Tag Archives: extraterrestrial ecology

The Backwoods Home Magazine article index

(Survival manual/ Prepper articles/ Backwoods Home Magazine article index)

** Wednesday 9-12 & Friday 9-14 post

This post contains a link to all the articles in  the voluminous backwoods magazine article index.

Backwoods Home Magazine Article Index (invaluable & free)
By Category

Backwoods Home Magazine (Practical ideas for self-reliant living)
Pasted from: http://www.backwoodshome.com/article_index.html#fr

All articles listed on this page are available to read online.
Click on the title to read the article.
Click on the Issue # to view the Table of
Contents and Cover for that issue.

The complete printable index of all articles published in Backwoods Home Magazine from Issue #1 to #136 is available free in PDF and EXCEL formats. (PDF requires the free Adobe PDF Reader. EXCEL requires Microsoft Excel or compatible spreadsheet program.) PDF Version (331 kb), EXCEL Version   (480 kb)

Click Here For The Article Index By Author

Americana / History

Special Historical Documents


Building / Tools


Country Living

Crafts & Hobbies


Issue #73

Farm & Garden

Firearms / Hunting / Self Defense

Food / Recipes



Just For Kids

Making / Saving Money



Self Reliance

Small Town America

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They Will Take Everything If You Don’t Stop Them

(Survival Manual / Prepper article/ They Will Take Everything If You Don’t Stop Them)

They Will Take Everything If You Don’t Stop Them: Ten Things You Must Do To Defend Yourself
July 13th, 2012, SHTFplan.com, Be Informed

They will take everything if you don’t stop them.
At first glance a statement like this brings up thoughts of the government coming for all freedom seeking people. In actuality this is about your neighbors and those in your community that will ruthlessly mob up and literally storm your own home for what you have after a long drawn out disaster, perhaps sooner. It is a fact that most people in the United States, upwards of 99%, have little or NOTHING put away for emergencies. When chaos hits and a country’s infrastructure crumbles into powder, so does the nation’s ability to feed and sustain its citizens.

Self reliance and preparing for a rainy day or even for a full blown hurricane has become almost a taboo for many, and a total waste of time, money and effort for the others. While what a person does with their own money and time is their business, the same holds true for the person that sacrifices much to prepare for future mass disorder and total lack of purchasable necessities.

The main conundrum with the vast majority of the population is that they have come to totally expect everything provided for them by someone else, human or machine. This “serve me, as I am the only one that matters” attitude is more than an epidemic in the United States and many other countries. As individuals of ALL ages lose the basic skills of self reliance, and more importantly the desire to do any task for themselves, a ticking time bomb becomes more pronounced for when these services breakdown.

Various scenarios await the preparedness minded person in the event of a societal collapse.

The majority of the country has become totally reliant on daily shipments of food and other necessities. An oil emergency in the Middle-East, for example, can severely limit transportation of the goods that people depend on. A war that would rage on a half a world away would mean that supermarket shelves would be emptied. This would ONLY be regarded as a moderate hit to civilization until a regional war like this actually went global. Most people can only get by without a few days of food before “snap” reactions begin. Remember ONLY 1 to perhaps 1 and 1/2% of the people have stocked up for just such an emergency.

One of the most critical threats to be faced will be from those in your immediate vicinity – and those who have prepared will likely be forced to draw a line in the sand.

Most of us live around neighbors and are not, for the most part, living an isolated lifestyle. We usually have fair to good relationships with those that live around us. This often leads to the misconception that these neighbors and those that live around our community would never just come and take what we have saved up to keep our family alive after a calamity. In some cases this is true. In most cases it is not. After a week of starvation and lack of access to food, most neighbors will gather together and head for any house merely “suspected” of having food. Unless those desperate individuals are stopped, they will ransack a home of everything that is in it like a hoarde of hungry locusts. It is called the irrational conduct of a mob mentality. An excellent example of this is how a person can be trampled to death by a herd of wild eyed shoppers desperate enough to get some electronic gadget at some super holiday sale.

Let’s look at a fictional prepper family named the Smiths that have 1 year worth of food for 8 people, along with food for their golden retriever and cocker spaniel dogs, their tabby cat, and their macaw bird. The Smiths are friendly people but have not told anyone about their stockpile. After a severe incident, call it an economic collapse, war, Earth changes – it really doesn’t matter – the chain links of food being delivered are now gone. Through casual conversations somehow a couple of neighbors have figured out the Smiths have food and have alerted others through the gossip channel. After almost 2 weeks without much food, no FEMA government trucks have come in to rescue, a crowd of almost 100 people have gathered around the Smith house. Similar size crowds have also collected around other people’s homes suspected of “hoarding” food. The Smiths have taken an unrealistic and idealist sentiment towards believing in the good nature of human beings and their community and have not stocked up much at all in self defense.

Grandpa Smith understands that trying to feed 100 people would dwindle their supplies quickly and decides to leave everything closed up and not answer the door. The Smiths find out how hunger will drive a civilized person into wanton rage and animalistic acts. Four members of the mob pick up a railroad tie and use it as a battering ram to knock down the front door. Then like a pack of sharks in a feeding frenzy the mob rushes in and takes everything the Smiths have including their food, blankets off the beds, the TV sets and computers, pots and pans, even the refrigerator is hauled out. Why does this happen? People in an erratic state of mind will grab everything they can, most riots prove this all too well. The last items to be picked clean are the family’s pets to the screaming pleas of their 9 year daughter not to hurt her dogs. Of course the dogs, the cat, and the bird are killed and cooked up for their meat. The Smiths are lucky that they too did not become someone’s meal.

The simple moral to this story is something most survival orientated people already know – that you must have self defense or you will lose what you have when someone decides to take it. The fact that so few prepare means that food is going to be even more scarce and totally sought after. The Smiths are hardly fictional and can be widely expected after a large scale catastrophe. Most people expect someone to have what they need ALL the time and they will flock towards that source and attempt to get it.

Fortunately for the self reliant family, those that live soft lives and allow everything to be done for them makes for a flabby, both in body and mind, person. Usually this type of person is a also a coward and even during irrational hunger spasms will back down and retreat in the face of dying or being severely injured. It is one thing to rush into a home with a mob like a pack of wolves with little resistance. It’s a completely different ball game to rush into a well fortified home watching those ahead of them in line being rapidly dropped one by one. Even with this said, self defense of you and your family and your lifeline in what you’ve stored up takes a host of different dimensions that vary significantly with each situation. There are some basics that can be vastly expanded on with each individual case. A term that can be used for this is “CONFRONTATIONAL AWARENESS”.

Here are 10 points to think about if and when you are faced with defending you and your own:

1. What type of self defense fits you the best? Some individuals can make very exotic improvised devices, but everyone that can legally own a firearm should have at least one, preferably many. The extreme number of firearms takes up pages, but everyone should have a firearm that can discharge as many rounds as possible without having to reload. A firearm that has some long distance range to it. A shotgun, call it a scatter gun, with at least size 4 buckshot up to triple ought 000. A handgun of course for close range engagement. The simple answer to which one is what is most comfortable with you personally and what you can afford. You want stopping power, but also to be able to at least slow down a lot of targets if this becomes an issue. Other weapons should also be added, such as bear pepper spray that can slow down or stop a large group of people rushing you. Knowing how to jerry rig various home made weapons adds to your security. Have extra ammunition for all firearms. Don’t depend on just one or two weapons for self defense, have back-ups.

2. Litigation. This is an extremely sticky point “IF” the society recovers. It should be remembered that (unfortunately) any act of personal self defense might have to be answered for. The state or country that you are in may or may not view the 40 people you shot “outside” your home as a legitimate threat, even if they had a battering ram and other weapons and total anarchy ruled the day and night. In other words, just because it may seem like the end of the world doesn’t mean that it actually is. Protecting you and your family could also mean carefully assessing your situation and not acting without discretional thought. You never want to be indicted with some mass murder charge should the world reestablish itself enough to prosecute you in the future. Checking out the laws of protecting yourself where you live before the world falls apart is an excellent idea and sound precaution.

3. Determine your boundaries. Where, exactly, does a threat cross that threshold in which you engage them? For some people it is a property line or at the front door – wherever this may be, know it. In some places a mob outside your door constitutes a deadly threat to your family. In some places you may actually have to be backed into a corner and the attacker may even have to possess a weapon for you to legally defend yourself. Know these legal parameters. For some people it doesn’t matter the legal consequences, and this can be a life saving measure taken to stop an attack before a group gets too close that you cannot stop. Establishing a point of no return is a good strategy so that you know where and when you must act to protect everyone.

4. Know the seriousness of what is happening. This is of course ties into the legal ramifications of defending yourself, but especially with just how desperate people will become to try and take what you have. Has the water been turned off? What about the power? Is there any food left in the stores? Are emergency supplies and other food being shipped in, and if so how often? Is there in town rioting? Are the masses of people roaming around looking for food? Have there already been homes attacked from mobs? The more you know about the threat evaluation the better you can prepare your defenses.

5. Know what is around you. This includes having some way of seeing a full 360 degrees around your home, up and down, and someone on watch duty most (or all) of the day and night. An ideal security preventative is to have some sort of observation tower, motion detectors, night vision, and anything else to give you advance notice of anyone trying to sneak in unnoticed. Hidden viewpoints throughout the home are a workable and important addition. Booby trapping your property has been an effective method used in warfare all through history as a means of stopping someone and alerting everyone. Dogs and other animals such as geese are often used as early warning systems. Always try to know what is going on for as far a distance from your home as possible.

6. Decide on your barriers. This brings to mind that raw stopping power of a projectile fired, launched, or even thrown towards you and your family. The standard home (mud and sticks) offers little protection against a bullet travelling at over 3000 feet per second. Consider how you might shield against radiation, and use the same strategy for self defense. The more mass the better. Many excellent materials are out there, but raw materials around the house such as dirt, sand, rock are certainly better than nothing as a shield. Taking advantage of underground levels of the home – because you can’t shoot through dirt – also offers good temperature control and isulation from the outside elements for people, pets and your supplies. Barriers also serve the purpose of slowing down or even stopping advances of individuals trying to come for you and your stockpile. Like many criminals, simple locks and anything that takes effort to break through can impede most individuals enough so they leave you and everyone else alone. The more obstacles you can place to make it as difficult as possible is in your best interests. You want to do everything you can to avoid a situation where you’re left with no other option but hand to hand combat.

7. Be ready to take a stand. Unfortunately many people feel that when the time comes that they can do anything it takes to survive. Yet some will “freeze up” when faced with pulling a trigger and blowing someone away. This is especially true after someone has actually shot one of the first of many individuals rushing in to take what they have and even hurt or kill them and their family. Hesitation is human nature and throughout our lives society has implanted into our psyche that killing someone, even in self defense, is wrong. This is why it is imperative for those in your survival group who have the responsibility of defending everyone to be willing to use those weapons if and when it becomes required of them. Training and practice will make it possible for you to more efficiently and effectively deploy your weapons on a physical and psychological level. There is a reason behind why the military trains and trains, not to just improve accuracy, but to make it mentally routine that a soldier will not vacillate in a life or death situation. The two words that best describe this is “mental toughness.” You must be able to reliably act to save yourself and your family.

8. Be prepared for unconventional attacks. Desperate people will do incredibly stupid and irrational acts that defy reason. If a mob discovers a well fortified home with food in it, they might try to actually light the entire structure on fire. It doesn’t matter to the insane minds that all the food will be ruined inside; they only see and “think” that this will smoke everyone out. Someone may even get the “brilliant” idea of trying to collide a large truck into you home. The list is endless and depending on your unique circumstances, there are defenses against most if not all attacks. The aim here is to make the distance an attacker needs to travel to your home as long as possible and this is where barriers and booby traps play an important role. It is also passive protection in which someone can help protect their home with high water type bushes, plants, and trees that won’t burn easily. In many high danger wildfire areas homeowners will use fire retardants on their homes, as well as having quick means of extinguishing fires ready to use if the time comes. Help ready yourself by reviewing and thinking about the unconventional ways your refuge can be assaulted.

9. Remember you have the advantage. Mobs will often try to frighten and intimidate people out of their home and/or try to force you to divvy up all what you have. Don’t let them scare you. Those supplies are your lifeline, without them you will be reduced to almost the same level of those roaming around aimlessly that have not prepared. You have the upper hand in that they have to come for you in your own home – a dwelling that you are familiar with. All depending on how well fortified your place is, anyone coming for what you have will have to get across all sorts of traps and physical hurdles, not to mention various weapons being discharged at them. Most attackers are also going to be depleted in body and mind from not eating, on top of already being out of shape flab bodies. These individuals usually are totally untrained in any type of combat or fighting, and that gives the prepper/survivalist a whopping upper hand. Time is also on the side of the hunkered down people, as a very hungry person will lose interest and go somewhere else easier to get at. They will also likely become too weak to pose any threat after more time. Long standoffs almost always favor those that have everything they need well stored up within easy reach and use.

10. Avoidance of any showdown. Everyone will be better off if neighbors and others decide not to storm your home for food and supplies. Concealment that you have anything is crucial. Remember that the very first “trespasser” that is shot at lets others know that you have something worth fighting for, use good discretion. Convincing others that you have nothing and are just as “bad off” as they are will take some showmanship. Rundown looking property is one way to discourage many, as well as looking as much like a sick or dilapidated person as possible. Still one of the best ways to ward off hungry people is SMELL. Out of the five senses, scent and smell will drive a starving person rapidly towards a possible food source, or very rapidly away from something that reeks. Horrid smells tell the brain to stay far away. Of course not telling anyone about what you have stored up before a disaster is essential. It is often very encouraging to “think” those living around you are all aboard with preparation, but in reality people are likely only telling you what you what to hear. It only takes one person to betray you and let everyone know you have a mini-supermarket ready to be picked clean. True trust in others must be carefully weighed. Remember this before letting anyone outside your family and survival group know that you are even interested in prepping, “most people are just TALK, too much talk, and are not on the side of the prepper (YOU!)”. There are good reasons why close to 99% of the population freely chooses not to prepare.

You always hope that you never have to fight off neighbors that have remained friendly and courteous towards you for years, but almost no one has faced what is coming. Insane circumstances drive many civilized people into blinded insane savages capable of incomprehensible acts of desperation. It has to be remembered that by self sacrificing much, the prepper/survivalist has what they need when civilization implodes. Those who haven’t prepared have consciously decided to enjoy themselves and waste much. In other words, someone that has taken the money, time, and effort to save for tomorrow makes what they have stored up, “worth it to defend”. Those that have not prepared don’t care if you and your family go hungry in less than a week, if they did they would have stored up supplies themselves. These individuals are going to expect you to “share” everything you have. This is why the prepper needs to be more than ready to defend themselves against those that will “try” to forcefully take your lifeline from you.

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World Volcanoes Webcam page

(News & Editorial/ World volcanoes webcam page)

April 1, 2012, Earthquake report, By Armand Vervaeck http://earthquake-report.com/2011/11/15/world-volcanoes-webcam-page/

This page is an attempt to compile the volcano webcams of the world. Except for linking to their URL’s, earthquake-Report.com has no affiliation with the owners. As with so many other posts and pages in this site, this page can only be kept up to date with the input of you, our readers. May we ask you to let us know via the comment form below if you are running into a good webcam which is not listed here. We have started this page on November 15,2011 and it will be regularly revised by the interaction of our readers.

Some cams are temporarily out of service. If the error is noticed during a long period, please inform us. Some webcams are real disasters but are still working from time to time. We have linked them because of “even bad webcams are better than nothing”

Some webcams are of course black as it is night in that part of the world!

Antarctica : MOUNT EREBUS – Antarctica New Zealand

Chile : CORDON CAULLESernageomin1Sernageomin2Sernageomin3
Chile : LLAIMASernageomin1Sernageomin2Sernageomin3Sernageomin 4
Chile : VILLARICASernageomin1Sernageomin2Sernageomin3Sernageomin 4
Chile : CHAITENSernageomin1Sernageomin2
Chile : PLANCHONPETEROASernageomin1
Chile : LASCAR Sernageomin1
Chile : SAN PEDRO Sernageomin1
Chile : OSORNOSernageomin1
Chile : CALBUCOSernageomin1
Chile : HUDSON Sernageomin1

Colombia : GALERAS- Ingeominas
Colombia : HUILA- Ingeominas1Ingeominas2
Colombia : PURACE- Ingeominas

Costa Rica : TURRIALBA – ovsicori
Costa Rica : ARENAL – UstreamSatellite

Ecuador : PICHINCHASatellite

El Salvador : SAN SALVADOR – LaPrensaGrafica

France : Réunion : PITON DE LA FOURNAISEFournaiseInfoIPGP

Greece : SANTORINI- TravelToSantorini

Guatemala : PACAYASatellite

Iceland : KATLA – RUVMila
Iceland : HEKLA – RUVMila

Indonesia : Java : MERAPIBadan GeologiSatellite

Italy : ETNA – Etna TrekkingLave VolcansSatellite
Italy : STROMBOLIINGVSatellite

Japan : SAKURAJIMA – Kyoto University
Japan : MOUNT FUJI – Live Fuji

Mexico : COLIMAUcolSatellite
Mexico : POPOCATEPETLSegob1Segob2Segob3Satellite

Montserrat : SOUFFRIERE HILLSMVOSatellite

New Zealand : RUAPEHUGeonet
New Zealand : WHITE ISLAND – Geonet
New Zealand : MOUNT EGMONTGeonetTaranaki

Philippines : MAYONSatellite

Russia : Kamchatka : KLYUCHEVSKOYkvert1kvert2Satellite
Russia : Kamchatka : SHEVELUCHkvert1kvert2
Russia : Kamchatka : BEZYMIANNYkvert1
Russia : Kamchatka : KIZIMENkvert1
Russia : Kamchatka : GORELYkvert1
Russia : Kamchatka : AVACHINSKYkvert1
Russia : Kamchatka : KORYAKSKY & AVACHINSKYkvert1

Spain : Canary Islands : EL HIERRO – Las Restinga 1 and 2 – Las Puntas (El Golfo) – El Pinar1 – El Pinar2 – Earthquake-Report

Turkey : ARARAT – Arminco

USA : Alaska : SHISHALDINSatellite
USA : California : MOUNT SHASTASnowcrest
USA : Hawaii : KILAUEAUSGS1USGS2Overview webcam page (14 webcams)
USA – Montana : YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK National Park Service1
USA : Oregon : MOUNT HOOD Mt Hood Info
USA : Oregon : CRATER LAKE – National Park Service1
USA : Washington : MOUNT ST HELENS – USDA Forest Service1 Satellite
USA : Washington : MOUNT RAINIER National Park Service
USA : Washington : MOUNT BAKER – AlltravelcamsNWClaenair
USA : Washington : MOUNT ADAMS Petries1
USA : Washington : CASCADE VOLCANOESSkiMountaineer

Note: Some of this info is also posted into our Facebook Volcano Page – Google+ Volcanoes – Twitter : @VolcanoReport

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__Chapter 10: SRAPO Survey Templates

(SRAPO/Chapter 10: Survey Templates)

Having reached Chapter 10: Survey Templates, you have been exposed to the information necessary to create:
1.  A template for:
 _ a) the general star – planet system where intelligent life could evolve,
_b) the general climate and other macro environmental factors found on the model planet and,
 _c) u aspects of that planet’s life form morphology.
2.  Approaching this from a different direction: If you hypothesize how an alien might appear, you can plug those characteristics into the SRAPO templates and work backwards to the type world and a range of stars he would likely have developed on.
Comparing a completed a set of Survey Templates, with the closest similar environment found on Earth, you will have the information to visualize major portions of the alien world in your ‘minds eye’.
As you stand or visually float in that strange new world, look about yourself and see it at dusk.
Its twilight, colors are fading into grays. You look about, while feeling the temperature and humidity; you can generally identify the type of environment you are in. You can tell whether the vegetation is tall or short, thick or spindly, dense or thinly spread about, there may be sounds and smells carried in the air. Large planets are wet, small planets are dry; hot and dry environments have water or temperature as limiting factors; high relative gravity favors short and squat; high relative ultra violet ‘sunlight’ favors protective pigmentation; increasing planetary axial inclination favors life form mobility and hibernation…
The things you sense and see about you are the way they are for a reason.






The things you sense and see about you are the way they are for a reason…


End of SRAPO

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Chapter 9: Data Compilation

(SRAPO/Chapter 9: Data Compilation)

In Chapter 9: Data Compilation, we’ll draw together data covering the spectrum of our model alien worlds. Using the templates provided in Chapter 10 Templates, you can create a good conceptual model of any habitable planet covered in this study.

Initial Environments Compilation Table
The Initial Environments Compilation Table, below, provides the specific conditions within the physical or biological environments of our model worlds. Firstly, we’ll examine a small section of the table as seen in the cells at left.
The table’s columns are labeled with the APST (average planetary surface temperature); rows are labeled with  Planetary Mass (relative to Earth which =1.0).
Every combination of APST & Planetary Mass contains a box with a list of numbers; these numbers, become line numbers in a list of specific surface conditions found within the environment of that particular planet.
In order to extract information from the table, choose a planetary mass and an associated APST, then read the numbers in the corresponding data box.  If for example we chose a ‘damp’, 0.5 Earth mass planet with a ‘cold’ 0ºC APST, we’d find the data box containing the numbers, see box at left: 12,16,19, 27, 28, 31, 33, 37, 40.

Next, look ahead to The Initial Environments Compilation List and read the associated line numbers, for example;
>  #12 from the Initial Environments Compilation Table is read from line number 12 in the Initial Environments Compilation List, which states; “The planet’s light cloud cover allows for large day and night temperature fluctuations.”
> # 16 in the Initial Environments Compilation Table references, #16 in the List, stating; “The planet carries large polar ice caps, whose formation subsequently increases the dry land area in lower latitudes.”

Initial Environments Compilation Table

Initial Environments Compilation List
1. Life as we know it may not exist.
2. This is a desert world.
3. Free water may temporarily exist in various locations.
4.  High  average surface temperatures and low planetary escape velocity have resulted in most of the liquid surface water being lost.
5.  Life forms display specialized water use adoptions.
6.  Most of the planets free water has probably been lost.
7.  This is an arid world that has been slowly losing its water.
8.  This is an ice world.
9.  This is a cool temperate world.
10. Low temperatures and high escape velocities may have caused this large planet to retain much of its primitive hydrogen atmosphere.
11.  The planet has a nearly continuous cloud cover, which helps depress day temperatures and elevate/moderate night temperatures.
12.  The planets light cloud cover allows for large day and night temperature fluctuations.
13.  This is a water world.
14.  Continents may not exit; islands may provide the only dry land mass.
15.  This large world has three times the water producing mass of Earth, but only 10% more surface area for the water to cover.
16.  The planet has large polar ice caps, whose formation subsequently increases the surface area of dry land.
17.  Small continents and large islands are probably the main land masses.
18.  This rather large planet has two times the water producing mass of Earth, but only 42% more surface area of dry land.
19.  Forest like vegetation may be the most important land crop.
20.  Grass like vegetation may be the most important land crop.
21.  Desert like vegetation may be the most important land crop.
22.  Tropical type forests may be the most important land crop.
23.  Ice caps are present in the planets polar regions.
24.  Permafrost caps exist in the planets polar region.
25.  The planet has large hot, arid deserts in continental rain shadows.
26.  The sense of smell may be more acute than on Earth.
27.  The sense of smell may be less acute than on Earth.
28.  Communication may not be as sound dependant as on Earth.
29.  Communication may be more sound dependant than on Earth.
30.  Communication mat be by sonar using bat like high frequency echo location.
31.  Low temperatures allow for the formation of very complex molecules.
32.  High temperatures threaten complex molecules.
33.  Cool temperatures result in slower chemical reactions and perhaps longer life spans.
34.  Warm temperatures result in faster chemical reactions and perhaps shorter life spans.
35.  The planets rapid rate of rotation helps reduce day to night temperature differences.
36.  The planets slow rate of rotation increases the day to night temperature difference.
37.  Many life forms on this planet would be described as ‘long and spindly’.
38.  Many life forms on this planet would be described as ‘short and squat’.
39.  Animal life has developed an efficient means of getting rid of internal heat at a high rate.
40.  Animal life has developed an efficient means of generating and storing internal energy at a high rate.
41.  The minimum weight for an intelligent Being with a highly developed brain is 40 to 50 pounds (this seemingly critical lower mass would have different      weights on the various planetary models).
42.  The APST is too hot for permanent polar ice caps. With low axial inclination polar regions would have moderate temperatures, but low illumination.

Star-Planet Energy Relationship Table
In the table, Star-Planet Energy Relationships Table, immediately below, each model planet’s mass and the parameters leading to the average surface temperature are compared to provide the resulting associated: % cloud cover, solar constant and albedo; this information will be useful in filling in the templates that follow in Chapter 10.

Star-Planet Energy Relationship Table


Table of Planet Surface Conditions
The Table of Planet Surface Conditions, large sideways chart below, was derived from combinations of the physical parameters existing on our model planets. On the table, you’ll find planetary mass rows listed along left margin. Reading from left to right along each row, you will intersect with columns of various environmental characteristics and potentials associated with that chosen mass (planet size).

For example, let’s examine a 2.0 Earth mass planet: Reading across the table, the conditions we would expect to encounter on that world would be a:
•  L  (large) potential for wind generating energy,
•  M  (medium) expectancy for wide use of buried organics for fuel, i.e.  petroleum/coal,
•  S  (small) expectancy that solar power will provide much energy.

Further along that same row we find the planet has the addition probable characteristics (among others):
•  G  (great/much) volcanism, as compared to Earth,
•  S  (small) mountain height,
•  and, a 150 pound man on Earth would weigh 204 pounds there.

Continuing to read across the row titled, 2.0 Earth mass,but now looking at the far right side of the table,  we find that with;
•  A 0ºC (-32 º F) APST, the planet would have M (medium) or average (somewhat similar) humidity as found on Earth.
•  At 45ºC (113ºF ) APST, the average humidity would be considered VH (very high)  compared with the Earth average.

The Relative Humidity  sub-table (far lower right) was derived from the considerations that:
a) A graded land-water ratio exists on the study planets and that the water coverage to area dry land ratio increases with the mass of the planet.
b) The greater the mass of the planet, the greater the atmospheric density.
c) As the APST increases, the average  planetary humidity increases. On two planets with the same APST: The smaller planet, with a thin, light atmosphere and relatively small bodies of water, will have lower humidity than a large planet with its heavier, denser atmosphere and large bodies of water.

Comparing the various data in the Table of Planet Surface Conditions, you can see that Man could potentially do quite well on some of the model planets, but would be under considerable biological stress under others; examples can be seen below, from an examination of several variables in the following small table, which was extracted from Environments Table IV.

Condition Selected
Man’s weight Humidity Atmospheric
1. 1.0 Earth,
150 lbs. Medium Medium
2. 0.5 Earth,
103 lbs. Very dry Weak / little
3. 2.0 Earth,
APST 113ºF
204 lbs. Very high Much / great

Condition 1:  An Earth like planet, used for comparing Conditions 1 & 2 below.
Condition 2: The planet’s lower gravity results in a human colonist weighing less than on Earth. Man is therefore more mobile, physical activity is less taxing and he requires less oxygen; however,  there is less oxygen available in the thinner atmosphere. The planets habitable equatorial region has temperatures in the 41ºF to 45ºF range. Cool temperatures and low humidity would result in outdoor work conditions similar to those encountered during the Fall season in Earth’s mid latitudes.
Condition 3:  The planet’s higher gravity results in the Human colonists effectively carrying an additional 54 pound body weight. High gravity, high humidity and quite warm temperatures would create an environment more difficult for Man to settle. The planet’s habitable temperature zone basically extends from 50º to 70º latitude and carries a rapidly decreasing temperature across the latitudes, from 99ºF to 41ºF across this band. On the positive side, there is a large amount of atmospheric oxygen which would assist in labor and increase the efficiency of converting organics into electricity, etc. The planet would be more ideally suited to a short (about 4 feet tall) and slender intelligent being. This species expansion would probably require specialized adoptions to rid their body of heat. If the planet orbited a F class star, we might expect to find the alien with darker skin pigmentation, particularly in lower latitudes. Warm blooded animal life on such a planet may not have developed heavy fur coats as are found on Earth mammals.

Table of Planet Surface Conditions


This study can be used:
1.  To understand star-planet-biological relationships
2.  Determine general planetary environments
3.  Assist in the study of Humans and human technological adaptively under a variety of habitable extraterrestrial conditions.
4.  Back track an intelligent alien, that is, given a description of the intelligent alien’s form you will be able to derive a general model of his home planet, thereby narrowing the range of a) detected habitable star-planet configurations we know of, to date, b) or other Main Sequence stars, from which he came.

See also:
a) The Visual Exoplanet Catalog: < http://exoplanet.hanno-rein.de/complete.php&gt;
b)  The continuously updated list of known multi planetary systems at, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_multiplanetary_systems>
c) The extra Solar Planets catalog at, <http://exoplanet.eu/catalog.php&gt;

Continued in Chapter 10: Templates

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Chapter 8: Into A New World

Biotic Zones
We began this study with a set of basic rules for the development of intelligent tool using life – as we know it. We said conditions must allow for,
a)  the availability of liquid water, b) the planet would need to have an average surface temperature between 0º and 60ºC, the freezing point of water and the temperature at which protien is denatured, and c) the  planet’s mass should fall within the range of 0.25 and 3x Earth’s mass.
We went on to determine cloud cover, albedo and the associated range of solar constants.
We learned how to calculate the planet’s orbital radius, it’s day and year length.
We considered the intelligent alien’s morphology, it’s height, body build and general need for protective skin pigmentation.
We determined what class of main sequence stars could support a life giving ecosphere and learned how long these stars would remain stable for life to develop.
Now it time for our mind’s eye to float down and settle on these alien worlds.
As a child awakening in a new world, we’ll begin to tie together the things we learned from, a) conditions on mother Earth, b) our understanding of bio-organic chemistry, astronomy, atmospheric physics, etc.
Using the SRAPO construct, we’ll now begin to draw and label images for what we may expect to theoretically find on a given alien planet.
Within complexity lies basic uniformity and structure is related to function. Structural shifts occur within the matrix of complexity, but the matrix remains uniform in function. Mr Larry

The patterns of temperature, precipitation and atmospheric circulation carve out the basic land environments on Earth; we can expect these factors to play equally important, roles on other worlds.
As we go through our early years of schooling, we learn to associate terms like, ‘equatorial wet forest’ with an area that is hot, wet and jungle like. We call the Sahara, Gobi and Mohave deserts-‘deserts’. Our language can tend to limit our understanding of alien worlds, because we tend to classify environments with a name associated with a mental picture of that environment.
When we are creating planetary models, we need to associate environments with wholistic patterns, combining average planetary surface temperature, atmospheric circulation, illumination levels across the latitudes and biological adaptation. We need to think of an environment as a  process and biological adaptions as shifts with in the matrix of interplay between the given planetary and solar parameters.

By definition, a desert is a region left unoccupied; waste, barren; it is also an arid region lacking the moisture to support much vegetation. Our perceptions of a ‘desert’ relate to the later narrow description, yet in a broader context we can define other deserts, as;
•  Aquatic Nutrient Desert:  Where there is a lack of available nutrients; such conditions exist on Earth’s ocean surface, beyond the continental shelf.
•  Cold Desert:  The continent of Antarctica.
•  Arid Desert:  The arid Gobi, Sahara, Kalahari, Rub Al Kahali, Mohave deserts, etc.
•  Heat Desert:  As located on some of our warmer planetary models; heat is the biologically limiting factor.
•  Illumination Desert: Located near 90º latitude on very warm, low axial inclination planets. Perpetual, extremely low levels of illumination are biologically limiting factors, unless nutriens feed into the illumination desert from biologically active areas.
The pattern in which each of Earth’s biological communities have developed was influenced by temperature, precipitation, atmospheric composition and circulation, axial inclination, planetary mass, stellar spectral class, the existence of other orbiting bodies (‘moon’, binary star system), etc. If we shift the values of any of these variables on  Earth, there would be a direct impact on the morphology, size and distribution of our biological community, changing them away from what we hyave considered the norm. The norm that we find on extraterrestrial worlds will have developed under their own interplay of planet-star conditions. Intelligent, tool using creatures may seem quite different from what we’re accoustomed to at first glance, but only because they developed from their own unique mix of conditions. They are products from within the same matrix of physical proscesses, just shifted from what is found and called ‘normal’ on Earth. The greater the shift with in the matrix, the more uniusual they will seem, at first.

Equatorial Wet Forest
On worlds with low to medium axial inclination and moderate APST, we can expect to find wet forests in equatorial regions. This zone will have an average temperature 5ºC to 15ºC (9ºF to 27ºF) above the APST and a precipitation rate 50% greater than the planetary average. When compared with the planet’s polar region, the equatorial wet forest will have a greater variation between day and night temperatures, but would remain nearly constant, or only gradually changing on a day to day seasonal basis. Since precipitation would be relatively plentiful, the plant community would have to compete primarily for  sunlight, as a result, some of the tallest plants on the planet would be growing here. If an aerial canopy develops, we could expect a wide variety of shade tolerant plants on the forest floor. The equatorial wet forests moist conditions would be ideal for bacterial and insect life, which would function to bring about the organic decomposition of plant and animal organic material.

Arid Desert Zone
In the high pressure zones above and below the Equatorial Wet Forest exist discontinuous belts of relative arid Desert. The extent  of the Arid Desert across the planet’s land mass will depend on the planetary mass, APST and axial inclination. On our model worlds, any area receiving about 10 inches or less of annual rainfall may be considered an arid desert. Keep in mind that ‘annual’ refers to Earth’s 365 day year. If the model planet has a Sidereal Period twice Earth’s and day length remained the same) the arid desert would only receive half as much precipitation.

Arid Deserts on Earth occupy 14% of the terrestrial environment. They characteristically have a temperature range of 4ºC to 32ºC (39ºF to 89ºF) with an average of 23ºC (73ºF). The Arid desert has a hot, dry climate and is found to register the planets hottest surface temperatures. Plant life which has adapted to the dry, hot climate display biological adoptions for water collection and retention. On the hottest planets,  many desert plants may display reverse phototropism; an hour after the sunrises, the plant may close its leaves, only to reopen them an hour or so before sunset. Succulent plants would have either a small leaf or no leaf at all, with photosynthesis occurring through the plant stem, as in the Barrel cactus and Saguaro cactus. The bulk of the trunk in these plant’s are composed of water storage cells; while the volume of the shoot is large, the surface area is small. This results in a large storage area for the areas biologically limiting factor, water, and a relatively small area from which they can lose their precious liquid reserves.

Non succulent plants will be modified with leathery leaves, thick cuticle layers on the outer surfaces of their leaves, they may have the ability to fold and curl, also leaves will likely be small. An example of a plant displaying many of these characteristics is the Creosote bush found commonly in the US southwestern arid desert.

In arid deserts, both succulent and non succulent plant species would have extensive root systems for water collection and potentially as locations for water storage.

Chemical inhibitors may also be used to maintain territory. This would result visually, in a more or less even spacing of the plants across the desert.

Other plants which have adapted to the Arid Desert might undergo their entire life cycle in that brief period when moisture was available. These ‘annuals’, with their fast growing shoots would die after the end of the moist season, leaving their seeds and/or a viable root system to lie dormant until the next moist period.

Animal life in the Arid Desert would tend to be either the small burrowing variety or larger, but thin. Due to the extreme temperatures, large animal life would have small body volume to large surface area ratios.

In these climatic conditions, both plant and animal life will have made specialized adoptions to reduce water loss; these adoptions may be biological or by technique or both.

Prairie & Grasslands
The condition of a temperate climate coupled with erratic and limited rainfall can extend grassland communities from the equator to near the polar region. On Earth, the grasslands have an annual precipitation rate that falls between 25%  (10 inches) and 75% (30 inches) of the planets average. These areas are typified by small short lived plants, mainly annual and perennial herbs, relatively little rain, good fertile soil and numerous large herbivores.

In temperate regions on alien worlds which receive similar precipitation, we might expect to find similar types of biological adoptions. We might also expect to find such regions under agricultural use as fields or pasture amongst intelligent species.

While the plants and animal living in these zone will certainly look exotic, we will understand from their distribution and general adaptations to the limiting factors in the environment that they fill the same or similar roles in the ecology of the communities in which they live.
Cool Forest
The temperate forest regions of Earth’s mid latitudes are extremely complex in their makeup and adoptions to temperature and moisture availability. Across broad regions of our own planet, the cool temperate forest experience temperatures ranging from -34ºC to 27ºC (-29ºF to 81ºF) with an average of 3ºC (37ºF) and precipitation rates of 10 to 60 inches per year.

The ability of a plant to survive freezing temperatures is called ‘frost resistance’, this ability varies widely among different species and is normally seasonal.

On cool and mild APST planets with low rates of axial inclination, frost resistant species would be found primarily in the mid to higher latitudes. As we encounter increased rates of axial inclination, frost resistance would tend to migrate closer to the equator. On planets with a very high  degree of axial inclination and mild temperatures, we would  find most plant species specialized with both frost resistance and heat tolerance. On such worlds, we might find plants going through a growing cycle where their cells are partially filled with an electrolyte during the winter, forming a biological antifreeze. As winter gives way to spring and spring to summer, the electrolyte might gel into a paste, reducing water loss. Then as the climate cooled, the paste would dissolve back into antifreeze.

Ice Caps, Tundra and Snow Fields
On many of our model worlds, we should expect to find the existence of ice caps. On the cooler worlds we will find thicker ice caps in the polar regions, with snow fields extending in various coverage down to mid latitudes. Cooler planets with a low degree of axial inclination will have permanent ice caps. Warmer planets, with a high degree of axial inclination, will have ice sheets and snow fields that migrate with the season, similar to winter snow across northern latitudes on Earth. On planets with a high degree of axial inclination the plant and animal life with have a high degree of cold and heat tolerance, species migration may be an important part of many large animal life forms and hibernation a retreat from the cold for most of the smaller less mobile creatures.

Ice caps are bordered by Tundra in terrestrial environments. As we move up through the APST range, we could find the Tundra and Ice Caps at progressively higher latitudes. Eventually the ice cap is replaced by diminished snow fields. As the APST approaches 60ºC, the Snow fields melt away and are replaced by a low illumination environment.

If we compared two planets of the same mass and axial inclination, the planet with the higher APST would have the smallest ice cap. If we compared two planets of same mass and APST, the planet with the smallest axial inclination would have the largest permanent snow fields.

On warm planets with moderate to high axial inclination, the ice cap may completely disappear during that hemisphere’s summer. The activity of the biotic community on alien worlds will be similar to that on Earth as each season is experienced. The hemisphere entering Spring, a time of increases sunlight and warmth,  will come out of winter dormancy and experience growth.

In the hemisphere entering Fall, the biotic community will be gearing down for the approaching Winter. The plants will winterizes, the animals will migrate, build up energy reserves, prepare for hibernation and/or utilize other adaptive mechanisms.

On planets with approximately a 30ºC APST, we may find the absence of true ice caps. In their place may exist the relatively more temperate permafrost fields with perennially frozen ground or nearly permanent frost.

Frost caps require an annual temperature of about -3ºC (26ºF) or less in order to exist; however, the temperature range over the entire area may run from -36ºC to 4ºC (-32ºF to 39ºF). Precipitation in these regions is under 15 inches per year. Climatic conditions in the permafrost zone is are cold and dry, with long winters and cool summers.
[Illustration at right: Ice Cap & Snow Field expansion on a cool planet with varying degrees of axial inclination.]

On any world with a permafrost region either covering the poles or circumventing the icecap, an explorer would find large expanses of flat land and rounded hilly terrain, where the effects of freezing and thawing would have reduced rocks to small particles. The soils of these regions would be poorly drained and poorly aerated on planets with low axial inclination and just the opposite planets with high axial inclination.

Remember, if the planet were orbiting a relatively cool G9 or K0 spectral class star, it’s orbit would be near the star, providing a short year. If the planet orbited a much hotter, F24 or F4 star, its orbit would fall further from the star giving it a year perhaps twice as long as our own, hence a ‘quarter year’ of about 6 months- plenty of time for small plants to go through their life cycle, or even a couple of generations.

Permafrost environments are typically a low energy areas offering little year around food to the larger animals. Most of the animal life consists of small burrowing types with insulated feet and various seasonal visitors. I suspect that small animals would inhabit permafrost regions on planets orbiting cool stars. Larger migrating species would be more important on planets orbiting hotter stars, where the growing season is longer, where a larger deposit of biomass has accumulated and where the season length would allow the larger species to migrate.

Small (short height) plant life would only have a few months, depending on the planets sidereal period (length of year) to carry out their life cycle before
reduced temperatures would bring about dormancy.

Planetary Bio-Zones, Plant Growth & Limiting Factors 

On all of our model worlds, we could expect to encounter a mix of the following environments: cold, warm or hot arid deserts, rivers, marsh land, fresh water lakes, bays, hills, meadows and plains. We would expect to find a vast assortment of analogous physical surface structures, i.e., rock, sand, gravel, humus with partially decayed organic material, cliffs, etc. We would see common atmospheric phenomena, the parent sun in the sky, stars visible at night, fog, rain, snow, wind, clouds, storms-all with great variation in quantity, frequency and  intensity as the stellar and planetary parameters were varied.

The biological community whose evolutionary histories track back through a particular environment, will display adoptions peculiar to that environment. It’s also reasonable to believe that similar environments on different alien worlds will tend to carry life forms who share somewhat similar morphological and very general behavioral patterns.

Atmospheric Circulation & Biotic Zone Diagram
The following Illustration: Atmospheric Circulation and Biotic Zones provides a general view of the effects of precipitation and atmospheric circulation.

This planet’s biotic communities exist somewhat in bands that tend to change with latitude. Earth type vegetation has been symbolically drawn along the planets curvature in an attempt to trigger a conceptualization of the processes that occur in each biotic zone. While studying this illustration, keep in mind that:
•  As the mass of the planet increases, gravity increases, resulting in generally shorter, more squat looking plants and animals. Also, the land to water ratio decreases-leading to less dry land and more water on the larger planet.
•  If the APST were increased, the biotic zones would migrate toward the poles. Conversely, decreasing the APST would cause ice caps, tundra and snow fields to expand toward the equator pushing all other biotic zones before them. With a very low APST, the wet tropical forest might simply disappear, giving rise      to an equatorial temperate forest.
•  Biotic zones and land-to-water ratios expand or contract as we adjust the various parameters examined in this study.

Biotic Zone diagram

In relation to the Biotic Zone diagram, also see below, the Relative Precipitation-Solar Radiation-Vegetation diagram and the  Latitude – Temperature Tables.

Relative Precipitation-Solar Radiation-Vegetation diagram

Latitude – Temperature Table

High latitudes Mid latitudes Low Latitudes
Temperature may  constrain life. Combination (local   climate) Precipitation constrains life
High annual   temperature variation. Temperature   variations greater inland than coastal. Low annual   temperature variation.
 Low daily temperature variation. High daily   temperature variation.
Low storm activity. Storm rates increase over land, decrease over sea. High storm activity.

Spring: Land heats up fast developing low pressure areas, sea develops a high pressure system.
Fall: Water remains warmer and develops a low pressure system, high pressure developers over land.
Planets with low to moderate axial inclination (little tilt) will generally provide increasingly lower temperature, stable temperature bands as one moves from the equator toward the poles.

Planets with a moderate degree of axial inclination will experience pronounced seasons as the year progresses. During the summer, that hemisphere tilted toward its sun will experience seasonably higher temperatures. A half of their year later, when the previously warmer hemisphere is tilted away from its sun, it will experience seasonably low temperatures. These seasonal temperatures create an overall average temperature for each latitude and region.

On a planet with no axial inclination, each latitude would still have a narrow annual average temperature between it’s ‘summer highs and winter lows’, this derives from the probability that the planet’s orbit is not a perfect circle about the parent star, a condition similar to Earths orbit. The extremes for all latitudes, on either side of the average, would be eliminated by the lack of axial inclination.
On Earth, the average annual temperature for a given latitude is that temperature the latitude would have if Earth had a 0º, instead of 23-1/2º axial inclination.

Shown in the Biotic Zone Table below, are the annual average planetary surface temperatures for each latitude. Since we have eliminated the temperature variation by using ‘average temperatures’, we can in effect say that if these temperatures were maintained throughout the year, that the planet has no axial inclination.

Lets now say that on any planet where there is no axial inclination, the temperatures vary with latitude just as they would on a Earth with no axial inclination. If this is so, we can compare temperatures with latitude for planets displaying all the APST used in this study. We should  remember that the resultant temperature models provide:
•  The annual average temperature for each latitude on a planet with 0º axial inclination, or,
•  the annual average temperature for each latitude as derived from the overall seasonal variations on those planets with axial inclination.

In the Biotic Zone Table, compare temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit and Centigrade) with latitude for each of our planetary models.
Earth equivalent biotic zones have been colored into the chart showing the migration of  plant life related to APST.
The temperatures given in the table were calculated as follows:

Example #1: 140ºF (hot planet’s APST) – 68ºF (Earth’s APST) = 72ºF difference (on hotter planet)
Therefore, 72ºF hotter (in general) + 81ºF at Earth 0º latitude (equator) = 153º F at 0º latitude (equator) on hot ASPT planet.

Example #2:  68ºF (Earth’s APST) – 32ºF (cold planet’s APST) =  -36ºF cooler difference (on cooler planet).
Therefore,  -36ºF cooler (in general) + (-4ºF on Earth at 70º latitude) = -40ºF at 70º latitude on the cold planet.

Look across the top of the Biotic Zone Table to locate 113ºF, then read down the column to find the approximate surface temperature at a given latitude. On a planet with an APST of 113ºF, the equatorial temperature would be about 126ºF, at 60º latitude it would be a warm 80ºF  and a cool 41ºF at 70º latitude.

Drawn to overlay the preceding table are the color coded, approximate temperature and latitude boundaries, of the various biotic communities found on Earth. I’ve extended the APST range an additional 15ºC on either side of the conditions used in this study to demonstrate the serious deterioration of the planets habitability, see double blue and double red verticle lines toward either side of the chart.
In the column at far right, Earth’s APST (average planetary syrface temperature) and general biotic conditions per latitude have been included for comparison.
Note that the biotic community we are accustomed to on Earth, would be seen to shift toward the planets equator with a reduction in the average planetray surfave temperature; conversely, the biotic zones would shift toward the poles with an increase in APST.

In order to better understand the migration of biotic zones and the general climate of our model planets, I’ve included the illustrations below showing and equatorial and polar view for each 15ºC change in APST within the SRAPO filter parameters. An Earth model has been included for comparative reference.

Model illustrations on the left, provide an equatorial view of the planet with latitudes shown on the extreme left and temperatures on the right.
The models on the right, are shown in a polar view. The numbers entered above the pole are latitude and number below are the average temperatures for the given latitude.


Environmental Limiting Factors & The Plant Community
The planetary models we looked immediately above, have no axial inclination, we were determining the average temperature for a latitude;  the length of the day to night cycle made no contribution. The parent star will rise and set in the same locations daily. Each day at local noon, the sun will have risen to it’s highest point in the morning sky and will begin its move lower in the afternoon sky. The elevation the sun rises to above the horizon al local noon will depend on ones latitude on the planetary surface.

On a planet with no axial inclination and 0ºC APST, plants in the equatorial zone, below 25º latitude, would be exposed to nearly perpendicular sunlight at local noon.

On planets with0 to 30ºC APST, most of the plant communities exist below 60º latitude. In these locations, the noon sunlight comes from a position relatively high in the sky. This results in the tropical and cool forest developing ‘ vertical light gathering stratification’. Hence we would find fungi located in the lower strata, rising above the fungi would be the shade lovers, then the shade tolerant and finally a canopy of sun seekers.

On 0º axial inclination planets, with 45ºC to 60ºC APST, the  majority of the plant community exists above 45º latitude. Under these  conditions, the tropical and cool forest would tend to develop ‘horizontal light gathering stratification’. On the equatorial side of the forests reaching deeper and deeper into the hotter zones, plants would decrease in size or biomass, attempting to adapt to extreme temperatures. On the polar side of the forests, plant life would again decrease in size or biomass, but this time light would be the limiting factor.

The following, illustration, Relative Plant Size and Biomass Per Unit Area, uses APST, latitude and various biological limiting factors to assist in developing a feeling for plant height and /or biomass per unit area, for various latitudes across a planet’s surface.

Also, remembered that gravity affects height, so that the largest or tallest plants on a 3.0 Earth mass planet will be considerably shorter than the tallest plants on a 1.0  or 0.5 Earth mass planet—that is, if all parameters are equal except planetary mass.

The  0ºC APST’ model in the  illustration shows short plants growing at around 30º latitude, this planets tundra zone. This biologically limiting, cold environment, rapidly gives way to a cool forest which extends from about 25º ‘north (and south’) latitude to the equator. With the sun passing nearly over the habitable equatorial zone, we would expect to find the plant communities of the cool temperature forest well developed into vertical light gathering strata.
Illustration: Relative Plant Size and Biomass Per Unit Area

The 60ºC APST (140ºF average planetary surface temperature) model has short, ‘shade loving’ plants in the biologically limiting, dimly lit, twilight like polar region. With a decrease in latitude and subsequent increase in elevation of the mid day sun, the cool temperature forests develop a fierce competition for light. Around 60º latitude, the damp. Warm and fairly well illuminated conditions produce a tropical type forest canopy which carries the tallest plants on the planet. Below 60º latitude, increasing temperatures tend to overcome moisture availability where upon plant size or biomass per unit area must be reduced to thwart starvation.
Approaching 30º latitude, the high pressure system creates arid conditions. This area is not only arid, but extremely hot, with air temperatures 10ºF above that required to destroy protein. From about 30º latitude and down to the equator, temperatures tend to become the biologically limiting factor. (Note: For comparison, its recommended that we turn adjust the water temperature in our home hot water tank from 140ºF to about 120ºF to reduce the chance of being scalded).

On a planet with a large mass, i.e. 2.0 to 3.0 Earth mass, the dry land area is quite small compared with the area covered by water, therefore, at 60ºC APST, a dry land area located at 30º latitude would not be arid, it would be for us, an environment of extreme heat and severe humidity. On such a world, at 30º latitude, our bodies would feel like they were in a 140ºF sauna. We wouldn’t feel comfortable until we relocated to 70º latitude where 70ºF air temperatures would be found; equivalent to being above our ‘Arctic Circle’, in Finland, Alaska, northern Russia, northern Canada, Greenland.

Continued in Chapter 9: Data Correlation

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Chapter 7: The Morphology of Intelligent Life

The parameters of this study are within the limits under which matter can become ‘living’ and life forms can thrive.

Plant and animal life are highly organized conglomerates of matter which are subject to the laws of chemistry and physics. These laws carry restrictions when dealing with life, restriction which allow us to say: The complex molecular structure of a cell will become disorganized unless it can obtain external energy and effectively use it internally to overcome the continuing process of degeneration.

In order for there to be a pool of larger animal life forms, from whence our intelligent alien is drawn, there must be a complex ecological base in existence on the planet.

On the alien world, as on our own, external energy must be tapped for maintenance of internal order. The prime energy source on any of our model planets is radiation from the parent star.

Primieval development
In the primeval seas of alien worlds, it is reasonable to assume that biochemical adoptions favoring the use and storage of soar radiation would be drawn into the mainstream of the evolutionary process. These adoptions may well resemble chlorophyll in function, by converting low energy molecules into high energy molecules in the  presence of solar radiation and finally by moving and storing the resulting molecules for growth, reproduction, metabolic and regenerative use.

Life forms which convert and store solar energy (Producers) are  necessary as food for species which develop without the ability to produce their own food (Consumers).

Once the producers have made the necessary adoptions to live on land, their diversification and spread would begin. They would become more and more specialized, moving into virtually all planetary environments where life functions were possible. Meanwhile, following the expansion of the Producers, would be the Consumers. Prior to leaving the sea, the Consumers will have already begun to diversify into herbivores and carnivores, this process would continue on land.

Morphological considerations
On Earth, certain morphological relationships exist amongst the larger animals, which share a common or similar food source:

Its is common to find that the larger Herbivores graze in groups, that they are fast runners, have horns or antlers to assist in food collection, protection and mating behavior; and have teeth especially suited for grinding.

The large Carnivores also share common characteristics; they are very fast short distances runners, have  powerful front limbs with sharp nails and powerful jaws with teeth adapted for holding, cutting and chewing.

On any of our theoretical planets, specialized adoptions will exist which are derived from the life forms heredity, diet and environment.

Since the environments we’re studying can exist on planets around F2 through K1 stars and because these stars exist in profusion through out the galaxy, we can expect to find comparable structures performing similar biologically important functions, essentially everywhere.

We can expect to find intelligent aliens with some mechanical means of cutting or grinding their food. We can expect to find that within their bodies is an area where food is chemically processed before assimilation. They will need an internal or external framework to support their organs and muscles. They will have a nervous system with sensors so that they can find food, avoid being eaten and form social groups to pursue intricate social and engineering objectives.

One way to explore alien morphology, is to follow a piece of food through its body, while discussing the alien form in terms of ‘shape being related to function’ and biological adaptation.

On a distant world, a creature which had developed tool using intelligence, encounters a large morsel of food. The food item could be a fruit, a large seed pod, tuber, root or ‘roast’. This large tough piece of food needs to me mechanically cut, broken up and ground or softened prior to exposing it to chemical attack within the body. The purpose of mastication is to increase the total surface area of the food so that it cane be quickly and efficiently broken down into  the aliens chemical-biological building blocks. In order to accomplish this, a grinding and cutting surface is needed, this surface could be provided by specialized bone, teeth or even a beak,  and would need to be imbedded in a hard surface to protect the alien’s softer tissues from the forces exerted in mastication (chewing process).

The energy to operate the ‘chewing’ mechanism would have to be exerted through a muscle tissue which has the ability to repeatedly contract. We might envision a hydraulic system operating these grinding surfaces; however, muscle tissue would still be needed to power and control the flow of hydraulic fluids.

The cut and ground food would then pass into a short term storage area. This organ would be a holding area in which digestion may or may not begin. It is also possible that swallowed food would be channeled directly into an intestine.

The major digestive organ would have accessory organs associated with it which provide the various acids and enzymes necessary for digestion. This intestine like organ would have a large surface area covered with capillaries from the aliens circulatory system.

Digestible products would be chemically reduced to primary and special biochemical building blocks, absorbed through the intestinal wall and carried through out the aliens body. Indigestible materials would pass through the digestive organ for excretion..

“Food” chemicals absorbed from the circulatory system would be used by the bodies cells for construction of protoplasm and the release of energy. Inorganic salts, minerals and water would be used for the maintenance of his internal environment,  including pH and his endo or exoskeleton, etc.

Circulatory system
The circulatory system would be a network of various sized distribution vessels joining a pump or system of pumps. This system would be responsible for circulating food to the body’s cells, carry cellular waste to an organic filter for excretion. It would also play an important role in the body’s defense against infection as well as carry oxygen to the cells for oxidation of foods and carry off the byproducts of respiration.

Our model alien will need a respiratory system to move oxygen into the body. In small animals, a trachea system may exist which would operate by passive diffusion, but in larger animals, the body mass is such that oxygen demands are too great for such a method.

Its necessary to realize that on a majority of alien worlds that large, intelligent, tool using life would have developed with an active method of drawing portions of the atmosphere into their body.

As the inspired portion of atmosphere enters the body, it may be cooled or warmed as it passes over internal surfaces. Within the air entry and-or preconditioning passages, there may also be a filtering system of hair and mucous to remove small particulate matter.

The point at which air enters the bod,  ‘the nose’ maybe more conspicuous on aliens from colder, drier and dustier worlds and less conspicuous on warmer, moister worlds.

After the air is regulated for temperature and humidity, it would be drawn into an organ having a large surface area. This respiratory organ would be tied directly into the circulatory system for the transportation and absorption of oxygen and removal of byproducts from cellular oxidation. Entering the circulatory system, the oxygen could be carried to the cells as a gas, dissolved in the circulatory medium or attached to a respiratory pigment. On Earth, the common respiratory pigments are compounds of copper or iron. After oxidation had taken place in the cells, some of the by products would return to the lung for removal into the atmosphere.

Mechanical support
The model intelligent alien will need a rigid or semi rigid skeletal system for mechanical support of his body’s leverage system.\An exoskeleton, covering the entire body would be effective protection against cuts and abrasions; however, large life forms grow so fast that the exoskeleton would have to be shed many times during the maturing process. In those times when each old, outgrown exoskeleton was being shed, but before the new one had grown in, the alien would be vulnerable to predator attack.

A biologically more advantageous scheme would be to have an endo skeleton. One that does not render the possessor unduly defenseless during anytime of its life. Another advantage of the endo skeleton is that it leaves the skin exposed for maximum environmental sampling.

The endoskeleton would probably offer a means of protection for those vital organs which would lose efficiency if they were molested by bending and twisting and those requiring more or less continuous movement, such as the heart and lungs. Protection can be gained by a bone or cartilage cage surrounding the cavity where these organs would be carried.

The alien body may also have exoskeletal structures, such as claws, nails, horns, hoofs, beak, scales, feathers, hair, fur, boney plates, teeth, etc.

Our intelligent tool using alien will have legs for locomotion and jointed arms with jointed fingers for fine manipulation.

Where as at least two legs are necessary, we cannot fully  overlook quadrupeds intelligence. In Man and the primates, the front legs have become specialized modifications resulting in arms. So if we assign our alien four legs and two arms, we must remember that his distant ancestors had six legs. Would a planet with much higher gravity favor selection of species with  six legs?

On the planetary models, higher gravities would be more simply overcome biologically by reducing body weight, increased muscle mass and a tougher skeleton than by many legs.

Among bipeds it seems reasonable to assume the existence of ‘feet’ to facilitate in balance and locomotion.

The number of arms the alien may have depends somewhat on coordination and efficiency. It seems likely that with a system of bilateral symmetry two arms would suffice in practically and survival task offered by the environment. Once again, if we postulate an alien with four arms and two legs, its ancestors would have had six legs. Extra appendages require greater nervous complexity and exact a good deal of energy from the organism for their maintenance.

Hands with boney projections and attached muscle offer a good system of leverage. For a good grip, at least three fingers are needed, one  in opposition to the others. The number of fingers could be increased to perhaps seven or eight, but beyond this the advantage becomes questionable.

Sensory apparatus
Among the aliens arsenal of environmental sensors we can expect varying degrees of development in structures providing sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch-all factors that put any mobile life form into a sensory feedback loop with its surroundings.

Solar radiation is by far the greatest energy source in the environment, the velocity of light along with the reflective properties of matter make it a very important element in sampling ones surroundings. On Earth, various forms of eyes have developed on creatures with very different evolutionary histories, common examples are the common housefly, squid, andMan.

The structure and image perceiving properties of the human and squid’s eye are very similar, illustrating the parallel, yet independent development of these very complex structures.

Stars of spectral class F2 through F6 have a higher proportion of their output in the violet end of the light spectrum, while G8 through K1 stars have a greater proportion of their  visible light output in the red end of the spectrum than does the Sun. Its possible that aliens developing on worlds orbiting F2 to F6 stars may see a little farther into the violet, while those from call G8 to K1 stars may see into the infrared.

The number of eyes an intelligent creature has will not be highly variable. One eye does not provide the depth perception necessary for survival. Two eyes give adequate depth perception and a third eye would slightly increase this perceptive ability. Increasing the number of eyes beyond two or three does not increase survival at a linear rate since there is a diminishing return for the biological investment.

The ability to sense sound is valuable in communication and for locating the general location of other animal life. On the smaller planets with thinner atmospheres, sound may not play as important a role as it does on earth, where as on the larger planets with their denser atmospheres, sound may be more important.

With auditory sensors on either side of the body, the alien would be able to determine the direction a sound emanated from, he could then bring his eyes into play and search for detail.

The sense of smell will probably also play an important role. Olfactory sensors are actually chemical sensors that analyze the immediate atmosphere. They are not as important for locating the exact position of a chemical emitter as they are for determining its general direction and identity. On the smaller, lightly atmosphered planets, this may be not as well developed as on a larger planet with denser atmosphere.

The brain (and it’s housing)
Since a good deal of survival depends on fast reflexes and quickly transmitting incoming information into personal action, the shorter the time lapse between stimulation and reaction, the greater the chance of survival. Its reasonable to place the brain and major environmental sensors close to one another so that in an emergency, the sensors can relay information rapidly to the brain for processing.

We might find that in most intelligent, tool using aliens that the major environmental sensors, the brain and mouth are all located in a protected container that sits atop a semi flexible shaft. The free maneuverability of this portion of the body is important because of the speed at which the sensors could be brought to bare on a point. This location would reduce the input to movement time and the energy loss that would go with sensor grouping in the body’s trunk

The importance and physical sensitivity of these organs would preclude some means of protection such as an endo or exoskeletal vault. Such a structure would give adequate protection, provide a rigid base for the cutting and grinding surfaces of the mouth and serve as a rigid source for the attachment of the muscles which operate the masticating apparatus.

Brain weight, body mass & intelligence
In order to form an understanding of the relationship between brain weight, body mass and intelligence, lets momentarily look at the  relationship of these variables on Earth. The characteristic weight of the human brain is 2.86 pounds, while the average human adult has a body weight of 150 pounds, giving a brain to body ratio of about1:50.

In the animal kingdom, as body weight is increased above this ratio, the intellectual capacity of the brain is reduced. The reduction occurs because more neural tissue is being used to control the expanded body functions. Some examples of a decreased brain weight to body ration can be seen in the chimpanzee (1:150), gorilla (1:500) and elephant (1:1000).

On the other hand, if we reduce the body weight appreciably below the1:50ration, we find the animals overall weight has decreased to such a point that there simply isn’t enough neural tissue available for the complexity of intelligence. This can be illustrated by several types of monkeys, which have a brain to body weight of 1:17, and whose total body weight is less than the human brain!

Our brains have about 10¹º neurons with each neuron making  about 100 connections, giving us a possible information storage content of 10¹² bits.

Its quite possible that an intelligent alien would have about the same brain to body ratio. Variations in his physical environment might favor increased or reduced cell size, in effect making him larger or smaller; although gravity alone can accomplish the body size variation. The alien might fall right on the 1:50 ratio yet have as lower or higher degree  of neural activity, thus giving his species a lower or higher relative intelligence.

Alien height
The average height of an alien species on a planet similar to one of our model worlds cannot be known without observation; however, we can make some interesting, possibly relevant speculations.

We know that an intelligent, tool using alien must have a sizeable body mass or his brain would be too small to carry the number of neurons necessary for intelligence. On the other hand, a giant would have such a large body mass to brain ratio that much of his brains capacity would be used in body operation,  at the cost of ‘thought’.

The brain to body mass ratio’s need for about 10¹º  brain neurons tells us that an intelligent alien will probably fall within an ambiguous height range between extremely small’ and ‘extremely tall’, compared with Man (see ‘Alien Height’  illustration below).

Tests have shown that gravity affects growth length.

Its not unreasonable to assume that on a large planet with its high gravity, that over the eons, survival would have come to favor short creatures. A short muscular creature who trips and fall on a high gravity planet would receive on the average less injury than a tall creature. The shorter creature would not fall as far, nor hit the ground as fast or with as much force as a taller creature. Being incapacitated periodically from impacting on hard and irregular surfaces, is not a good survival strategy for any species. Higher gravity worlds may physically favor land dwelling life forms that have developed a low center of gravity. Conversely, low gravity planets may physically favor land life forms which are tall by comparison to Earth.

I’ve made the assumption, that as a rule of thumb, when moving between planetary models,  for each increase or decrease of 0.25 relative Earth gravity, that the average height of an alien intelligent species will inversely increase or decrease about twelve inches. This rule of thumb is only to be used for intelligent tool using life developing on planets within the parameters of this study. This assumption provides us with a general correlation between intelligent alien height and the mass of the home planet.

The illustration, Alien Height and Surface Gravity, below, is meant only as a guide to conceptuale your thinking. In the absence of data, we can at least  say that it does not violate the brain to body mass ratio and considers gravity and length studies.

Alien build
In this section we’ll attempt to draw a generalized relationship between the APST (average planetary surface temperature) and the average alien physique, or build.

Its true that surface temperatures vary with latitude on our model planets and that there will be a great variation in temperatures across the  face of the planet. What we will attempt to find is a potential relative average alien build for any given APST and planetary mass combination. The result of our inquiry into alien body build should be seen as “this is what the physical environment might tend to favor”. The more an environment tends to favor a particular biological response, the more frequently that biological response will be found to occur.

There seems to be a general trend in that many life forms in a hot climate have a large body surface area to body volume ratio. This says that ‘thin’ animals are best adapted to hot climates. In hot climates internal heat must be dissipated easily, thin bodies with a large surface area afford the means to do so.

In cold climates, many animals have developed a small surface area to body volume ratio. These bulky animals generate a lot of internal heat and lose it slowly to the cold environment through their bodies reduced surface area.

General physique on hot and cold planets

Table: Heat Storage & Dissipation, Based on Body Size

Trunk height (inches) 18 18
Trunk diameter (inches) 12 18
Trunk radius (inches) 6 9
Volume (cubic inches) 2034 4578
Area (square inches) 678 1017
Relative volume 1.0 2.2
Relative area 1.0 1.5

In this table, which compares surface area and body volume ratios, note that the bulky cold environment alien has 2.2 times the body volume of his thinner hot environment counterpart, but only has 1.5 times the surface area to lose the heat from. In a cold, low energy environment, a relatively bulky body would provide an energy savings advantage over a thin body. In a hot environment, the bulky alien would be at an  energy disadvantage. Trying to dissipate relatively large amounts of body heat into a hot environment through a comparatively small surface area, he would be faced with reduced activity or potential heat stroke.

Diagram: General Body Build of Intelligent Alien compared to APST & Planetary Mass

The diagram above, allows us to make some interesting speculations regarding the alien physique:
•  The average intelligent Being from a 0.25 Earth mass planet with 60ºC APST might be very thin and stand around seven plus feet tall. His tall, thin stature would make him appear almost mantis like.
•  A biped Being from a 0.25 Earth mass planet with a 0ºC APST would be tall to extremely tall by Earth standards, and his body build muscular and stocky.
•  An intelligent life form from a 3.0 Earth mass planet with 60ºC APST, would be short and thin, perhaps not unlike a thin 4-6 year old Human child.
•  Should this creature have developed on a 0ºC APST planet, he would still be short, but his large volume to surface area would make him bulky and muscular.

 Skin pigmentation
As you may recall, earlier we considered the possibility that an aliens vision might extend a bit further into the violet or red portions of the spectrum, if he developed on a planet orbiting an intrinsically hotter or cooler star. Stellar parameters can leave their trademark in the  biotic community in other ways as well.

As one moves up the Main Sequence of stars, from spectral class K1 to F2, the bulk of the radiative energy emitted by each  class of star tends to shift from the red-orange to blue-white end of the visible spectrum. As the shift occurs, there is an increase in the percentage of ultraviolet radiation as the temperature of the star increases.

The ultraviolet radiation found in sunlight is deadly, it kills cells, causes burns, can cause skin cancer, can incapacitate.

Skin pigmentation is a protective adaptation against ultraviolet radiation. On our own planet, over the last 12,000 plus years, Man has become variated into three broad skin color groupings: the heavily pigmented Negro from equatorial regions, the Asian-Indian- Mediterranean stocks from around 30º latitude, and the lightly pigmented almost albino stocks from 45º-50º latitude.

In equatorial regions, the ultraviolet radiation influx is so great that unprotected flesh can experience serious sunburns, here adaptively has favored a heavy dark skin pigmentation.

At about 30 latitude, the relative solar radiation level has decreased 14%; in this area of high pressure and fewer clouds, Man’s skin pigmentation ranges from dark brown to olive.

Around 60 latitude, the solar radiation influx has decreased to about 50% of that at the equator. In these latitudes, marked by low pressure and greater cloud cover, Man developed blonde hair and a rosy white skin color.

If we matched a drop of paint with skin color matching every person on Earth, then mixed all these variously tinted drops together, the average color, average skin color would resemble  that of the Asian-Indian.

What would the average skin color be of an alien from one of our model worlds?
An intelligent aliens level of pigmentation and general skin color are derived from basically three factors.
1) The spectral class of the star his planet orbits.
2) The planet’s axial inclination, hence seasonal exposure to UV
3) The planet’s average percentage cloud cover

Diagram: Pigmentation in Exposed Flesh
Reading the Pigmentation diagram above, we see that very heavy, dark pigmentation would be found as an average condition on a small planet with 30% cloud cover which orbited a high UV producing F2 spectral class star. On the other hand, there would be little if any pressure to develop protective skin pigmentation on a large warm world with 80% cloud cover, orbiting a low UV K1 star.

Near the middle of this diagram, Earth’s average human pigmentation has fallen in the “medium” range (light brown, as seen in Indian and Asian populations) and is entered as a circle with a + inside, marking Earth’s 47% cloud cover, and the Sun – a G2 spectral class star.
Note: I’ve entered the typical racial pigmentations found on our own planet to serve as a guide\ for the am ount of relative need for protection. Alien bio-chemistry could as well produce gray, yellow orange or even chamelion like hues, or supplement skin color with thicker skin, extensive body hair, fur, micro hair-feathers, etc.

Computer Program: Generation of the Alien Physique (low resolution)
The following computer program produces an alien physique from the parameters discussed in this study. The basic morphological subprogram was extracted from the much longer and more complex program, AFARHOME, which I wrote around in North Star B.A.S.I.C. in 1980, for use on my Processor Technology, Sol computer.

Term descriptions:

! means, “Print”
!CHR$(11) tells the computer to “Clear the screen”
REM this statement and all others on a given line are ignored by the computer.
T alphabetic letters denote numerical data; i.e. “123”
T$ alphabetic letters with a dollar sign denote alphanumeric data; i.e., “stop, look and listen”
DIM statement creates the space required for alphanumeric data
1000, 1010 line numbers which are the road map routing followed by the computers logic circuitry.

I hope that in extracting this program from AFARHOME, that I didn’t introduce any ‘bugs’ to foul you up.

Alien Morphology subprogram

10 !CHR$(11)
500 DIM D$(30), D1$(30), D2$(30), D3$(30), D4$(40), D5$(30)
510 DIM D6$(30), D7$(30), D8$(30), D9$(30), E$(30), E1$(30)
520 DIM E2$(30), E3$(30), E4$(30), E5$(30), E6$(30), E7$(30)
530 DIM E8$(45), E9$(40), L$(30), L1$(30), L2$(30), L3$(30)
540 DIM L4$(30), L5$(30), L6$(30), L7$(30), L8$(30), L9$(30)
550 DIM M$(30), M1$(30), M2$(30)
1010 !”What is the relative mass of your hypothetical planet?”
1020 !”Earth =1.0”
1030 !
1040 !”1) 0.25 2) 0.50 3) 1.0 4) 1.5 5) 2.0 6) 3.0”
1050 !
1060 INPUT “Choose mass by number”, H
1070 !CHR$(11)
1080 !”Choose an average planetary surface temperature.”
1090 !”Temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit.”
1100 !
1110 !”1) 37 2) 59 3) 86 4) 113 5) 135
1120 !
1130 INPUT” Choose temperature by number.”, T
1140 !CHR$(11)
2010 D$=” 0.…0”
2020 D1$=” 0www0”
2030 D2$=” oWWWo”
2040 D3$=” o….o
2050 D4$=” ……”
2060 D5$=” wwww”
2070 D6$=” WWW”
2080 D7$=” (o^V^o)”
2090 D8$=” (ovo)”
2100 D9$=” o(ovo)o”
2110 E$=” o(oVo)o”
2120 E1$=” o(O..O)o”
2130 E2$=” (O..O)”
2140 E3$=” (OVO)”
2150 E4$=” ( – )”
2160 E5$=” \ – /”
2170 E6$=” (-)”
2180 E7$=” \-/”
2190 E8$=” =>====o====(..^..}====o====<=”
2200 E9$=” =>===o===(.^.)===o===<=”
2210 L$=” (==|==)”
2220 L1$=” (=|=)”
2230 L2$=” | |”
2240 L3$=” | |”
2250 L4$=” | |”
2260 L5$=” (/ \)”
2270 L6$=” ( / \ )”
2280 L7$=” ( / \ )”
2290 L8$=” || ||”
2300 L9$=” | | | |”
2310 M$=” | | | |
2320 M1$=” /ooO) (Ooo\”
2330 M2$=” /oO) (Oo\
9380 IF H>3 THEN 9390 ELSE 9430
9390 ON T GOTO 9400, 9410, 9410, 9420, 9420
9400 !D2$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540
9410 !D1$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540
9420 !D$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540
9430 IF H<5 THEN 9440 ELSE 9490
9440 ON T GOTO 9450, 9460, 9460, 9470, 9480
9450 !D$ \ E$ \ GOTO 9540
9460 ! D5$ \ D9$ \ GOTO 9540
9470 !D4$ \ D9$ \ GOTO 9540
9480 !D4$ \ D8$ \ GOTO 9540
9490 ON T GOTO 9500, 9510, 9510, 9520
9500 !D6$ \ E3$ \ GOTO 9540
9510 !D5$ \ E2$ \ GOTO 9540
9520 !D4$ \ E2$ \ GOTO9540
9530 !D4$ \ E1$
9550 ON T GOTO 9560, 9570, 9580, 9590
9560 !E4$ \ GOTO 9600
9570 !E5$ \ GOTO 9600
9580 !E6$ \ GOTO 9600
9590 !E7$
9605 IF H<4 THEN 9610 ELSE 9620
9610 !E8$ \ GOTO 9630
9620 !E9$
9640 IF H=1 THEN 9650 ELSE 9680
9650 IF T<3 THEN 9960 ELSE 9670
9660 ! L$ \ GOTO 9680
9670 !L1$
9685 ON H GOTO9690, 9720, 9750, 9790, 9820
9690 ON T GOTO 9700, 9700, 9710, 9710, 9710
9700 !LZ$ \ GOTO 9820
9710 !L3$ \ GOTO 9820
9720 ON T GOTO 9730, 9730, 9740, 9740, 9740
9730 !L2$ \ L2$ \ L2$ \ GOTO 9820
9740 !L3$ \ L3$ \ L3$ \ GOTO 9820
9750 ON T GOTO 9760, 9770, 9770, 9780, 9780
9760 ! L2$ \ L2$ \ GOTO 9820
9770 ! L3$ \ L3$ \ GOTO 9820
9780 ! L4$ \ L4$ \ GOTO 9820
9790 ON T GOTO 9800, 9800, 9810, 9810, 9810
9800 ! L3$ \ GOTO 9820
9810 ! L4$
9830 IF H < 4 THEN 9840 ELSE 9850
9840 ON T GOTO 9860, 9870, 9870, 9870, 9880
9850 ON T GOTO 9870, 9870, 9880, 9880, 9880
9860 ! L7$ \ GOTO 9890
9870 ! L6$ \ GOTO 9890
9880 ! L5$
9900 IF H=1 THEN 9910 ELSE 9940
9910 IF T < 3 THEN 9920 ELSE 9930
9920 !L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150
9930 !L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150
9940 IF H=2 THEN 9950 ELSE 9980
9950 IF T<3 THEN 9960 ELSE 9970
9960 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GPTP 10150
9970 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150
9980 IF H=3 THEN 9990 ELSE 10030
9990 ON TGOTO 10000,10010, 10010,10020, 10020
10000 ! M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ GOTO 10150
10010 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150
10020 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150
10030 IF H = 4 THEN 10040 ELSE 10080
10040 ON TGOTO 10050,10060, 10060,10070, 10070
10050 ! M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ GOTO 10150
10060 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$\ GOTO 10150
10070 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150
10080 IF H=5 THEN 1090 ELSE 10120
10090 IF T<3 THEN 10100 ELSE 10110
10100 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150
10110 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150
10120 IF T<3 THEN 10130 ELSE 10140
10130 ! L9$ \ GOTO 10150
10140 ! L8$ \ GOTO 10150
10150 REM FEET
10160 IF H<5 10170 ELSE 10180
10170 ! M1$ \ GOTO 10200
10180 ! M2$
10200 ! CHR$(11)
10210 GOTO 1000
10220 END

Continued in Chapter 8: Into A New World

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Filed under __Chapter 7: Morphology of Intelligent Life