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Canned protein

(Survival Manual/Prepper Articles/ Canned protein)

 A. Canned Protein Foods For SHTF
7 December 2013, ModernSurvivalBlog, by Ken Jorgustin
Pasted from: http://modernsurvivalblog.com/survival-kitchen/canned-protein-foods-for-shtf/

Protein can

While planning and choosing various foods for your overall preparedness food storage, also think about the proteins.
All foods made from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds are considered part of the Protein Foods Group.
Proteins are the building blocks for our bones, muscles, and blood.
Here’s a list of some choices for storing back some canned protein…

CANNED PROTEINS
They are already ready-to-eat, pre-cooked and/or pasteurized, and therefore theoretically require no fuel consumption for safe eating (although some of the items listed below will likely taste better warmed up or cooked).

Canned Salmon
Not only is this fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids, it’s actually better for you when canned because ‘traditional pack’ salmon is packed with the bones intact, meaning more calcium for your bones and teeth. Also, some of the fat is removed, making it a healthier option.

Canned Tuna
Tuna is a naturally lean protein source, also containing good omega-3. Be aware that tuna may contain levels of mercury, so it’s probably best not to consume more than a few cans a week. Here is a tuna consumption calculator for your reference regarding maximum recommended intake.

Canned Chicken
Packed with protein and low in fat for a relatively low calorie count, chicken is high in selenium as well as cancer-preventing B-vitamin niacin. It also contains B6, which is important for energy metabolism.

Canned Pinto Beans
The canned beans are convenient and can easily be added to soups or stews. They’re a good source of folate and manganese, relatively high in protein, and rich in vitamin B1 as well as a slew of other minerals.

Canned Kidney Beans
They are high in fiber, iron and memory-boosting B1, releasing their energy slowly (meaning no sugar spikes), and contain a relatively good amount of protein.

Canned Beef
There are a variety of commercially available canned beef choices out there. Beef is another source of protein. I just randomly checked a can of Kirkland canned beef (12 oz) and it contains 15 grams of protein, slightly more than the same size canned chicken (13 grams).

Canned Almonds
Often considered the healthiest nut, a medium sized handful contains about 5 grams of protein, 4 grams of fiber (the highest of any nut), calcium, zinc, iron, vitamin E, and some B-vitamins, minerals, and selenium. Generally, most all unprocessed nuts are good in that they contain protein and other attributes. If they’re canned, they should have a longer shelf life, but the oils in them will go rancid after a time.

How much protein do you need each day?
Recommended daily amounts are shown in the following list from the USDA.

These amounts are appropriate for individuals who get less than 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity, beyond normal daily activities. Those who are more physically active may be able to consume more while staying within calorie needs.

Children 2-3 years old – 2 ounce equivalents**
Children 4-8 years old – 4 ounce equivalents**
Girls 9-13 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Girls 14-18 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Boys 9-13 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Boys 14-18 years old – 6 ½ ounce equivalents**

Women 19-30 years old – 5 ½ ounce equivalents**
Women 31-50 years old – 5 ounce equivalents**
Women 51+ years old – 5 ounce equivalents**

Men 19-30 years old – 6 ½ ounce equivalents**
Men 31-50 years old – 6 ounce equivalents**
Men 51+ years old – 5 ½ ounce equivalents**

**See Protein Equivalents Chart below…

 Protein Equivalents Chart

protein chart

B.  My Protein Food Sources
2009, iProtein.com,
Pasted from: http://www.iprotein.com/protein-foods.html

Find out how much protein is found in the protein sources listed below!

Protein in Foods

…………………………………..Calories       Protein (g)  Total Fat (g)  Ounces

Beef

Pot Roast                                    183               28                8                     3

Flank Steak                                 175               24                9                     3

Rib Roast                                    172               24                8                     3

Round Roast                               153               27                4                     3

Sirloin                                         165               26                6                     3

Tenderloin                                  174               24                8                     3

Lean 85% Ground Beef            204               22                12                   3

Lean 90% Ground Beef            162               25                7                     3

Beef Jerky                                      70              11                1                     1

Beef Liver                                   184               23                7                     3

Beef Hot Dogs                            184               6                  17                   1 hot dog

Chicken

Broth                                          19                 3                  1                     1/2 cup

Dark Meat                                  174               23                8                     3

White Meat                                 147               26                4                     3

Ground                                       178               22                9                     3

Chicken Liver                              133               21                5                     3

Pork

Loin Chop                                    165               26                7                     3

Country-style Ribs                     203               21                13                   3

Shoulder-lean                              207               22                13                   3

Tenderloin (breaded)                  277               30                13                   3

Lean Tenderloin                          133               25                4                     3

Pork Hot Dog                              183               6                  17                   1 hot dog

Ham                                              133               21                5                     3

Turkey

Beast (no skin)                           133               26                3                     3

Breast (with skin)                     168               24                4                     3

Ground                                      210               23                12                   3

Dark Turkey (no skin)            159                24                6                     3

Turkey Hot Dogs                    129               8                  11                   1 hot dog

Lamb

Shoulder                                   239               30                12                   3

Leg                                             163               23                7                     3

Loin Chops                              186               25                8                     3

Veal                                            127               25                3                     3

Seafood

Fish

Breaded Fish Sticks           231                13                10                   3

Cat Fish                                132                 21                5                     3

Cod (baked or broiled)       89                  19                1                     3

Flounder/Sole                    99                  22                2                     3

Haddock                             98                  23                1                     3

Orange Roughy               143                   17                8                     3

Red Snapper                     19                  22                1                     3

Canned Salmon                130                17                6                     3

Fresh Salmon                   183                23                9                     3

Sardines                           177               21                10                   3

Shark                               148                24                5                     3

Sword Fish                      127                22                 4                     3

Trout                                  164                30                 5                     7-8

Tuna (oil packed)            169                25                 7                     3

Tuna (water packed)        111                25                 –                      3

Fresh Tuna                       156                25                 5                     3

Shrimp

Batter                                 195                18                11                   3

Canned                               102                20                 2                     3

Fresh/Frozen                      84                 19                 1                     3

Lobster

Broiled/Grilled                     80                  17                1                     3

Canned Meat                       79                  17                1                     3

Oysters                                    117                12                 4                     3

Bread

French                                        100               3                  1                     1 slice

Italian                                         83                 3                  –                      1 slice

Mixed Grain                             65                 2                  1                     1 slice

Pumpernickel                           80                 3                  1                     1 slice

Raisin                                         68                 2                  1                     1 slice

Rye                                               65                 2                  1                     1 slice

Sourdough                                  88                 3                  1                     1 slice

White-firm                                  88                 3                  1                     1 slice

White-firm                                  75                 2                  1                     1 slice

Hamburger Bun                          129               4                  2                     1 bun

Hard Roll                                    155               5                  2                     1 roll

Hot Dog Bun                              115                3                  2                     1 bun

Whole Wheat                                60                2                  1                     1 slice

English Muffins                            140                5                  1                     1-3 1/2 inch

Tortillas

Corn                                            61                  2                  1                     1-6 inch

Flour                                          105                3                                         1-8 inch

Vegetables

Lentils                                        115               9                  –                      1/2 cup

Refried Beans                            135               8                  1                     1/2 cup

Radish                                          1                 –                  –                      one

Rhubarb                                      26                 1                  –                      1 cup

Spinach-Fresh                            9                 1                  –                      1/4 cup

Potatoes

Baked                              220                5                  –                      7

Boiled                              124                3                  –                      5

Mashed                            122                3                  1                     3/4 cup

Baked French Fries            224                3                  12                   1/3 cup

Fruits

Bananas                                     105               1                  1                     1 med.

Pears – Fresh                             98                 1                  1                     1 med.

Pineapple – Fresh                     38                 –                  –                      1/2 cup

Plums – Fresh                           36                 1                  –                      1 med.

Prunes                                        20                 –                  –                      one

Raisins                                        55                 1                  –                      2 Tbsp.

Raspberries – Fresh                  30                 1                  –                      1/2 cup

Tangerine                                    37                 1                  –                      1 med.

Cherry Tomatoes                         3                   –                  –                      one

Tomatoes – Fresh                        26                 1                  –                      med.

Grape Fruit                                 39                 1                  –                      1/2 med.

Oranges – Fresh                          60                 1                  –                      1 med.

Cantaloupe                                 94                 2                  1                     1/2 med.

Honeydew                                  113               1                  –                      1/4 med.

Watermelon                                152               3                  2                     1 – 1×10″ slice

Cherries – Fresh                        104               2                  1                     1 cup

Strawberries – Fresh                 23                 –                  –                      1/2 cup

Kiwi                                             46                 1                  –                      1 med.

Apple                                           80                 –                  –                      1 med.

Nectarine                                   67                 1                  1                     1 med.

Peach                                          37                 1                  –                      1 med.

Soups

Chicken Noodle                          56                 3                  2                     1/2 cup

Cream of Mushroom (water)    98                 2                  7                     3/4 cup

Cream of Mushroom (milk)    154                5                  10                   3/4 cup

Cream of Tomato                       65                 2                  1                     3/4 cup

Vegetable Beef                           59                 4                  1                     3/4 cup

Eggs

Egg                                               75                 6                  5                     1 large

Egg Yolk                                      59                 3                  5                     1 large

Egg Substitute                             48                 3                  3                     2 Tbsp.

Cheese

American                                    106                6                  9                     1

Cheddar                                      114               7                  9                     1

Cheddar (low fat)                         90                 8                  6                     1

4% Cottage Cheese                     109               13                5                     1/2 cup

2% Cottage Cheese                     102               16                2                     1/2 cup

1% Cottage Cheese                      82                 14                1                     1/2 cup

Cream Cheese Light                     60                 3                  5                     1

Feta                                                 75                 4                  6                     1

Mozzarella                                     72                  7                  5                     1

Parmesan                                       23                 2                  2                     1 Tbsp.

Ricotta Park Skim Mild            170               14                10                   1/2 cup

Swiss                                             107               8                  8                     1

Miscellaneous

Peanut Butter                              95                 4                  8                     1 Tbsp.

Air-popped Popcorn                  30                 1                  –                      1 cup

Oatmeal – Cooked                      109                 5                  2                     3/4 cup

 

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How to keep cool indoors and out: vests

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ How to keep cool indoors and out: vests)

Think about maintaining your normal body core temperature, whether inside and outdoors during an extended emergency summer power outage.

A.  Keeping Your Cool: cooling vest type
April 2010, mitoaction,
http://www.mitoaction.org/red-tape/keeping-your-cool-cooling-vest-types-sources-financial-assistance

There are a variety of personal cooling systems that are available for purchase, and each style has unique advantages and drawbacks. Here is a brief summary of the three most popular systems:

1.  Evaporative Cooling Vests:
These vests feel like terry cloth but have tiny pockets of highly absorbable beads that can take in water and expand to 6 times their dry size. The vest is soaked in cool water and gently wrung out to remove excess. The vest is placed over a t-shirt and cools by evaporation; the air moves faster next to the water-logged beads, which creates a layer of cool air between the vest and the skin. Evaporative cooling vests are light weight, inexpensive, and there is no need to purchase a second vest to swap; the vest can be re-wet and immediately used again. Evaporative cooling apparel is not limited to vests; headbands, wristbands, floor mats, and even dog vests are available for purchasing. If an evaporative vest is damaged, it can be re-sewn by hand. The function of the vest isn’t seriously compromised if a few beads escape. (The beads are non-toxic, but always check the vest carefully to avoid ingestion by a child.) Evaporative cooling vests are of limited benefit in humid environments and are sometimes not tolerated by individuals with sensitive skin due to the slight dampness of the garment.

 2.  Phase Change Cooling Systems:
This type of vest contains inserts that are activated by placing them in the freezer or a container of ice water, and then the inserts maintain a consistent temperature (usually 53-56 degrees F.) for up to three hours. The inserts can then be re-activated (10 to 20 minutes for activation) and reused. Many people choose to purchase an extra set of inserts and rotate them, so that the vest can be used continuously. The inserts are not exactly ice packs; they do not reach freezing temperatures so they are unlikely to cause damage if left in contact with bare skin. This makes them safe to use with young children or individuals who are unable to feel heat or cold due to neuropathy or communicate discomfort. They are activated when exposed to temperatures above freezing, and need much less time to recharge than an actual frozen ice pack would take. Also, the inserts do not “sweat” when the cold is being transferred to the wearer, so clothing stays dry. Phase change vests can be made to fit wearers of all ages and sizes, custom vests can be made for individuals weighing more or less than the displayed vests are recommended for.

There are drawbacks to purchasing and using phase change vests. The inserts add weight to the vest, from 1 ½ to 2 lbs for children’s vests to 4 lbs or more for 3X or 4X adult sizes. Fortunately, the weight is evenly distributed on the body and is close to the individual’s center of gravity, so the balance issues associated with backpacks or weights shouldn’t be a problem. The cooling vest system is much more expensive than an evaporative vest; you can expect to pay around $200 for a vest and two sets of inserts. The phase change inserts are filled with a viscous fluid and are durable but not indestructible. If an insert is damaged it must be discarded and replaced.

3.  Hybrid Cooling Vests:
This vest combines the benefits of the evaporative as well as phase change vests. The user has the ability to choose between using the evaporative or phase change cooling methods, and can also choose to use both systems simultaneously to complement one another. This type of vest is new to the market, but customers who have purchased hybrid guests have reported high satisfaction rates.

4.  Cold Pack Cooling Vests:
These vests look just like phase change cooling vests, but use actual ice packs that freeze at 32 degrees or in some cases, even colder. These cold packs give the highest level of cooling because the cold packs are the lowest temperature. These vests are effective in extreme humidity and very high temperatures. Extra packs can be added or changed out over time.

There are several drawbacks to cold pack vests. The frozen inserts are generally heavier than phase change inserts, are usually inflexible when frozen, and must be returned to an actual freezer, below 32 degrees farenheight, to be refrozen, which can take several hours. Most frozen packs “sweat” while discharging cold energy, which some individuals may find uncomfortable. Most importantly, ice packs cannot be applied directly to skin and should never be used by individuals who may have impaired sensation, are asleep, or unable to communicate discomfort, as frostbite and serious injury can occur.

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B .  MSolutions Cooling Climate Control Products
http://www.mscooling.com/faq
1.  WHO NEEDS A COOLING VEST?
If work, leisure activities or medical conditions make you uncomfortably hot and/or affect your performance, you could benefit from a Cooling Vest.

2.  WHAT IS HEAT STRESS?
Heat stress occurs when the body’s reaction to the environment causes its core temperature to rise above safe limits. This can result in a racing heart, profuse sweating, dizziness, reduced energy and slowed reaction times. This reduces safety, decreases efficiency and lowers productivity.
What is the difference between the many different types of body cooling systems available?
There are many different cooling products available and the best one for you depends on your personal situation, activity and environment. We recommend you consult your health care professional prior to purchasing a cooling garment or system.

A summary of the systems:

Evaporative
Cooling Power: Low*
Cost: Very Low
(*depending on humidity and outside variables)

Cold packs
Cooling Power: High
Cost: Low to Medium

Phase Change
Cooling Power: Medium
Cost: Medium

Active Cooling
Cooling Power: Very High
Cost: High to Very High

Evaporative Cooling: These products come in an assortment of garments that fit a wide variety of locations on the body. They are soaked in water to charge special polymer materials built into the garments. As the water evaporates (sometimes over several days), the garment provides surface cooling. These systems are typically low cost and light weight.
Advantages: Low cost, light weight works for an extended period of time
Disadvantages: Requires wetting of garment loses effectiveness in higher humidity

Cold pack cooling: These products typically come in vests, neck coolers and wrist coolers. The products work by incorporating cold packs into pockets of the wraps. The cold packs are placed in a freezer or a refrigerator until ready for use and then are placed in pockets designed into the wraps. The packs will stay cold for 2 to 4 hours depending on environmental conditions.
Advantages: Medium cost, no wetting required effective for 2-4 hours, highest cooling capacity works in all environments adjustable cooling with more / less packs extra packs easily carried for extended cooling
Disadvantages: Requires access to freezer / refrigerator requires time for packs to freeze medium weight: 4-5 lbs.

Phase Change Cold Pack Cooling: These products are similar to the cold pack systems only use a phase change polymer in the cold packs or the garment. This technology controls the release of temperature to a specific range through out the cooling cycle. A typical temperature is 58 degree F. Phase change cold packs may be recharged in the freezer, refrigerator or in ice water.
Advantages: Charges in ice water, refrigerator, freezer wetting not required, effective for 2-3 hours provides moderate cooling temperature  works in all environments extra packs easily carried for extended cooling
DisadvantagesHigher cost system, high cost of spare packs Lower cooling efficiency than cold packs medium weight: 5-7 lbs. medium cooling capacity.

Active Cooling: These products typically incorporate a coolant, often ice water, that is circulated from a reservoir by a pump system through channels or tubes embedded in a vest. Often a hood for the head is incorporated into the system also. The temperature of the circulating coolant usually can be adjusted. The system operates on batteries, house or car current. This type of system will provide many hours of cooling before the ice and water needs to be recharged.
AdvantagesMost effective cooling – core body cooling adjustable cooling temperature extended cooling time between recharges no wetting required, works in all environments light weight garments.
Disadvantages: Very high cost system tethered system limits mobility requires ice water reservoir.

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C.  Glacier Tec  Phase Change cooling vest
Pasted from <http://blog.coolvest.com/easy-rider-glacier-tek-coolvest-product-review/>

Original RPCM® Cooling Vest – Tan Khaki
Price: $179.00, get a 10% discount with the special sales code “fjrforum-10”    from <http://www.fjrforum.com/forum/index.php?showtopic=139799>

I have this vest and it works well, it does keep you cool out doors at temperatures of around 100F while doing light to medium work . I prefer using this,  the “phase change” vest for “in the house” applications when the power is out. It’s dry and doesn’t damped furniture; for for a similar reason, I prefer the evaporative vest, discussed below, for outdoor use.

Product Details:
RPCM® Cooling Vests feature side elastic straps and over-the-shoulder adjustability to fit a wide range of body sizes. RPCM® Cool Vests provide you with the maximum comfort available in the market today. They maintain a cool, constant 59°F/15°C temperature for up to 2½ hours, weigh less than 5 lbs., and recharge in minutes. The RPCM® Cool Vest is extremely durable. It can be easily cleaned in regular laundry. .                                                           

> RPCM® Cool Packs quickly recharge in only 20 minutes in ice water. The packs charge (freeze solid) at a temperature about 50 degrees. There are 3 ways to fully charge the packs. They will be rock solid even using the refrigerator which is my favorite of the 3 ways.
__1) On the road toss them in a plastic bag full of ice for 30 minutes.
__2) Put them in the freezer for 1 hour.
__3) Put them in the refrigerator for 2 hours
> RPCM® Cool Vests are Glacier Tek’s exclusive Patent-Pending technology that uses a unique “green” formula.
> RPCM® contains absolutely no hazardous ingredients or chemicals and is completely non-toxic.
> Vest weigh less than 5 lbs.

Frequently asked questions (FAQ)
Pasted from <http://www.glaciertek.com/RPCM_Cooling_Vest/FAQ.aspx?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1>

Q. Is the material in the RPCM® Cooling Vest hazardous?
A. No. The phase change material in the RPCM® Cool Pack is unique among phase change materials used for cooling. It is the only phase change cooling vest on the market which contains no hazardous ingredients or materials. It is also non-toxic, safe, and environmentally friendly. Should the RPCM® Cool Pack become punctured and leak onto your skin, it may be washed off with soap and water.

Q. How many times can the RPCM® Cooling Vest be used?
A. If the RPCM® Cool Packs are not punctured or torn, they can be used indefinitely. Our RPCM Cooling Vest has no shelf life. Some of our cooling packs have been recharged 10,000 times with no measurable change in performance.

Q. Can I store my cooling vest in the freezer?
A. Yes, the RPCM® Cooling Packs can be deep-frozen indefinitely without affecting performance.

Q. How long do RPCM® Cooling Vests take to recharge?
A. Typically 20 minutes in ice water will fully recharge a set of cooling packs, longer in a freezer or refrigerator. They recharge more quickly in ice water because of the conductive method of heat transfer. In a freezer, they chill convectively, which takes longer. They can be stored in a refrigerator or freezer indefinitely without damage or loss of functionality. Recharging in a cold freezer with the door kept shut takes about an hour. In a refrigerator, it can be several hours to overnight, depending on the heat load, how many times the refrigerator is opened, etc.

Q. What are the benefits of RPCM® Cool Packs over ice or frozen gel packs?
A. There are three key benefits:

  1. RPCM® Cool Packs operate at a much more comfortable 59° F (15°C) temperature. That means they can’t cause skin or tissue damage or cause extreme discomfort like ice or frozen gel can do.
  2. RPCM® Cool Packs will be effective for a longer period of time between charges. The reason? The difference in temperature between ambient (surrounding) air and the phase change product is much less than the difference in temperature between ambient air and ice. That means more cooling is absorbed by the body and less is lost to the air.
  3. RPCM® Cool Packs are cooled to a temperature that is usually above the dew point. That means they normally won’t condense or sweat against your body or clothing. Ice and frozen gel packs are below the dew point, so they sweat, making them uncomfortable to wear and adding to the weight of the vest or jacket. Condensation also robs the ice pack of efficiency because condensation creates heat, which is absorbed by the pack, further reducing its efficiency.

Q. How do RPCM® Cooling Vests compare with evaporative-type products?
A. RPCM® Cooling Vests provide much greater efficiency and better performance. Evaporative-type products by design retain water, so are always wet and can grow bacteria. This makes them uncomfortable against your skin. It also means they will grow mildew quickly over time, as they rarely dry out. Further, evaporative-type products can’t operate in high humidity environments (or under protective clothing,) because the atmosphere is already saturated with water, so there is no place for the evaporation to go. RPCM® Cooling Vests, on the other hand, are unaffected by humidity.

Q. Will RPCM® Cooling Vests reduce body core temperature?
A. Our products are worn to help maintain a normal body core temperature. The purpose of phase change cooling technology is to help maintain a comfortable core temperature and prevent that temperature from increasing above normal. It’s our goal to help you avoid heat stress in the first place.

Q. Isn’t water a phase change material?
A. Yes. A phase change occurs whenever matter changes from one form into another. Water can change from a solid (ice) to a liquid, as well as to a vapor. Water changes into a solid at a specific temperature: 32ºF (0°C). But RPCM® Cooling Vest packs change into their solid form at 59º F (15°C). Since water changes into its solid form at a much lower temperature, it loses more of its cooling ability to ambient (surrounding) temperature. It’s also below the dew point, so it causes condensation as it melts. Further, it’s uncomfortable and requires an overnight stay in the freezer to refreeze.

Q. Will RPCM® Cooling Vests cause vasoconstriction?
A. That’s one of the advantages of RPCM® Cooling Vests: They function within a comfortable temperature range that unlikely to promote vasoconstriction of blood vessels, unlike ice or frozen gel which promotes rapid vasoconstriction. This is an important benefit, as non-constricted blood vessels allow your circulatory system to freely move blood throughout your body, then release heat at the skin surface. With ice, the body is fooled into defending itself agains the intense cold. It reacts by constricting the blood vessels near the skin, limiting the body’s natural cooling system. The heart and lungs then have to work harder, expending extra energy in the chest cavity and creating yet more body heat and other risks.

Q. Do RPCM® Cooling Vests come in sizes?
A. No. The RPCM® Cooling Vest is adjustable across a wide range of sizes to enable it to fit many people. Inventories of various sizes are reduced and one vest may be adjusted to fit several people, enabling sharing of the product from person to person. It adjusts over the shoulders and around the waist for a comfortable fit in a wide range of body sizes.

Q. Where can I purchase Glacier Tek Products?
A. Glacier Tek, Inc. wishes to offer you the most expedient service possible, and allows you to choose from several ordering options: Order On-Line, Fill out an Information Sheet, or call us at 800-482-0533 for more information or to locate a distributor near you. Thank you for your interest in Glacier Tek, Inc. and our cooling technology products.

.

D.  Tech Deluxe Evaporative Cooling vest
Amazon.com, $49.99
See: http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B000FGD8SA/ref=gno_cart_title_1

[Photo at left] TechNiche Deluxe Hyperkewl Evaporative cooling vest, Large size (40-42),, silver colored exterior, $49.99: High mandarin collar, front pockets, and zipper closure combine to offer the ultimate cooling and sun protection solution.

The evaporative vest works, I have one and prefer it for outdoor use. I’ve tested it doing my afternoon walks at temperatures of about 100F.

HyperKewl™ Evaporative Cooling Fabric is 47% Fluff Pulp, 33% Crosslinked Super Absorbent Polymer Fiber, Sodium Acrylate Coploymer and 20 % Bicomponent Polyolefin Bonding Fiber

EASY TO USE:
1.  Soak garment in cool water for 1-3 minutes
2.  Gently squeeze out excess water
3.  Wear; repeat steps as needed
4.  Hang to dry
5.  Wash in mild, soapy water (as needed)

Improved HyperKewl™ Evaporative Cooling Fabric ((PEF6519) – Helps our Evaporative Cooling products to last longer, and withstand more wear and tear. No gel or beads. This simple and effective technology works by combining water with our HyperKewl™ Fabric to create garments that gradually release water through evaporation to keep you cool and comfortable. Comfortable quilted Oxford nylon outer w/ polymer embedded fabric inner, water repellent nylon liner, and black poly-cotton trim.
Provides 5-10 hours of cooling relief per soaking; lightweight, durable and washable.

* Between use the vests are each hung on a sturdy wide shouldered clothes hanger.

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Everything Won’t Be Alright

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Everything Won’t Be Alright)

Everything Won’t Be Alright
4 September 2012, The Automatic Earth, Ashvin Pandurangi
Pasted from: http://theautomaticearth.com/Earth/everything-isnt-alright.html

“Looking around at those… around me – family, friends, acquaintances and random faces in the crowd of apathy – the level of complacency is so concentrated I can taste it, yet I can’t even describe how bad it tastes. I’m not really talking about the understanding people lack about the numerous predicaments we face as a species – that’s definitely there too… but what I’m talking about is even worse. It’s the assumption that we can just go about our day-to-day lives, doing our day-to-day work, having our day-to-day fun… and humanity will eventually heal itself, no matter how bad the injuries sustained.

This is a cultural phenomenon that has infested the Western world, and refuses to be eradicated. It is where many of us ultimately place our hope and stake our lives, sometimes without even realizing we are doing it. We previously discussed the entertainment enemas that have penetrated modern culture (and the lives of deluded teenagers) in Culturally Programmed Myths of Omnipotence. They have given us the vision that we can always become bigger, “better” and stronger as individuals and nations, evolving towards God-like glory, no matter what obstacles are in our way – all of the stories about superheroes, vampires, werewolves, wizards, robots and aliens – it’s all about the propaganda of pernicious power.

We even see this mentality taking root in academia and scientific research through the field of “transhumanism” (very well portrayed in the documentary, TechnoCalyps). As you can probably guess from the name, transhumanism tells us that we are on the way to becoming something more, something other, than human beings. Forget random mutation and natural selection, the transhumanist says – we can circumvent all of the slow evolutionary nonsense that we only theorized about a century ago. Now we can transform ourselves into a new species over the course of a few decades with the help of modern technology and “intelligent designers”. Just a little bit ironic, don’t you think?

Ironic, yet frighteningly appealing to the broader public. Yet another aspect of this cultural programming is the idea that all troubling stories have a happy ending – that all good things come to those who [sit on their ass and] wait. We have obviously been fed this diet of propaganda by movies and television on a consistent basis over the course of decades. You sit through one and a half hours of action-packed plots with drama, romance, suspense, twists and turns mixed in… and then the whole thing comes together and the heroes prevail in the last 20 minutes. That’s truly how many people view the world now – an epic movie that is approaching its glorious credits, just so the sequel can come out next year.

This virulent mentality is not only quarantined to the mainstream materialistic culture, but is also evident in many alternative spheres of cultural milieu, even penetrating its way into the so-called “Doomer” crowds. Many people who are otherwise extremely pessimistic about the current world-system and its effects on human civilization have found refuge in the idea that we are entering a “New Age” of human existence. It may be initially characterized by pockets of chaos and upheaval, but it will end with a radical spiritual transformation that results from the natural evolution of human consciousness.

The Universe will re-balance itself and bring the blessings of peace and harmony to ALL of its inhabitants – “all” being those who are mentally programmed to properly decode its gifts. There is really nothing “new” about these concepts, though – they borrow many of their underlying tenets from the ancient religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. For example, a prominent prophecy within sects of the latter is the arrival of the Maitreya Buddha at a time when humans have completely lost touch with their true nature as immaterial and interconnected parts of the divine whole (a time like now, perhaps?).

The Maitreya may not be a majority view in “New Age” circles, but it reflects a general mentality that has submerged itself in both the mainstream and alternative streams of modern culture, presenting itself to us in many different forms. There is an entire industry based around the concept of self-help gurus teaching people [much too] simple ways to become “happy, healthy and successful”, no matter what is going on in the world around them. Yet we all know that there is no money to be made from a product that truly helps its patients (customers).

They’re selling us exactly what we want to hear – that the reality of human suffering in the world is not actually as bad as it appears to be; that there is more truth in the fictional movies we have seen than in our real lives. Maybe if we can just find that slick-looking guy in the black leather jacket and cool shades, snatch the red pill and wash it down with a bottle of Absinthe, the truth will be revealed to us and everything will be alright in the end. Or maybe the blue pill will give us a better high…? Either way, I’m here to say that we should be really careful what we wish for, because there is only a razor thin line between the truth and fiction these days.

Most importantly, though, I am here to make clear that no one is immune from the mentality that “everything is alright” or “everything can be alright”, including me. I have my own personal beliefs about how humanity can be preserved and even perfected, and I don’t believe there is anything inherently wrong with that. What’s wrong is when I forget to remind myself where those beliefs come from and where they are truly leading me. Do they simply make me feel good and comfortable and “enlightened”? Am I simply willing to swallow the red pill because someone slick tells me it will “open my eyes”?

Or is there something more fundamentally true about why I have deep concerns and why I have ultimate hope. What sacrifices are really required of myself and others to reach our maximum human potentials? I believe these are questions we must repeatedly ask ourselves, because the moment we become too comfortable and too uncritical of our beliefs, or the beliefs of others around us, is the moment that we become apathetic and willing to go wherever the world takes us. It is only when we confront the uncomfortable truths of our situation in this world that we will be able to become the best we can possibly be.”

Current News headlines (the list is growing) (Mr. Larry)
The middle class is being destroyed
Private Debt Is Crippling the Economy
Average Credit Card Interest Rates Are Way Too High
Too Big To Fail Banks Get Bigger, American Dream Turns Nightmare
Does shadow banking require regulation?
A Cartel of Big Banks Is Hurting the World Economy By Manipulating Derivatives
JPMorgan’s Big Loss: Why Banks Still Haven’t Learned Their Lesson
Despite a Negative Fund Balance the FDIC is Insuring $6.1T in Deposits
 Gas prices shouldn’t be high, but are: What gives?
France Interior Ministry threatens to expel Muslims
EU Police to Patrol Internet for Political Enemies Opposed to “European Integration”
Hypocrisy Alert: The Obama ‘Royal Family’ Continues Spending Spree with Lavish Vacations
China Challenges Obama’s Asia Pivot With Rapid Military Buildup
Russia, China seal major gas deal, bypass US dollar
Russia’s secret weapon: crashing US economy by collapsing petrodollar

Democracy and the bathroom metaphor
Two people live in an apartment and there are two bathrooms, then both have the freedom of the bathroom. You can go to the bathroom anytime you want, and stay as long as you want, for whatever you need. Everyone believes in the freedom of the bathroom. It should be right there in the Constitution. But if you have 20 people in the apartment and two bathrooms, no matter how much every person believes in the freedom of the bathroom, there is no such thing. You have to set up times for each person, you have to bang at the door, “Aren’t you through yet?” and so on.

The same way democracy cannot survive overpopulation. Human dignity cannot survive it. Convenience and decency cannot survive it. As you put more and more people into the world, the value of life not only declines, it disappears. It doesn’t matter if someone dies. The more people there are the less one individual matters. …………………….Issac Asimov

US Population, no one is talking about it! Could it be the root of our problems? Ya think?
1775 – the founding of our nation, and at about the time the Constitution was written, this country had a population of 2,500,000.
7 September 2012: Now, a mere 237 years later,  we have a population of 313,459,820, which is 125 times larger than in 1775 when our Constitution was drawn up.
We need to stop immigration and reduce the US population about 15% so that there is no unemployment and we are eating within our means. In the coming 20 years or less, when the downside from Peak Oil becomes manifest, that 15% reduction may need be stretched to…..ummmm 47%. Mr. Larry.

The graphic below depicts the power and money flow trickling down through the US and global economy, its pathway into the not to distant future; of course with different named, but substantially similarly sub categories. We all share the common end point, one of deep concern. Mr. Larry.

In the meanwhile, as our train hurdles down the track, while everyone is metaphorically comfortable in their seat watching life pass by, unaware that historically, “global”‘ debt scenarios do not end well for the public at large, you should:
1.  Keep a minimal amount of cash in the bank, keep the balance in a safe place that only your family knows about. (make sure you have a lot of smaller bills, $1, $5, $10 and rolls of change; you might have to pay exact cash for groceries.
2.  Obtain a few hundred ounces of silver coin (Silver Eagles and US pre 1965 silver change). Buy the silver only after you have some cash set aside.
3.  Have a few ounces of gold coin (Gold Eagles), figure that 1 ounce equals a month’s living expenses. Buy gold only after you have the silver coins.
4.  Have  some food (3+ months) in nitrogen packed cans in long term storage, and use bulk rotation in your well stocked cupboards.
5.  Have various household supplies in storage.
6.  Be prepared to protect your home from  invasion. Everyone approaching their mid teens should be part of your home security plan.
[Photo: Smith & Wesson Military & Police 9mm (S&W M&P9) Barrel Length 5″, Capacity 17 + 1]

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Bug Out or Shelter In?

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ Bug out or Shelter in?)

  

A.  Is a Bug Out Bag even necessary?
11 February 2010, Death Valley magazine, Do-you-really-need-a-bug-out-bag-part-1, by James G. in Urban Survival
http://www.deathvalleymag.com/2010/01/24/urban-survival-do-you-really-need-a-bug-out-bag-part-1/

“So you have your Bug Out Bag (From here on referred to as a “BOB”) with enough food and water for 72 hours along with a fire starting kit, first aid kit, maps, medicine, guns, food for your dog, knifes and camping gear so you can last indefinitely anywhere in the world.

That’s great and I am always encouraged to see people who have prepared for emergencies but…

Well let’s start from the beginning, why would one own a BOB in the first place?
To put it simple: In case something happened that was so devastating one would have to immediately and without warning leave their home and travel in such a way you could only bring what you could carry on your person.

I really can’t think of a natural or manmade disaster that would happen so suddenly I wouldn’t even have time to pack a bag.

_1.   BOB for natural disasters:
Hurricanes and Tornadoes
I don’t see anyone looking out the window and seeing a twister heading to their house then grabbing a BOB and running out the front door. For hurricanes you would have some sort of warning so you would have time to get prepared and decide to stay or run beforehand.
Even if your first warning was seeing a twister in your back yard you still wouldn’t grab your BOB and run out the front door of your house.

Flooding
Sort of the same thing here, most areas have flood warnings, for example a state of emergency was issued for the entire state of Louisiana 2 full days before Katrina even hit land.
So if you had several days warning that your town was going to be underwater you would probably load up your car and go, not just one backpack.

Earthquakes
With earthquakes you only have a few second warning before the ground starts shaking. Earthquake prediction itself is a not accurate at all, even in Japan where they have the most expensive and state of the art earthquake warning system they are lucky to give a 60 second warning.
So I also doubt that someone would grab their BOB and run outside when they hear the “in 10 seconds an earthquake will hit” sirens or when the ground starts shaking violently.

_2.  BOB For Man Made Disasters:
Civil Unrest
In just about every instance of major civil unrest there are warning signs way in advance, riots are a result of built up frustration over a situation that someone cannot control. The key part being “Built Up” meaning it takes time for thousands of people to get angry enough to destroy a city.
A good example is the riots after the Rodney King beating police trial, everyone knew that there would be civil unrest if a non guilty verdict was delivered and that was months before the first Molotov Cocktail was thrown.
If you knew that a mob of thousands of people were going to be in an area days in advance you would not be there. if you were there than you would be there out of choice like the Korean storekeepers protecting their property in the above riot.
I doubt that if someone were to look out their window one Sunday morning and see 3 thousand people waving torches and walking down their street they would grab a BOB and run out the front door.

Pandemic
Like natural disasters people are warned in advance, and in the case of a pandemic the warning my even be a year or more in advance. You can’t run from the flu unless you have an island to live on and enough money saved up to pay your bills until it passes.
If during a pandemic you see someone sneeze while walking past you house, again, I doubt that you will grab your BOB and run out the back door of your house.

Terrorism
During a terrorist attack you are ether dead, wounded or unharmed. Generally speaking you will not have a warning that a terrorist attack will take place at a certain place or time with enough certainty to avoid it.
Going on the road immediately after a terror attack is foolish due to follow-up attacks and because you would contribute to already congested streets causing Emergency Services to divert resources to crowd control and civil policing when they are needed for helping the wounded and capturing those responsible.
So if I saw that there was a terrorist attack in my neighborhood or town I would not grab a BOB and run out the front door, if anything I would run to the place of the attack to help.
And if you run outside during or after a biological attack, well let’s just say don’t miss your ride on the short bus later.
And it will also be a cold day in hell when some terrorist makes me run away and abandon MY home.

Nuclear Attack
You have been watching too many movies…
But if a Nuke does go off in your neighborhood then feel free to grab your BOB and run.

Zombie Attack
Grab a BOB and run? Are you kidding? I am staying right here for some much anticipated Zombie Killin’ – Death Valley Zombie Killing Rangers!
Now I have been watching too many movies…
.

[Above: The kind of storage you could develop for “sheltering-in-place” within the relative safety of your home. There is a chance you’d be able to escape catastrophe with a quantity of food like this and your other gear, if you were set up in a tent and held out for months on end. You are already ahead if you stock up, but stay at home,  house walls are safer than tent fabric. Mr. Larry]

So in my opinion the reasons for having a BOB don’t really pan out, in just about every instance where you are supposed to use one you can’t. And the times you would need to evacuate you would have far enough advance notice that you would have time to pack an entire car or fortify your current location.

Q: So should you own a BOB? Well even with the above info it’s still a personal decision for you.
Q: Is it a bad thing to own a BOB? No.
Q: Is it 100% necessary? Probably not.
Q: Is it fiscally practical? Like should you have used the $500 you spent on equipping your BOB    or bought a natural gas powered fridge for your basement or maybe a case of Southern Comfort instead? I think so.”

[Despite the reasonable argument presented above, does Mr. Larry have a BOB or standby suitcase packed? Yes. Because even the most reasonable and well thought out investment portfolio can never protect you completely by covering all the contingencies.
The unknown future could surprise practically everyone, by not dishing up a commonly assumed disaster scenario. Instead, we could face a Black Swan event, a single event that crashes the system, or a cascading series of events that become catastrophic. These events could arise from scenarios which are presently considered impossible, or at best, only remotely recognized by a few, as a threat. Realistically, if we knew what might happen and-or how severe it might be, we’d be ready for it ahead of time and the event wouldn’t be classified as catastrophic.
.
The photo below shows an improved shelter-emergency camping situation over setting up directly on the ground. Raising the platform another 3-4 blocks would provide a lot of below board storage area, and add a little extra security. Extending the deck would allow the addition of a screened enclosure for mosquito protection while cooking and eating. The fellow who took the picture wrote of the tent and platform saying, “My home for 3 1/2 months while white-water rafting in West Virginia,” so this is doable.       Mr. Larry]

.
B.  The Fallacy of Bugging Out – Are You Prepared to Be a Refugee?

19 April 1012, http://www.SurvivalAcres.com
http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/the-fallacy-of-bugging-out-are-you-prepared-to-be-a-refugee_04192012
This article has been generously contributed by Survival Acres – Sustainable Living & Common Sense.

Many websites, blogs and forums have covered the topic of bugging out in excruciating detail, all under the assumption that this will be a necessary escape plan for many of us when the proverbial shit hits the fan. This notion is predicated upon the belief that escape and evasion, necessary for your immediate survival will be a (likely) event that you must plan and prepare for now.

However, nothing could be further from the real and actual truth. This cherished myth is a deceptive and dangerous notion that has little place in reality. I’ve long held a stance against this notion because in nearly all cases and all situations, this is a very bad idea with oftentimes fatal consequences. Bugging out is embracing the refugee lifestyle – a very bad idea. Refugees throughout history have fared very badly, suffered extreme hardship and deprivation, with many not surviving the experience. There is a far better alternative to this.

The rejection of the “bug out” mythology flies in the face of the so-called ‘expert advice’ and theory being proposed by many websites and authors, who are also very active in selling products and gear specifically oriented around this concept. You could say quite rightly, that there is indeed a agenda at work here, but it is not one in your best interests. Hold onto your pockets and read on.

Bugging out entails leaving everything you are, and everything you own, and everything you use, day in and day out, and everything you cannot carry or transport with you, behind. Not only behind, but inaccessible, unusable and abandoned. Potentially forever.

How much of our lives, and the things within our lives, do we truly want to abandon? You will also leaving behind all rules of normalcy, the concept of “plenty” and abundance (which also means replacements and repair), all laws, rules, behavior and expectations that we have come to expect from each other and within our society, both good and bad.

Let’s make a list of these things to put this reality into perspective:

You will be leaving behind your job (income), perhaps your family (wife, kids), your home (shelter), your friends (support network), your contacts (other people you know), your bank accounts (money), your credit (ruined), your retirement (pension), your property and everything you own (everything you cannot carry with you), your vehicles (except perhaps one, at least until the gas tank is empty), your future (prospects, employment, credibility, integrity). Don’t forget things also left behind, such as electricity, running water, Internet access, news and information, communications, telephone and even cell service, a warm, dry bed and other ‘essentials’, some more than others.

You will also leave behind all expectations of normalcy, decency, morality and expectations, i.e., a “normal life”,  forever – more on that below.

If you were dependent upon a job, it will be gone. You will have either been fired or laid off with a ruined reference for any future employment. You would not be able to pay your rent or your mortgage, your utility bills or any of your monthly obligations. If they’ve lapsed far enough, then you would be facing bankruptcy and / or forfeiture of your (remaining) assets, or at the very least, their liquidation (if you still have them) in order to survive a few more weeks.

It’s possible your kids or your wife could be gone, having abandoned you for abandoning them or sucked up into the system by the welfare state or child protective services. Your marriage could be in ruins, your family and friends could disown you, but in any case, what would be left of your relationships could potentially be in complete tatters. Worthwhile? You decide.

Your connections to society and civilization would also be destroyed, or certainly damaged, perhaps beyond repair. In effect, you’d be “cashing out” completely and perhaps forever, of the life you’ve lived and starting over. Worthwhile? You decide.

But you’d be alive! (supposedly).

In effect, bugging out will mean you will be totally abandoning your present life in exchange for huddling under a tree in the woods, trying to avoid hypothermia and starvation, wondering where you next meal will come from, and how long you can hold out in your new ‘reality’. And whatever it was that you chose to run away from — will still be there. This is perhaps the most overlooked point of all.

How long could you hold out? Not long. The reasons are many, but they are sound.

The need to bug out is an exceedingly tiny reality — a future event that will probably never happen. But it is not a zero possibility (nothing is, not even an alien invasion). Yet this topic still receives a ridiculous amount of attention despite its extremely low probability, which makes no sense at all. The reason is because escapism is thought to be a ’solution’ versus contributing to the problem. It’s not, as the points above demonstrate.

Running — from whatever the problem is, usually ensures that you are taking your problems with you. Only if your life is in immediate danger does running offer a better opportunity then staying put and dealing with the problem. Running does not make problems go away, it will very often make them much worse.

Running is also thought of as being romantic, adventurous and even ‘brave’ in some circles. Taking on the world all by yourself while you’re on the run is a common theme in movies and books, but has nothing to do with real life. Running means you’re in full-blown survival mode and all bets are off, including all notions of morality, right and wrong, doing the “right thing” and what you can even reasonably expect to happen. Anything can happen if you run, and often does, because you are replacing all of your security for a whole series of things unknown (and insecure).

Did you know that if you abandon the system, then the system will also abandon you? Nobody much talks about this point, but it is true. You will find yourself outside of society, unhelped and unhelpable, unknown, disconnected and even hated for being what you have now become. With no address, connections, no references, no family or friends, nothing with which to help connect you back into society, society will turn its back upon you in fear, and you will be outside of all normal channels of help and assistance, effectively cut off. This is a huge issue, but nobody ever mentions it.

To The Woods
Bugging out is usually assumed to mean “to the woods” where survivors, patriots, militia, end-timers and others will be making “their last stand” (apparently together, whether they like it or not) while roasting hotdogs and marshmallows. Instead, it will be the last man standing over a pile of rotted and half-eaten corpses, since the food and supplies and the notions of ‘living off the land’ will have died out with the last slaughtered deer to be found. And every ’survivor’ will have been hoping all along that nobody has turned them in for poaching.

Campsites, caves and hidey-holes will have become armed, dirty and infested encampments of hungry and desperate men (the surviving women would have long since been forced into prostitution and slavery), all fighting over the remaining scraps to be found (and newcomers showing up) necessary for their survival. Informants, traitors, thieves, murderers, rapists and thugs will quickly become the defining characteristic, with the strongest ruling (or eating) the weak. Those who arrive “first” will potentially be better prepared to prey upon the late-comers or the weak, so if you are still planning on trying this, get your seat at the table early.

Think not? This is exactly what happens during civil wars and internal conflicts when a country turns against itself. The war in Bosnia saw tens of thousands of murders, rapes and thefts as the people turned on each other. It was a fight for survival, for food, for weapons, for money, for women.

It has happened all over the world, and it will happen again. Whenever there is not enough to go around, and whenever there is strife, secrecy and conflict, those involved will resort to whatever methods of survival that they have to in order that they might live another day by whatever means possible. It will be no picnic, no romantic “retreat into the woods” where faith, truth, righteousness or rebellion will flourish and grow. Instead, it will be a bloodbath where the young, old and the weak succumb the quickest. I suggest you bring lots of Tabasco sauce, as it does make the meat taste better.

Bugging out also means you are leaving the norms of society behind. These are the rules, laws, restrictions and expectations that you have come to expect (and largely appreciate) that govern human behavior. Would-be dictators and gang leaders will spring forth from unlikely sources. Since there is nothing to hinder them, then they will allow themselves to be unhindered. Unrestrained, you will find the true nature of what your “friends” can really be. You’ll soon regret not locking up the mad caps among you and taking away their weapons. If food or medical supplies are in short supply, then expect gang on gang, tribe on tribe warfare to begin. Expect slavery, torture, imprisonment and rape. Also expect the nearby communities (cities, towns, villages) to become their prey, as theft, robbery and murder to go hand in hand with their (daily) need for food and other things like fuel and medical supplies.

Inversely, you could also expect smart and prepared communities to expel, exterminate and hunt down these refugees if things get way out of hand, exacerbating an already bad situation. Forget for a moment the military or law enforcement going after these woodland refugees (a topic unto itself), the locals themselves will not be the helping hand that you may have naively come to expect, especially if you or your gang have already trod upon their welcome mat. They’re trying to survive too, and live normal, unfettered lives as best they can. They don’t need nor appreciate you coming along and messing things up. Camping out in their back yard or nearby forests will often pit you against them in violent and lethal ways. And they will be far more adept then you are outlasting you because they will have the infrastructure and support network to do so.

Survivalism is only rarely about ’surviving in the woods’. Rather, survivalism is about living, and staying alive, and how you might do that while experiencing as few hardships as you can. Bugging out to the woods to survive your end-time fantasies is going to be a quick path to death for the majority of people that try this route. There is a better alternative to this.

Staying Alive
Bugging out is never quite what everyone seems to think it is, where living off the land and finding adequate nutrition and staying healthy is grossly overlooked. Many people claim that they can “do it”, yet return year after year from hunting season empty handed. When the beer runs out, they head home. Or when the food is bland or gone, they’re beating tracks as fast as they can to the nearest restaurant. These ’survivalists’ and ‘outdoorsman’ will not survive their voluntary refugee status by bugging out, but they will (if they show up, far from home) be a serious problem for the locals.

You will burn up a tremendous amount of calories (as much as 3 – 4 times as normal) while trying to live off the land. Finding and building shelter, hunting and gathering for food and water, providing heat, establishing security and working and waking / walking for long hours at a time, will cause you to expend far more calories than you will be taking in. Even if you are very well supplied, you won’t be for long (you cannot carry enough). Foraging for food will very rarely provide enough calories versus what you are expending while looking. You will quickly go into a calorie deficit, burning off fats and muscles as your body adapts to your new environment and demands.

I’ve seen lot of ill-informed discussion of ‘nomadic lifestyle’ whereas the individual or group is roaming about, living off the land. This notion is pure b.s., as it is calorie-deficient, ill-advised for security reasons and will increase the risk of injury and health issues. You will need to preserve calories — not expend them (if you can).

Calorie deficiency cannot last very long (mere days in most cases) before your health diminishes and your strength drops. You risk hypothermia, vitamin deficiencies and a higher risk of contracting illness and injury due to your weakened condition. Unless your nutritional needs are met and you are able to also stay warm and dry, avoiding hypothermia (core temperature drop) and frostbite / exposure, then it is just a matter of time before you become incapacitated, unable to effectively help yourself.

There are countless examples of ‘modern day survivalists’ who have found this out, believing that they too could live off the land and survive, but lacking the skills and experience to do so. Additionally, our forests are not the cornucopia of food waiting to be plucked many seem to think, they’re vastly depleted monocultures of trees, lacking sufficient edible foods and wildlife. Some of these people wound up dead, others were found or rescued. All of them learned that foraging for sufficient nutrition and calories is why we have modern farms — it is the most efficient way of meeting our nutritional needs. Even growing your own food at home in a controlled environment (garden) with a plentiful supply of soils, seeds, water, tools and time is extremely difficult, if not nearly impossible for most of us (really) to meet all your daily nutritional needs, all while leading a far less demanding lifestyle then living off in the woods in survival mode. I’ve long been advocating sustainable living and raising your own food, but here in the woods where I live, I cannot even grow half of the food I need to stay alive and healthy, let alone expect to hunt it down. Nor can I grow enough to feed my family, compounding the nutritional needs required.

Bugging out is in nearly all cases, a very bad idea, fraught with danger and pitfalls, destined for failure and doom for those that believe that this will be “their answer” to whatever they’re running away from. It would only be necessary in the most extreme circumstances (extremely rare) and for very extremely short periods of time and for extremely few (skilled) people. This rules out almost everyone else. You would need to return to civilization far sooner than many seem to be planning for. If you did run off into the woods, you’d soon be back (as many Y2K refugees found out). Wouldn’t it then be a better solution to avoid this unnecessary step altogether if you could?

Ultimately, this then is the far better solution — bugging in, back to safety, food, heat, clothing, medical attention and survival. If you truly think that you foresee a need to bug out — then revise your plans to bug in to a new location within civilization where you can find (or work for) food, clothing, shelter, safety and security (including an income) where your survival is a far more sure thing. This is the only long-term answer there really is. You will also be in a much better situation to deal with whatever the problem was in the first place that caused you to leave.

I do not have a bug out bag anymore, since it no longer makes any sense to me to have one. I do have cash, toys, tools, vehicles and other things of interest at my disposal. Disappearing off into the woods is a dead end and it will not work for the vast majority of people that would try this. You would have to come out sooner than you think (if you survive) and return to life within civilization somewhere. You’re not going to live off the land indefinitely, and not even as long as you may think, so it makes far more sense in your ‘escape plan’ to prepare for living someplace else instead.

The entire concept of bugging out truly needs to be redefined to fit within the parameters of reality and how this would really work for the vast majority of people. Leaving for reasons of safety, security, natural disasters or some other valid reason is perfectly acceptable — but where you go and how you will plan on surviving while you are there seems to be where this theory falls flat on its face against reality. Having the means to leave, but having some place to go, where you can find safety, food, shelter and sustainability is key to a true “bug out” plan. Planning on disappearing into the woods is in all probability one of the worst ideas you could attempt. You would have to come out sooner or later, weakened, possibly sick or injured, broke, destitute and impoverished — a true self-made refugee. Basically, a dumb idea all around, one that should only be tried in the most extreme circumstances and only for the adept.
Visit the  Survival Acres Blog and Storable Food & Supplies:
http://survivalacres.com/

[Don’t put yourself in a situation where you might be found here. Mr. L.]

(end of post)

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The Top 50 Excuses For Not Prepping

(Survival Manual/ Prepper articles/ The Top 50 Excuses For Not Prepping)

 May 21st, 2012, The American Dream, by Michael Snyder
Website:  http://endoftheamericandream.com

With the way that things are heading in this country, it is not surprising that there are approximately 3 million preppers in the United States today. What is surprising is that there are not more people prepping. The economy is rapidly falling to pieces, the national debt is absolutely soaring, the earth is becoming increasingly unstable, a major war could erupt in the Middle East at any time and the fabric of our society is coming apart right in front of our eyes. We have become incredibly dependent on technology and we have become incredibly dependent on our economic system. If a major natural disaster, a killer pandemic, an EMP attack or the imposition of martial law caused a significant transportation disruption, America would literally change overnight. We live during a time of tremendous global instability, and yet most people still see no need to start prepping at all. Most people just continue to have blind faith in our leaders and in our system. But what happens if our leaders fail us? What happens if our system collapses? What are they going to do then?
The number of preppers in the United States today is steadily increasing, but the vast majority of people out there still see no reason to start getting ready for “the end of the world as we know it”. Most people just assume things will always somehow get better or that they will somehow be immune to whatever calamities are heading our way. Most people always seem to have a “good excuse” for why they do not need to prepare. The following are the top 50 excuses for not prepping….

1. ”The U.S. Economy Is The Greatest Economy On The Planet – There Is No Way That It Could Ever Collapse”
2. ”Once Barack Obama Wins The Election Everything Will Be Better”
3. ”Once Mitt Romney Wins The Election Everything Will Be Better”
4. ”When Things Get Really Bad The Government Will Take Care Of Us”
5. ”When Disaster Strikes I Will Just Steal From Everyone Else That Has Been Busy Preparing”
6. ”The Rapture Will Be At Any Moment So I Don’t Have To Worry About Prepping”
7. ”The Economy Has Always Recovered After Every Recession In The Past And This Time Will Be No Different”
8. ”The People That Are Running Things Are Very Highly Educated And They Know Exactly What They Are Doing”
9. ”Wal-Mart Will Always Be There”
10. ”Our Politicians Are Watching Out For Our Best Interests”
11. ”The 2012 Apocalypse Is Almost Here And We Are All Doomed Anyway – So Why Even Try?”
12. ”Preppers Do Not Have A Positive Mental Attitude”
13. ”If An Economic Collapse Comes I Will Just Go On Welfare”
14. ”There Are Some Things You Just Can’t Prepare For”
15. ”Prepping Is Too Expensive”
16. ”We Are Not Like Other Countries – U.S. Cities Are Designed To Withstand Major Earthquakes”
17. ”I Need To Save Up For Retirement Instead”
18. ”The Stock Market Has Been Soaring So Why Worry?”
19. ”I Don’t Have Room To Store Anything”
20. ”Prepping Is For Crazy People”
21. ”I Don’t Believe In Conspiracy Theories”
22. ”All The Food I Store Is Going To Go Bad”
23. ”I Would Rather Spend My Time Watching American Idol”
24. ”All The People Who Freaked Out About Y2K Look Really Foolish Now, Don’t They?”
25. ”I Don’t Want To Look Like Those Idiots On ‘Doomsday Preppers’”
26. ”An EMP Attack Could Never Happen”
27. ”There Will Never Be A Nationwide Transportation Disruption In The United States”
28. ”Instead Of Being So Paranoid, I Would Rather Just Enjoy Life”
29. ”If Society Falls Apart I Wouldn’t Want To Continue To Live Anyway”
30. ”There Will Never Be Another World War”
31. ”I’m Too Lazy To Grow A Garden”
32. ”If You Assume The Worst Is Going To Happen Then You Don’t Believe In America”
33. ”Deficits Don’t Matter”
34. ”I’ll Always Be Able To Get A Job In My Field”
35. ”If There Is A Financial Collapse All Of My Debts Will Be Wiped Out So I Might As Well Live It Up Now”
36. ”If Things Hit The Fan I Will Just Go Move In With My Relatives Who Have Been Busy Prepping”
37. ”Those That Believe That There Will Be Massive Riots In American Cities Someday Are Just Being Delusional”
38. ”My Spouse Would Think That I Have Finally Lost It”
39. ”I Don’t Know Where To Start”
40. ”I’ll Just Deal With Problems As They Arrive”
41. ”I Don’t Have To Prepare For A Natural Disaster – That Is What FEMA Is For”
42. ”We’ll Never See Martial Law In The United States”
43. ”I Don’t Want To Scare My Children”
44. ”Once I Get Rid Of All My Debt Then I Will Start Thinking About Prepping”
45. ”My Relatives Already Think That I Am A Nut Job – I Don’t Need To Make It Any Worse”
46. ”If People At Work Find Out That I Am Prepping It Could Hurt My Career”
47. ”If There Really Was A Good Reason To Prepare They Would Tell Us About It On The News”
48. ”People Have Been Predicting Doom And Gloom For Years And It Hasn’t Happened Yet”
49. ”The United States Is The Greatest Nation On Earth – There Is No Way That It Could Collapse”
50. ”I Don’t Plan On Becoming A Card Carrying Member Of The Tin Foil Hat Brigade”

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Filed under Prepper articles, Survival Manual

Survival during social chaos

(Survival manual/7. Warehouse/Survival during social chaos)

A.  How People Act in Times of Trouble
Pasted from: http://www.ki4u.com/guide.htm

“When tough times come, you’ll likely  discover that people today, overall, are not as resilient as they were in times past. For many of us, our grandparents generation included a higher percentage of self-reliant rural folks who both ‘made do’ on less while growing and raising their own food. Today, most people are far removed from the land and the routine of being responsible for supplying their own food; many even have a dangerous government-dependent mentality of entitlement. Fact is, the morality that both sustained and restrained previous generations during tough times is not as widely embraced in this present population. As a result, many people will more quickly rationalize theft, robbery, looting, and rioting when they fear hunger and deprivation. Crime is already a problem today–even with nobody being hungry, and with law enforcement in place. Crime, then, could explode when hunger threatens and law enforcement deteriorates concurrently. It is therefore prudent for anyone making serious preparations to also include plans for maintaining their own security if law enforcement is either unavailable or cannot keep pace with the demands of an overwhelming crime wave. If you do not own or use guns, I would strongly urge you to re-evaluate your personal security.
If you find it lacking, acquire some guns and ammunition immediately, and get some safety and practical tactical training in their use. Ask the clerks at your local gun store for advice on defensive arms and to point you to local resources for that essential training.

For those who already have weapons, be sure they are effective models and calibers for self-defense, and that you have stocked plenty of ammunition and high-capacity magazines if needed. Weapons and ammo will quickly disappear, or they will become prohibitively expensive or restricted, once the essential need is more widely recognized.”
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B.  Crime Prevention for Home
Prevent robbery, theft, and burglary with a fundamental enemy, a motion sensor light. Motion Sensor lights are your first defense against crime at your home property. Motion lighting will startle a potential thief or burglar outside of your home and will often send them somewhere else instead. Thieves are looking for easy access with the least resistance and they do not want to be seen or caught. Obviously this is only a night time deterrent however this is when many bad guys prowl for cars to steal, entry into yards for property valuables, or look for ways to enter the home. Their success begins under the cover of night and not being seen by the property owner, tenant, or neighbor.

According to statistics:
•  The best times for a home break in is after lunch in the early afternoon.
•  The second best time for a home burglary is from 2:00-3:00 pm, people just left from lunch, and nobody is at the house, this provides a short window of time, but comes unexpected.
•  For a military assault or to breach a building, the best time is 4:00AM, right before dawn when the body is just starting to wake up and is still most sluggish.
•  40% of the felonious assaults involved firearms, 12% represented cutting or slashing, and 6% involved other types of assaults.”
•  Most burglars spend six to eight minutes inside a victim’s home and only have time to check the most obvious places for valuables.
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C.  Survival Psychology “Deadly Force”
Survival Cache, by Captain Bart, Catholic Deacon, Retired US Army Pilot, Suburban Survivalist
http://survivalcache.com/survival-psychology-deadly-force/
“A great deal of survival talk and survival psychology centers around weapons and their use. The use of weapons for hunting or protection from aggressive animals is a (relatively) morally neutral action, but the use of weapons against another human being is not.

Note: SurvivalCache.com remains “Religion” neutral, this entry was submitted by a man of the cloth and we felt that it had enough merit to be posted for all.

While you can be a Vegan and a survivalist, it is extremely difficult and even a Vegan might see the need to protect people and crops from predatory animals. The moral dilemma arises when the discussion turns to the use of deadly force against fellow human beings.

For those of us raised in the Jewish or Christian faith, the prohibition against murder is absolute. The commandment is actually, “Thou shall not commit murder”, not “Thou shall not kill” but that is a different discussion.  Let’s address survival, preparation and the use of force against people.

The Scripture, both Old and New Testaments have many examples of being prepared.  Joseph in Egypt is a prime example in the Book of Genesis.  In the New Testament, note that Jesus wasn’t born in a stable because Joseph and Mary were homeless, he was born in a stable because the central government in Rome ordered them to relocate for the purpose of being taxed.  The Holy Family fled to Egypt because the local government was bent on destroying the Infant.

Nowhere in Scripture or the earliest Church writings are soldiers told to put up their arms or to change jobs.  They are told to do their job honestly and to the best of their ability.  Paul explains that government has the power of the sword since it is their God given role to enforce law and punish evil.

The early Church fathers addressed this issue at the same time as they addressed the issue of war in general. Men like Augustine of Hippo and Thomas Aquinas explain in detail what constitutes a just use of deadly force. There are three main events that must be met before deadly force can morally be used:
1.  Force may only be used defensively.  Deadly force may only be used against people to protect one’s own or another life.
2.  The amount of force must not be excessive.  You cannot kill someone for minor offensives.
3.  There must be a reasonable possibility of victory.

Defend
The first requirement means that open aggression is never morally justified.  Deadly force may only be used against actual or reasonably threatened force.  The leader of the biker gang who threatens my family and me, gets off his bike and walks in my direction has not actually used force against me.  The threat is however creditable and deadly so a deadly response is justifiable.  It further means that deadly force is never available to an aggressor even to defend his own life.
Shooting a homeowner who is using deadly force against me after I have broken into his home is not self-defense.  It is murder.

“Eye for an Eye”
The second item is rather straightforward but is often misunderstood. The Scriptural “eye for an eye” injunction is not a command to seek revenge but is an absolute limit on the amount of retribution that can be sought. If you break my tooth I may not kill you for it.  I may do no more than break yours in return.  This was a great limitation in a land where blood feuds last centuries.  Interesting arguments crop up discussing what is ‘justifiable’.  There is an old saying from the American West that ‘Horse thieves are hung not because they stole a horse. They are hung so that horses may not be stolen.’  In a time and place where having your horse stolen was often a death sentence, being a horse thief was a capital offense.  In the Eastern cities of today or even of the same era this was not true because the result of being afoot was not nearly as severe.  Horse thieves are not hung today, not even in Texas.

Victory
The final criterion requires a reasonable chance of success in your endeavor.  Attacking an armored column with a bow and arrow is suicidal and suicide is forbidden.  You are not allowed to murder, not even yourself.

The final, perhaps most interesting, point brought out by the Church fathers is that if there has ever been such a thing as a just war (justifiable defense) then it follows that there is such a thing as an unjust peace (failure to act).  As a husband and father, I do not have an option, morally speaking, when it comes to defending my family.  I have an absolute responsibility for their welfare.  This means I must also defend myself, even if they are not present, or I deprive them of the care they are entitled to.

The time to think through this responsibility is before TSHTF.  In fact, it should be done before the first weapon is purchased.  Establish your limits of what is and is not acceptable force. Then, if the time comes to act, there will be no hesitation. The same applies for survival in general.  I know what I believe is my responsibility to my family’s welfare and no person or act of government can remove that responsibility from me.  The Moral and Natural Laws set requirements that man made law cannot alter or remove.

People must decide for themselves what their responsibility is to their family and community.  They must then take appropriate steps to ensure they can carry out that responsibility.
Any other action is not in keeping with the long Christian tradition of just wars and self-defense.
By Captain Bart, Catholic Deacon, Retired US Army Pilot, Suburban Survivalist”

Deterrents & defense from criminal assault
Crime                                                Defense
Burglary                             Home security: locks, lights, arms
Armed robbery                 Awareness of  surroundings, Concealed carry
Aggravated assault          Awareness of  surroundings, Concealed carry, Pepper spray
Murder                              Concealed carry
Rape                                    NA
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D .  A Guide to Looting When the SHTF (And Your Counter-Strategies)
April 21st, 2011, SHTF Plan, by Mac Slavo, see this article and other invaluable survivalist information at:
http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/a-guide-to-looting-when-the-shtf-and-your-counter-strategies_04212011
Law and order will be the first casualty when the shit hits the fan [SHTF]. Recent historical examples the world over, including New Orleans, Haiti, and Chile show that without policing, looting will become an immediate danger.

The following Guide to Looting When the SHTF by Thomas Northrop of No Bullshit Survival shows that survival and preparedness planning does not include just storing food, supplies, guns, and medicine, or creating tactical defense plans for your home and property.
There will be organized gangs, whose sole method of acquiring necessities will be through looting. A friend recently mentioned that when discussing possible collapse scenarios at the water cooler, one of his office coworkers suggested that he would simply take what he needs from other people if it came down to it. Thus the looter mentality is not as isolated as we may think. In all likelihood, this person has already considered what he would do, how he would do it, and how far he was willing to go.

This is a reality, so understanding and accepting it as such is important now – so that you are fully prepared to deal with it if ever confronted by such a situation.

If you’re a law abiding citizen I suggest you don’t read this section. In some historical instances extraordinary measures have been taken against looters during times of crisis. It’s not uncommon in some countries for looters to be shot, either by police, army, or business owners. Some governments will justify the shooting of looters with the excuse of “preventing further damage to the economy”. I suggest you get out of countries that value the economy over your life.
Warnings aside… Let’s get down to business!

What is Looting?
Looting is essentially the act of stealing goods during a catastrophe, riot, war, or natural disaster and can also be referred to as sacking, plundering or pillaging. Looting is almost always opportunistic and usually occurs during a collapse in authority.

Looting can be justified in many ways. Some people may feel that if the goods are not stolen, they will be wasted. Another common belief is that if they don’t steal the goods, it will be stolen by someone else. In the aftermath of a large disaster, these beliefs both hold credence and are good reasons for you to be looting!

 Preparing
As with any endeavor, preparation is the key to success. In order to take optimal advantage of a disaster and loot effectively you’ll want to get several things handled ahead of time. The next few pages will cover all the information you need to become a master looter.

Make a Looting Kit
There are a few items that will make looting a lot easier. You’ll want to keep these items ready and on hand for when shit hits the fan. They should be kept together in the location for easy access so you just pick them up and go when it’s time.
•  Crow bar: The ultimate urban survival tool! A nice, heavy crowbar can be used to break into stores, clear your way through rubble and it can be used as a weapon! Don’t underestimate the crowbar. There are a million things you can do with a crowbar, just use your imagination.
•  Bump keys: These are keys that have been ground down in such a way that they can be used to open almost any lock. Bump keys are used by locksmiths and they’re relatively easy to use. A crowbar will get you through any door or window, but a bump key will get you through without making a mess.
•  Laundry bag: A strong, large drawstring bag is a definite must for looting. Laundry bags are great for the purpose of looting. They have a large carrying capacity and when empty they can be folded to fit in your pocket. You can always go for a large backpack, duffle bag or rucksack but they’re cumbersome, expensive and made for looks more than anything else.
•  A dollar coin or quarter: You may be wondering… a dollar coin or quarter? What the hell for? Well the answer may be a lot simpler then you imagine. The coin is for a shopping cart! Just make sure you get one before the other looters! If you don’t want to use a coin, you can always use the crowbar to break the chains holding them together.
•  Flash light / Lantern: It’s very likely that if the situation permits looting, the power is probably out. Good luck getting over fallen shelves and getting food in the dark. Looting with one hand will also be difficult, but there are a few methods around that. I suggest placing the lantern or flash light in the shopping cart, get a head lamp, or just bring someone along to shine the light and push the cart.
•  Make a Looting Team: Find several friends or family members and make a plan! It’s all about leverage, you can get a lot more done if you work as team. Get everyone together in a room and discuss a plan of action.

Here are the questions you’ll want to have answered:
•  Under what circumstances will looting take place?
•  Where will the goods be kept?
•  Who has a vehicle for transportation?
•  What are the best locations for looting?
•  Should each individual go to a different  store?
•  Should everyone go as team?
•  What goods have priority?

If each person  focuses on acquiring a certain type of item, you’ll collectively save a lot of time and effort. What I mean by this is that one person will collect water filters, one person will collect rice and beans, and the other person will collect fuel. That’s just an example and should be customized to fit your team needs.

Mapping and Creating a List of Target Addresses
Get a detailed map of your city and mark off important looting locations. Make a legend with symbols to represent different types of locations, for instance, use a circle for food stores, triangles for hunting/outdoor stores, squares for hospitals and pharmacies etc. A good resource for finding addresses and locations is Google maps, just type in a store name and Google will give you all the addresses for that store in your area. Copy and paste the results into a .txt file and print it out for future use. This map is extremely important and should be kept in a safe area. The map should be copied and distributed among friends and family.

Here’s a list of some locations to keep in mind:
•  Hospitals
•  Restaurants
•  Grocery stores
•  Large stores and warehouses
•  Police stations
•  Fire stations
•  Factories
•  Shipyards
•  Pharmacies
•  Liquor stores
•  Malls
•  People’s houses
•  Schools
•  Sporting good stores
•  Outdoor living stores
•  Garden stores
•  Hardware stores
•  Military / Armory bases
•  Gas stations
•  Air ports
•  Shipping container sites
•  Hotels

What to Loot
Some items are important to loot and some aren’t. A wide screen TV for instance will not contribute to your chances of survival. The highest priority should be on food and water but depending on location, finding water may be a problem. Water is too heavy to move around so instead of looting water bottles the focus should be on buckets and water filters. The value of money may be worthless in a disaster situation and therefore should not be a high priority.

The most important items to loot are as follows:
(This list of  items should have already been purchased  and included amongst your long term security preparations!
•  Personal medicine (if required)
•  Water filters and water
•  Rice
•  Dried lentils, legumes, beans
•  Salt
•  Oatmeal
•  Whole wheat flour
•  Sugar
•  Cooking oil
•  Coffee
•  Money (preferably in change)
•  Alcohol
•  Cigarettes
•  Energy bars
•  Coolaid/ electrolytes
•  Fuel/oil

Places to Avoid
The family-run corner stores should be avoided as the owners actually have an interest in the store. The best historical example to illustrate this point occurred during the LA riots… remember Korea town?  Go for the Wal-Marts and Super stores where the employees could care less about you looting, they
have no vested interest in the store.

Looting When Shit Hits the Fan
You have a plan and you know what to do, but now we’ll going into the details of what happens next.   It’s my personal belief that violence will not break out in the first stages of a disaster since food and supplies are still in relative abundance and people have what they need to survive. This has been
proven during hurricane Katrina and many other disasters. The first few weeks of a disaster should be spent looting and acquiring resources. Everyone in your team should loot the area and acquire as much as a possible. It’s only after several weeks of looting that gangs and groups will have formed and violence will erupt. Fighting will most likely occur over food and resources. All looting from that time on should be executed with extreme caution.

We will undoubtedly get flack for publishing this “guide,” so to clear things up, we are posting this not so much as an instructional manual for how to loot, but to reiterate the point that there are those, and they are plentiful, who are fully prepared to take what they need at the expense of others.

You may have stereotypes of what a looter looks like and the people they will be traveling with. Stop stereotyping, because the fact of the matter is, that when people are hungry and under extreme stress the line between right and wrong is blurred and very easily crossed, and color or socioeconomic background will not matter.

With respect to the looting guide above, Mr. Northrop’s list of items to loot are, for the most part, necessities. Some might even suggest that instead of looting, we could call it “foraging,” at least when it comes to the essentials. Imagine for a moment that one of your family members has sustained an injury and requires antibiotics. Would you or would you not break into the pharmacy down the street to gain access to Penicillin? The same goes for food. If you’re food stores were wiped out, for whatever reason, and you knew of a train fully loaded with boxes of dry goods, would you or would you not “loot” that train to acquire the much needed food?

Some would argue that abandoned grocery stores, pharmacies, hospitals or distribution centers don’t belong to any one individual, so looting in those areas is not as bad as, say, breaking into someone’s home.

Supplies at those abandoned locations, however, will eventually and likely very quickly, run dry as everyone who hasn’t prepared (probably north of 90% of the population) will be scrambling to get as much food as they can.

You can probably guess what happens next. This is why it is important to prepare right now. The last place you want to be when the SHTF is out with the rest of the looters and foragers. It would be much more preferable to be at home finalizing your defense preparations – doing things like setting up barbed wire, firing lines, booby traps and coordinating with neighbors – because if the disaster event lasts for more than a week without outside resupply, gangs and looters are going to be headed your way next.”

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E.   Using your Expandable baton
1.  Display your baton openly. Often, just the presence of this weapon deters an assailant. Holsters are available that attach to your belt so the baton is in clear view of any would-be attackers.
Since criminals usually look for easy targets, simply displaying a baton may help avoid an attack in the first place.
2.  Grasp the baton firmly in your hand and quickly flick your wrist. This will open the baton. You want to maintain a secure, but not tight, hold of the baton. Since fluidity of motion is required to strike effectively, a grip that is too firm will cause tightness in your wrist and arm, decreasing your ability to strike quickly and smoothly.
3.  Create a distance of a few feet between you and your assailant, if at all possible. In order for your strikes to be effective, make room to maneuver. Take a step back or to the side to create the distance needed.
4.  Target your attacker’s weapon to disarm him. Then, aim for the bony areas of the body, including the head, knees, collarbone, ribs, elbows or wrists. This is much more effective than striking areas of muscle. While muscle strikes will hurt, they are not nearly as debilitating as a strike to a bony area.
5.  Block your attacker’s blows, and aim at disabling him, if possible. Stop him long enough to get away and get help. Put your whole body into the strike. Using only your arm for leverage is not nearly as effective as a strike that has the force of your body behind it.
6.  Close your baton by holding it perpendicular to the ground, and strike the tip firmly onto the ground. This will start the retraction process. Continue to tap the ground until all the sections of the baton have retracted, and the baton is in its closed form.
•     Handle length: 8- 1/4″ for the 21″ vs 9- 5/8″ for the 26″.
•     Each state has its own laws regarding expandable batons.
•     In most states carrying an expandable baton is not a problem. Using it is. Carrying a 2 x 4 x 3 is not a problem but using it to hit someone is.
•     I’m certified in expandable baton use for police work and cannot understand why someone would carry one for self defence. They are good for helping to take control or controlling a subject, but I wouldn’t depend on one for self defence. You need to get way to close to your aggressor. I would rather run into the street than allow myself to get that close to an aggressor and try to pull out my baton.
•     For the police, the expandable baton has some advantages. You always have it with you on your belt, the wood batons are great but they were usually in the car when you needed them. Also the expendables make a nice intimidating noise when opened, almost like a pump shotgun, but again that is for police work were you have to get in close to the aggressor, not for civilian life were you should be running away calling for help.
Pasted from <http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071028033543AAwTtOH

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Checklists and “things that disappear first”

(Survival Manual/2. Social issues/Checklists and things that disappear first)

If you’re concerned over world events or the apparent track the US economy is following and feel that a serious economic-security issue could occur with in the next year or two, the following checklists may prove helpful.  This post contains three well thought out lists that act as a guide to putting together a  variety of emergency supplies.

A.  To do checklist 
1.  Copy Can: Begin with the “copy can”  procedure of food storage build up: Over the weeks, while grocery shopping, buy two of the things you need so as to slowly fill your cupboard with extra product, without the difficulty of doing it all at once in an emergency situation, at considerable expense. See also the post, Food & Water/Food’
2. Build a 72 hour B.O.B for emergency situations for every person in the family, containing food, clothing, documentation; an Accessory container for water and other items will most likely needed. The Bug Out Bag, Accessories and Water are your GO Kit.

3. Back Up Power Source: Develop a home Back Up Power Source in case the power goes out; suggestions include a power pack, or deep cycle batteries, and /or a small 1KW-2KW generator and stabilized fuel. Have back Up power to sustain your basic systems for a 1-2 week duration.
4. Back Up Heat Source: Develop a Back Up Heat Source, something that does not depend on electricity: For example install a wood burning stove and buy, minimally one cord of cut and seasoned firewood; have a propane stove and fuel. Develop sources for heating and cooking.
5. Cupboard Back Up: Develop a ‘Cupboard Back Up’ to your regular canned and dry goods food supply: Buy two large, covered Rubber Maid tubs and fill them with the non refrigerated foods that you normally eat. With this in place, you must rotate your food, when items from the cupboard are eaten, restock them from the  tubs, then buy replacement items to replace those removed from the tub. With a stocked cupboard and the two Rubber Maid tubs filled, you will have about a 30 day supply of food.
6. Water Storage: You must have a minimum of 50 gallon water storage. This can be composed of bulk storage such as a 55 gallon drum and several cases of bottled water. See also my post, Food & Water/Water.
7. Have two emergency Radios and batteries. Communications: Back up family Communications technology with at least 1 mile range: Walkie-Talkies for everyone in the household, charged and including spare batteries. Could be beneficial to have CB radios in family cars as well.
8. Basic Documentation Package: Build a basic documentation package, including maps for everyone in the group showing routes to your local meeting and alternate meeting locations, maps with marked routes to your Bug Out Location; a list of phone numbers and addresses for everyone-business-motel that you might talk to during the emergency and while on the road. Have general daily schedule for every member of the family along with phone number, contact persons and addresses.
9. 30 Day Supply Commercially Prepared Emergency Foods: Buy a 30 Day Supply Commercially Prepared Emergency Food for every member of the household. Mountain House gallon cans have a 20 year life span. (With a food supply of 30 days quantity stored in the cupboard and back up tubs, plus a 30 day supply of freeze-dried foods, you have a 60 day food supply, better than 99.9% of the population.)
10. Food Storage Procedures: Learn 2 methods of Food Storage, i.e., Dehydration, smoking meat, pickling, etc.
11. Farmers Market & Seasonal Opportunities: find a local Farmers Market and learn about your local, seasonal food opportunities.
12. Cook 5 New Foods: Learn to cook 5 things you’ve never eaten before. Make them out of as many storable products as you can. This increases your food storage/supply/opportunities and teaches cooking.
13. Cash On Hand: C.O.H., maintain at home a Cash On Hand packet of minimally $500, preferably $2000 for ready cash should the power fail, in which case cashiers wouldn’t be able to use credit cards and would rely on cash for payment. Store a case of beer, as beer would be better than cash and act as a barter/bribe tool for services

Affirmation: Affirm your right and responsibility to survive, say it to yourself out loud, “I have a Right and Responsibility to Survive”. An “entitlement to survive” is where people would surround you and maintain you, giving you what you need to survive.

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B.   When SHTF, these 100 items will disappear first When planning for an emergency, think about the worst situation imaginable.  Here is mine: chaos, to get as much food and supplies as possible, gas lines that run out into the street, highways at a virtual standstill, banks not giving out money, looting, fires, babies crying because that have no formula to drink.  It’s not a pretty picture when you allow yourself to imagine it. Having supplies on hand can put a person way ahead of the game.  While some people are battling the lines and the grocery stores, you could be packing your items up and headed for hills before they even attempt to. For any beginning prepper, or those on a budget, the below list may be overwhelming. If you have not yet begun planning and preparation for an emergency or disaster, consider the basics first. In a disaster, your physiological and safety needs will be the most important, begin your preparations accordingly.

100 Things that Disappear First in a Disaster

1.   Generators: Good ones cost dearly. Gas storage, risky. Noisy…target of thieves; maintenance, etc.
2.   Water containers: An urgent item to obtain. Any size. Hard plastic only. Minimum storage volumes of 1 gallon/ person/day. Plan accordingly.
3.   Water Filters and chemical purifiers.
4.   Hand pumps and siphons: For water and for fuels.
5.   Portable Toilets: Increasing in price every two months.
6.   Toilet paper, Kleenex, paper towels: Imagine life without TP.
7.   Guns, Ammunition, Pepper Spray, Knives, Clubs, Bats and Slingshots
8.   Big dogs and plenty of dog food.
9.   Honey, syrups, white & brown sugar: honey is a very long-term storage item.
10. Rice – Beans – Wheat (flour): Quick start, get 15 lb each.
11. Vegetable/olive oil: for cooking, without it food burns/must be boiled, have at least 2 quarts on hand.
12. Milk – Powdered and Condensed: Shake liquid every 3 to 4 months.
13. Canned goods: Fruits, veggies, soups, stews, meats (tuna-in oil, salmon, chicken, spam), etc.: While shopping, buy a couple extra cans every week in order to ‘double stock’ your cupboards.
14. Baking supplies: flour, yeast, salt, baking powder, baking soda: Have at least a double supply of the basics.
15. Pet food, bedding, waste disposal and vet supplies; Double supplies on canned, and long-term with the dry goods.
16. Garlic, spices (esp. cinnamon), Soy sauce, vinegar, bouillon/gravy/soup base.
17. Chocolate/Cocoa/Tang/Punch (water enhancers)
18. Coffee,  Tea
19. Aluminum foil (Reg. and Heavy Duty): Great cooking and barter item.
20. Cigarettes
21. Wine/Liquors: For bribes, medicinal, etc. Tradable units should be in smaller volumes/trade units, ie, 375 ml. or ½ pint.
22. Chewing gum/candies
23. Graham crackers, saltines, pretzels, Trail mix, Jerky
24. Popcorn, Peanut Butter, Nuts
25. Vitamins: Critical, due to potential of having canned food diets over an extended period.
26. Hand-Can openers and hand egg beaters, whisks: are life savers!
27. Garbage bags: Impossible to have too many.
28. Cook stoves: Propane, Coleman and Kerosene
29. Propane Cylinder Handle-Holder: Urgent: Small canister use is dangerous without this item.
30. Propane cylinders, Coleman fuel: Definite shortages will occur. Safe to store, with long-term shelf life.
31. Propane Heater(s), i.e., Mr. Heater: and all accessories that go with it: extra propane tanks,heads, hoses, etc.
32. Mantles: Aladdin, Coleman, etc. : Without this item, longer-term lighting is difficult.
33. Grain Grinder: Non-electric
34. Cast iron cookware: Sturdy, efficient, adapt to camp fire use.
35. Matches, butane lighters: “Strike Anywhere” matches preferred, boxed, wooden matches will disappear first.
36. Charcoal and Lighter fluid: Will become scarce suddenly.
37. Gasoline containers (Type II, Metal)
38. Seasoned Firewood: About $250 per cord; wood takes 6 – 12 mos. to become dried, for home uses.
39. Lamp Oil, Wicks, Lamps: First choice: Buy CLEAR oil. If scarce, stockpile ANY!
40. Coleman Fuel: URGENT $2.69-$3.99/gal. Impossible to stockpile too much.
41. Fishing accessories: line, hooks, bobbers, etc.
42. Lighting sources: For short-term and long-term: Flashlights, hurricane lamps, light sticks, etc. Have Mantles and common repair parts on hand.
43. Batteries: Rechargeable: if possible, try to have all devices work from one or two battery sizes, i.e., AA and/or AAA.
44. Solar panel, storage battery & inverter kit: to recharge your AA & AAA batteries; cell phone, iPod, lap top and other small electronics.
45. Paper plates/cups/utensils: Stock up, folks.
46. Bow saw, axe, hatchet and Wedges, honing oil: For preparing firewood.
47. Seasoned firewood, 1+ cord: (4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft) Cut & split, takes 6-12 month to dry for use.
48. Coleman’s Pump Repair Kit: 1(800) 835-3278
49. Carbon Monoxide Alarm (battery powered)
50. Fire extinguishers: In every room…In a social breakdown, services may not be available.
51. First aid kits: Topical skin treatments, anti acids, Tylenol, Vagicile, antibiotics, antiseptics, bandages and gauze, anti diahhreal, laxative, eye wash… Google “Patriot Nurse” and see her many YouTube videos.
52. N95 disposable face masks, ½ face respirator/full face respirator with N100 and All hazard filters, Tyvek suit, rubber gloves, Potassium iodide pills: For pandemic, radioactive dust, biological agents.
53. Coleman lantern, kerosene lamps, lantern hangers.
54. Guns, spare clips, ammunition, body armor, Pepper spray, knives, extendable steel baton, bats & slingshot.
55. Writing paper/pads/pencils/solar calculators. Journals, Diaries and Scrapbooks: To jot down ideas, feelings, experiences of the historic times!
56. Insulated ice chests: Good for keeping items from freezing in wintertime.
57. Candles: 9 hour lantern candles are available through Amazon and in Wal-Mart camping department.
58. Plastic containers: bathing (per person); communal: laundry, dish wash & rinse, misc.
59. Laundry detergent, liquid.
60. Garbage cans Plastic: Great for storage, water, transport – if you buy one with wheels.
61. Atomizers: For cooling/bathing.
62. Fishing supplies and tools.
63. Mosquito coils, repellent sprays, creams.
64. Duct tape: Several rolls.
65. Tarps/stakes/twine/nails/rope/spikes: Tarps large enough to make a tent (12×16+) others for ground cloths, to catch rain water, other.
66. Backpacks, Duffle bags (BOB): If no BOB, then a back pack for each member of the family.
67. Scissors, fabrics and sewing supplies.
68. Clorox Household Bleach: Plain, NOT scented: 4 to 6% sodium hypochlorite. Water purification, sanitation.
69. Garden seeds (Non-hybrid): A must.
70. Garden tools and supplies.
71. Canning supplies: Jars/lids/wax.
72. Knives and Sharpening tools: files, stones, steel.
73. Bicycles…Tires/tubes/pumps/chains, etc.
74. Sleeping bags and blankets, pillows & mats.
75. Cots and Inflatable Mattresses: For emergency ‘guests’.
76. Survival guide book(s), Boy Scout Handbook.
77. Board games, cards, dice, books, crossword puzzles: To help pass the time. The greater the disaster, the more time you’ll have.
78. Baby Wipes, oils, waterless and Anti-bacterial soap: Saves a lot of water.
79. Feminine Hygiene, Hair care, Skin products: Tampons, shampoo, lip balm, moisturizing lotion, sun tan lotion.
80. Men’s Hygiene: Shaving supplies, shampoo, toothbrush/paste, mouthwash, floss, nail clippers.
81. Basin, washboard, mop bucket with wringer: for Laundry.
82. Clothespins, clothes line, hangers: A must. Have clothes pins in stock and eye bolts for line installed ahead of time.
83. Adequate clothing: Work boots, belts, Levis denim trousers and durable shirts for cool weather.‘Tennis shoes’ and light twill, khaki pants and light-colored shirts for hot climates.
84. Spare glasses, reading glasses.
85. Gloves: Work/warming/gardening, etc.
86. Socks, Underwear, T-shirts, etc: Extras
87. Thermal underwear: Tops and bottoms.
88. Hats and cotton neckerchiefs. Polymer filled, ‘Cool wrap’ neck bandanas.
89. Woolen clothing, scarves/ear-muffs/mittens.
90. Rain gear, rubberized boots, etc.
91. Roll-on Window Insulation Kit, clear and black plastic sheeting: Enough to cover all windows and entry doors.
92. Lumber: All types, a couple of sheets of plywood, some 2×4 and 2x2s.
93. Wagons and carts: For transport to and from open Flea markets.
94. “Survival-in-a-Can”/compact  survival kit.
95. Screen Patches, glue, nails, screws, nuts and bolts.
96. Paraffin wax
97. D-Con Rat poison, MOUSE PRUFE II, Roach Killer.
98. Mousetraps, Ant traps and cockroach magnets.
99. Glue, nails, nuts, bolts, screws, etc.
100. Small livestock: Goats, sheep, chickens
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C.  Advice From a  Sarajevo War Survivor: Experiencing horrible things that can happen in a war – death of parents and friends, hunger and malnutrition, endless freezing cold, fear, sniper attacks.
1.  Stockpiling helps. But you never know how long trouble will last, so locate near renewable food sources.
2.  Living near a well with a manual pump is like being in Eden.
3.  After awhile, even gold can lose its luster.  But there is no luxury in war quite like toilet  paper.  Its surplus value is greater than gold’s.
4.  If you had to go without one utility, lose electricity – it’s the easiest to do without (unless you’re in a very nice climate with no need for heat.)
5.  Canned foods are awesome, especially if their contents are tasty without heating.  One of the best things to stockpile is canned gravy – it makes a lot of the dry unappetizing things you find to eat in war somewhat edible.  Only needs enough heat to “warm”, not to cook. It’s cheap too, especially if you buy it in bulk.
6.  Bring some books – escapist ones like romance or mysteries become more valuable as the war continues. Sure, it’s great to have a lot of survival guides, but you’ll figure most of that out on your own anyway – trust me, you’ll have a lot of time on your hands.
7.  The feeling that you’re human can fade pretty fast.  I can’t tell you how many people I knew who would have traded a much-needed meal for just a little bit of toothpaste, rouge, soap or cologne.  Not much point in fighting if you have to lose your humanity.  These things are morale-builders like nothing else. 8.  Slow burning candles and matches, matches, matches.

Pasted from: http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/when-shtf-these-100-items-will-disappear-first_06032010

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D.   Survival Tools This list could easily run into the thousands of items, but here are a few you should think about having around the house and/or the retreat. These are for the survival situation when TEOTWAWKI (the end of the world as we know it) occurs rapidly, leaving you without the modern conveniences, little or no resources outside of what you have at hand, and a government that cares more about taking care of itself than caring for you and the thousands of other refugees.

As a general rule, avoid products that require batteries, or use consumables such as gasoline and propane, unless you have large storage tanks for fuel. If you can, look for radios and flashlights that can be powered by hand or contain rechargeable batteries and a self-contained solar panel.

Spend your money wisely, as the hundreds or thousands you spend on a night vision devices could buy you months worth of food.

Note, this is not intended as your bug out bag, automotive survival stash or 72 hour kit. But these are tools you may not have on hand that could be very useful in a survival situation.

  • Chain saw (with spare gas and oil): Great for clearing storm damage, rescuing others or cutting down a tree to block easy access to your house, neighborhood or retreat.
  • Axe and/or Hatchet: If you need to chop some fire wood, split some small logs or clear away some brush, an axe is a good second to the chain saw. Hatchets are great for making kindling and kids can use them, too.
  • A Hand Saw: If you don’t have a chain saw, you can still cut through a pretty good-sized log with a large hand saw. Get one with large teeth made for cutting logs, not mitering corners. This will be much more efficient for cutting logs than an axe.
  • Shovel: You never know when you might need to dig a hole, and it’s tough without tools. If you need to build a latrine, it will be a lot easier with a shovel than the survival knife on your belt. Same for an improvised nuclear shelter. Captain Dave keeps a folding shovel in his car, just in case. If you live where the soil is especially rocky, a pick and/or pry bar would be good additions to the list.
  •  Rope: Thick, thin or in between, there are 101 uses for rope and twine. From an improvised line for drying flooded or rain-drenched items to lashing items to the roof of your bug-out vehicle, you should keep a few different kinds on hand.
  •  Knife: Captain Dave recommends carrying a knife at all times. But a larger knife is useful for dozens of possible tasks, from whittling a tent stake to cutting a fishing spear. Once you have a general-purpose knife or two, you can add skinning knives, folding knives, etc.
  •  Sharpening stone: This will help keep you knife, axe, and other bladed implements sharp and ready for use. Add a file for the axe and hatchet.
  • Big wrench: It’s possible you will need to turn off your gas or water main if your domicile receives serious damage. While special non-sparking wrenches are made specifically for turning off the gas, any wrench will do in a pinch.
  •  Cast iron frying pan and Dutch oven: A properly treated cast iron frying pan is great for cooking eggs or rodents on a gas stove or over a camp fire. And a Dutch oven will cook everything from stew to bread.
  •  Tin cups, and plates: Glass and china products will break, especially in a rough survival environment. Metal products are lighter to carry and can be tossed off the shelf in a quake with no side effects. Plastic is a good alternative, but you cannot heat a plastic cup over an open fire. The enamel products, built for camping, are the nicest available.
  •  Hand powered grinder/mill: If you store buckets of grain, Captain Dave assumes you have thought of this necessity.
  • Bucket: Whether you need to haul water, or carry vegetables from the garden to the house, a bucket is an item you will be hard pressed to make.
  •  Plastic jugs or other water containers: You may need to carry water from a nearby source, and gallon jugs are easy enough for everyone in the family to carry.
  • Fire starter: Once the power goes out, you’ll be depending on a fire to cook, boil water, keep warm, etc. You need to make sure you have plenty of different fire starting materials. Lighters and matches are good, but alternatives such as a flint and steel are  even better in the long run.
  •  Sleeping bag and/or blankets: The value these will provide in keeping warm at night should be self evident.
  •  Multiple light sources: A hurricane lantern that burns kerosene is very convenient, more so than a Coleman lantern. Keep flashlights on hand for short-term use but stock up on candles. It gets pretty dark when the electricity is out for days or weeks, and they are warm and comforting.
  • Tarp/plastic sheets: Ideal when you need to keep something dry, create a temporary shelter or rig a catch system to trap rain water.
  • Gun: You should give serious consideration to owning a gun for self-protection. If you take personal  survival seriously, you owe it to yourself and your loved ones to explore the benefits of gun ownership.
  •  Bicycle: After the immediate emergency dies down, you may need to get around your local area, and a bike is an excellent alternative when cars are not practical. Maybe there’s a lack of gasoline or downed bridges and overpasses, as we saw after the big California quake. You can carry a bike over broken cement and can cover much more ground than walking. If society breaks down to the extent that you need to use a bike, they will be very expensive. So get one now and use it recreationally.
  • Shortwave Radio: If the situation is  so bad the local radio and TV stations are off the air, you will need a shortwave radio set to hear news from other countries around the world. For local communications, a CB radio and a scanner are nice additions. Pasted from: http://www.captaindaves.com/guide/tools.htm

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E.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of our Needs  

1.  Physiological needs(base tier) For the most part, physiological needs are obvious — they are the literal requirements for human survival. If these requirements are not met, the human body simply cannot continue to function.

Air, water, and food are metabolic requirements for survival in all animals, including humans. Clothing and shelter provide necessary protection from the elements. The intensity of the human sexual instinct is shaped more by sexual competition than maintaining a birth rate adequate to survival of the species.

2.  Safety needs With their physical needs relatively satisfied, the individual’s safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. These needs have to do with people’s yearning for a predictable orderly world in which perceived unfairness and inconsistency are under control, the familiar frequent and the unfamiliar rare. In the world of work, these safety needs manifest themselves in such things as a preference for job security, grievance procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts, insurance policies, reasonable disability accommodations, and the like.

Safety and Security needs include:

  • Personal security
  • Financial security
  • Health and well-being
  • Safety net against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts

 3.  Love and belonging After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third layer of human needs are social and involve feelings of belongingness. This aspect of Maslow’s hierarchy involves emotionally based relationships in general, such as:

  • Friendship
  • Intimacy
  • Family

Humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance, whether it comes from a large social group, such as clubs, office culture, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams, gangs, or small social connections (family members, intimate partners, mentors, close colleagues, confidants). They need to love and be loved (sexually and non-sexually) by others. In the absence of these elements, many people become susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression. This need for belonging can often overcome the physiological and security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure; an anorexic, for example, may ignore the need to eat and the security of health for a feeling of control and belonging.

4.  Esteem All humans have a need to be respected and to have self-esteem and self-respect. Also  known as the belonging need, esteem presents the normal human desire to be accepted and valued by others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have an activity or activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. Imbalances at this level can result in low self-esteem or an inferiority complex. People with low self-esteem need respect from others. They may seek fame or glory, which again depends on others. Note, however, that many people with low self-esteem will not be able to improve their view of themselves simply by receiving fame, respect, and glory externally, but must first accept themselves internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can also prevent one from obtaining self-esteem on both levels.

Most people have a need for a stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-respect, the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom. The latter one ranks higher because it rests more on inner competence won through experience. Deprivation of these needs can lead to an inferiority complex, weakness and helplessness.

Maslow also states that even though these are examples of how the quest for knowledge is separate from basic needs he warns that these “two hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply separated”. This means that this level of need, as well as the next and highest level, are not strict, separate levels but closely related to others, and this is possibly the reason that these two levels of need are left out of most textbooks.

5.  Self-actualization “What a man can be, he must be.”This forms the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need pertains to what a person’s full potential is and realizing that potential. Maslow describes this desire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming. This is a broad definition of the need for self-actualization, but when applied to individuals the need is specific. For example one individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent, in another it may be expressed athletically, and in another it may be expressed in painting, pictures, or inventions. As mentioned before, in order to reach a clear understanding of this level of need one must first not only achieve the previous needs, physiological, safety, love, and esteem, but master these needs.

 Deprivation Needs The first four levels are considered deficiency or deprivation needs in that their lack of satisfaction causes a deficiency that motivates people to meet these needs. Physiological needs, the lowest level on the hierarchy, include necessities such as air, food, and water. These tend to be satisfied for most people, but they become predominant when unmet. During emergencies, safety needs such as health and security rise to the forefront. Once these two levels are met, belongingness needs, such as obtaining love and intimate relationships or close friendships, become important. The next level, esteem needs, include the need for recognition from others, confidence, achievement, and self-esteem.

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