need on a daily basis to effectively boost your immune system and fight off cancer. Studies indicate that you can burn as much as 25% more fat following a meal containing potatoes because of the fat-resistant starch.
5.  Salmon: A small three-ounce serving of salmon has nearly 50% of the recommended daily allowance of niacin to fight memory loss and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, salmon also contains omega-3 fatty acids, which lower the risk of cancer, depression and heart disease. Make sure you are eating wild salmon as opposed to farm-raised, which has up to sixteen times the amount of toxic polychlorinated biphenyl.
6.  Walnuts: All nuts are naturally healthy foods that contain omega-3 fatty acids, which help reduce cholesterol, improve mood, protect against sun damage and fight cancer. The melatonin present in walnuts is the perfect natural sleep aid.
7.  Avocados: A single avocado contains more than 50% of the fiber you need each day and 40% of the folate, which reduces heart disease. Avocados are healthy foods that are rich in fats that can lower cholesterol by as much as 22%. Add avocados to salads to increase the absorption of beta-carotene by up to five times as much.
8.  Garlic: Garlic may be better than all the other healthy foods on the planet. It is a powerful fighter against disease and inhibits the growth of bacteria such as E. coli. A compound known as allicin is found in garlic is a potent anti-inflammatory that has been known to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Crushing fresh garlic will release the greatest amount of allicin. Add garlic to other healthy foods; just be careful not to overcook because the garlic will begin to lose its nutrients after only ten minutes.
9.  Spinach: Recent studies found that spinach ranks above other fruits and vegetables as one of the best healthy foods for fighting cancer. In addition, spinach contains zeaxanthin and lutien, which boost the immune system and promote eye health.
10.  Beans: A single serving of legumes, such as lentils, peas and beans, four days a week will reduce your risk for heart disease by as much as 22%. In addition, beans also reduce the risk of breast cancer. The darker beans are healthy foods because they contain the most antioxidants. A recent study of healthy foods found that black bean hulls have forty times the amount that is present in white beans.

(end of article)

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