Plant and animal life are highly organized conglomerates of matter which are subject to the laws of chemistry and physics. These laws carry restrictions when dealing with life, restriction which allow us to say: The complex molecular structure of a cell will become disorganized unless it can obtain external energy and effectively use it internally to overcome the continuing process of degeneration.
In order for there to be a pool of larger animal life forms, from whence our intelligent alien is drawn, there must be a complex ecological base in existence on the planet.
On the alien world, as on our own, external energy must be tapped for maintenance of internal order. The prime energy source on any of our model planets is radiation from the parent star.
In the primeval seas of alien worlds, it is reasonable to assume that biochemical adoptions favoring the use and storage of soar radiation would be drawn into the mainstream of the evolutionary process. These adoptions may well resemble chlorophyll in function, by converting low energy molecules into high energy molecules in the presence of solar radiation and finally by moving and storing the resulting molecules for growth, reproduction, metabolic and regenerative use.
Life forms which convert and store solar energy (Producers) are necessary as food for species which develop without the ability to produce their own food (Consumers).
Once the producers have made the necessary adoptions to live on land, their diversification and spread would begin. They would become more and more specialized, moving into virtually all planetary environments where life functions were possible. Meanwhile, following the expansion of the Producers, would be the Consumers. Prior to leaving the sea, the Consumers will have already begun to diversify into herbivores and carnivores, this process would continue on land.
On Earth, certain morphological relationships exist amongst the larger animals, which share a common or similar food source:
Its is common to find that the larger Herbivores graze in groups, that they are fast runners, have horns or antlers to assist in food collection, protection and mating behavior; and have teeth especially suited for grinding.
The large Carnivores also share common characteristics; they are very fast short distances runners, have powerful front limbs with sharp nails and powerful jaws with teeth adapted for holding, cutting and chewing.
On any of our theoretical planets, specialized adoptions will exist which are derived from the life forms heredity, diet and environment.
Since the environments we’re studying can exist on planets around F2 through K1 stars and because these stars exist in profusion through out the galaxy, we can expect to find comparable structures performing similar biologically important functions, essentially everywhere.
We can expect to find intelligent aliens with some mechanical means of cutting or grinding their food. We can expect to find that within their bodies is an area where food is chemically processed before assimilation. They will need an internal or external framework to support their organs and muscles. They will have a nervous system with sensors so that they can find food, avoid being eaten and form social groups to pursue intricate social and engineering objectives.
One way to explore alien morphology, is to follow a piece of food through its body, while discussing the alien form in terms of ‘shape being related to function’ and biological adaptation.
On a distant world, a creature which had developed tool using intelligence, encounters a large morsel of food. The food item could be a fruit, a large seed pod, tuber, root or ‘roast’. This large tough piece of food needs to me mechanically cut, broken up and ground or softened prior to exposing it to chemical attack within the body. The purpose of mastication is to increase the total surface area of the food so that it cane be quickly and efficiently broken down into the aliens chemical-biological building blocks. In order to accomplish this, a grinding and cutting surface is needed, this surface could be provided by specialized bone, teeth or even a beak, and would need to be imbedded in a hard surface to protect the alien’s softer tissues from the forces exerted in mastication (chewing process).
The energy to operate the ‘chewing’ mechanism would have to be exerted through a muscle tissue which has the ability to repeatedly contract. We might envision a hydraulic system operating these grinding surfaces; however, muscle tissue would still be needed to power and control the flow of hydraulic fluids.
The cut and ground food would then pass into a short term storage area. This organ would be a holding area in which digestion may or may not begin. It is also possible that swallowed food would be channeled directly into an intestine.
The major digestive organ would have accessory organs associated with it which provide the various acids and enzymes necessary for digestion. This intestine like organ would have a large surface area covered with capillaries from the aliens circulatory system.
Digestible products would be chemically reduced to primary and special biochemical building blocks, absorbed through the intestinal wall and carried through out the aliens body. Indigestible materials would pass through the digestive organ for excretion..
“Food” chemicals absorbed from the circulatory system would be used by the bodies cells for construction of protoplasm and the release of energy. Inorganic salts, minerals and water would be used for the maintenance of his internal environment, including pH and his endo or exoskeleton, etc.
The circulatory system would be a network of various sized distribution vessels joining a pump or system of pumps. This system would be responsible for circulating food to the body’s cells, carry cellular waste to an organic filter for excretion. It would also play an important role in the body’s defense against infection as well as carry oxygen to the cells for oxidation of foods and carry off the byproducts of respiration.
Our model alien will need a respiratory system to move oxygen into the body. In small animals, a trachea system may exist which would operate by passive diffusion, but in larger animals, the body mass is such that oxygen demands are too great for such a method.
As the inspired portion of atmosphere enters the body, it may be cooled or warmed as it passes over internal surfaces. Within the air entry and-or preconditioning passages, there may also be a filtering system of hair and mucous to remove small particulate matter.
The point at which air enters the bod, ‘the nose’ maybe more conspicuous on aliens from colder, drier and dustier worlds and less conspicuous on warmer, moister worlds.
After the air is regulated for temperature and humidity, it would be drawn into an organ having a large surface area. This respiratory organ would be tied directly into the circulatory system for the transportation and absorption of oxygen and removal of byproducts from cellular oxidation. Entering the circulatory system, the oxygen could be carried to the cells as a gas, dissolved in the circulatory medium or attached to a respiratory pigment. On Earth, the common respiratory pigments are compounds of copper or iron. After oxidation had taken place in the cells, some of the by products would return to the lung for removal into the atmosphere.
The model intelligent alien will need a rigid or semi rigid skeletal system for mechanical support of his body’s leverage system.\An exoskeleton, covering the entire body would be effective protection against cuts and abrasions; however, large life forms grow so fast that the exoskeleton would have to be shed many times during the maturing process. In those times when each old, outgrown exoskeleton was being shed, but before the new one had grown in, the alien would be vulnerable to predator attack.
A biologically more advantageous scheme would be to have an endo skeleton. One that does not render the possessor unduly defenseless during anytime of its life. Another advantage of the endo skeleton is that it leaves the skin exposed for maximum environmental sampling.
The endoskeleton would probably offer a means of protection for those vital organs which would lose efficiency if they were molested by bending and twisting and those requiring more or less continuous movement, such as the heart and lungs. Protection can be gained by a bone or cartilage cage surrounding the cavity where these organs would be carried.
The alien body may also have exoskeletal structures, such as claws, nails, horns, hoofs, beak, scales, feathers, hair, fur, boney plates, teeth, etc.
Our intelligent tool using alien will have legs for locomotion and jointed arms with jointed fingers for fine manipulation.
Where as at least two legs are necessary, we cannot fully overlook quadrupeds intelligence. In Man and the primates, the front legs have become specialized modifications resulting in arms. So if we assign our alien four legs and two arms, we must remember that his distant ancestors had six legs. Would a planet with much higher gravity favor selection of species with six legs?
On the planetary models, higher gravities would be more simply overcome biologically by reducing body weight, increased muscle mass and a tougher skeleton than by many legs.
Among bipeds it seems reasonable to assume the existence of ‘feet’ to facilitate in balance and locomotion.
The number of arms the alien may have depends somewhat on coordination and efficiency. It seems likely that with a system of bilateral symmetry two arms would suffice in practically and survival task offered by the environment. Once again, if we postulate an alien with four arms and two legs, its ancestors would have had six legs. Extra appendages require greater nervous complexity and exact a good deal of energy from the organism for their maintenance.
Hands with boney projections and attached muscle offer a good system of leverage. For a good grip, at least three fingers are needed, one in opposition to the others. The number of fingers could be increased to perhaps seven or eight, but beyond this the advantage becomes questionable.
Among the aliens arsenal of environmental sensors we can expect varying degrees of development in structures providing sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch-all factors that put any mobile life form into a sensory feedback loop with its surroundings.
Solar radiation is by far the greatest energy source in the environment, the velocity of light along with the reflective properties of matter make it a very important element in sampling ones surroundings. On Earth, various forms of eyes have developed on creatures with very different evolutionary histories, common examples are the common housefly, squid, andMan.
The structure and image perceiving properties of the human and squid’s eye are very similar, illustrating the parallel, yet independent development of these very complex structures.
Stars of spectral class F2 through F6 have a higher proportion of their output in the violet end of the light spectrum, while G8 through K1 stars have a greater proportion of their visible light output in the red end of the spectrum than does the Sun. Its possible that aliens developing on worlds orbiting F2 to F6 stars may see a little farther into the violet, while those from call G8 to K1 stars may see into the infrared.
The number of eyes an intelligent creature has will not be highly variable. One eye does not provide the depth perception necessary for survival. Two eyes give adequate depth perception and a third eye would slightly increase this perceptive ability. Increasing the number of eyes beyond two or three does not increase survival at a linear rate since there is a diminishing return for the biological investment.
The ability to sense sound is valuable in communication and for locating the general location of other animal life. On the smaller planets with thinner atmospheres, sound may not play as important a role as it does on earth, where as on the larger planets with their denser atmospheres, sound may be more important.
With auditory sensors on either side of the body, the alien would be able to determine the direction a sound emanated from, he could then bring his eyes into play and search for detail.
The sense of smell will probably also play an important role. Olfactory sensors are actually chemical sensors that analyze the immediate atmosphere. They are not as important for locating the exact position of a chemical emitter as they are for determining its general direction and identity. On the smaller, lightly atmosphered planets, this may be not as well developed as on a larger planet with denser atmosphere.
The brain (and it’s housing)
Since a good deal of survival depends on fast reflexes and quickly transmitting incoming information into personal action, the shorter the time lapse between stimulation and reaction, the greater the chance of survival. Its reasonable to place the brain and major environmental sensors close to one another so that in an emergency, the sensors can relay information rapidly to the brain for processing.
We might find that in most intelligent, tool using aliens that the major environmental sensors, the brain and mouth are all located in a protected container that sits atop a semi flexible shaft. The free maneuverability of this portion of the body is important because of the speed at which the sensors could be brought to bare on a point. This location would reduce the input to movement time and the energy loss that would go with sensor grouping in the body’s trunk
The importance and physical sensitivity of these organs would preclude some means of protection such as an endo or exoskeletal vault. Such a structure would give adequate protection, provide a rigid base for the cutting and grinding surfaces of the mouth and serve as a rigid source for the attachment of the muscles which operate the masticating apparatus.
Brain weight, body mass & intelligence
In order to form an understanding of the relationship between brain weight, body mass and intelligence, lets momentarily look at the relationship of these variables on Earth. The characteristic weight of the human brain is 2.86 pounds, while the average human adult has a body weight of 150 pounds, giving a brain to body ratio of about1:50.
In the animal kingdom, as body weight is increased above this ratio, the intellectual capacity of the brain is reduced. The reduction occurs because more neural tissue is being used to control the expanded body functions. Some examples of a decreased brain weight to body ration can be seen in the chimpanzee (1:150), gorilla (1:500) and elephant (1:1000).
On the other hand, if we reduce the body weight appreciably below the1:50ration, we find the animals overall weight has decreased to such a point that there simply isn’t enough neural tissue available for the complexity of intelligence. This can be illustrated by several types of monkeys, which have a brain to body weight of 1:17, and whose total body weight is less than the human brain!
Our brains have about 10¹º neurons with each neuron making about 100 connections, giving us a possible information storage content of 10¹² bits.
Its quite possible that an intelligent alien would have about the same brain to body ratio. Variations in his physical environment might favor increased or reduced cell size, in effect making him larger or smaller; although gravity alone can accomplish the body size variation. The alien might fall right on the 1:50 ratio yet have as lower or higher degree of neural activity, thus giving his species a lower or higher relative intelligence.
The average height of an alien species on a planet similar to one of our model worlds cannot be known without observation; however, we can make some interesting, possibly relevant speculations.
We know that an intelligent, tool using alien must have a sizeable body mass or his brain would be too small to carry the number of neurons necessary for intelligence. On the other hand, a giant would have such a large body mass to brain ratio that much of his brains capacity would be used in body operation, at the cost of ‘thought’.
The brain to body mass ratio’s need for about 10¹º brain neurons tells us that an intelligent alien will probably fall within an ambiguous height range between extremely small’ and ‘extremely tall’, compared with Man (see ‘Alien Height’ illustration below).
Tests have shown that gravity affects growth length.
Its not unreasonable to assume that on a large planet with its high gravity, that over the eons, survival would have come to favor short creatures. A short muscular creature who trips and fall on a high gravity planet would receive on the average less injury than a tall creature. The shorter creature would not fall as far, nor hit the ground as fast or with as much force as a taller creature. Being incapacitated periodically from impacting on hard and irregular surfaces, is not a good survival strategy for any species. Higher gravity worlds may physically favor land dwelling life forms that have developed a low center of gravity. Conversely, low gravity planets may physically favor land life forms which are tall by comparison to Earth.
I’ve made the assumption, that as a rule of thumb, when moving between planetary models, for each increase or decrease of 0.25 relative Earth gravity, that the average height of an alien intelligent species will inversely increase or decrease about twelve inches. This rule of thumb is only to be used for intelligent tool using life developing on planets within the parameters of this study. This assumption provides us with a general correlation between intelligent alien height and the mass of the home planet.
The illustration, Alien Height and Surface Gravity, below, is meant only as a guide to conceptuale your thinking. In the absence of data, we can at least say that it does not violate the brain to body mass ratio and considers gravity and length studies.
In this section we’ll attempt to draw a generalized relationship between the APST (average planetary surface temperature) and the average alien physique, or build.
Its true that surface temperatures vary with latitude on our model planets and that there will be a great variation in temperatures across the face of the planet. What we will attempt to find is a potential relative average alien build for any given APST and planetary mass combination. The result of our inquiry into alien body build should be seen as “this is what the physical environment might tend to favor”. The more an environment tends to favor a particular biological response, the more frequently that biological response will be found to occur.
There seems to be a general trend in that many life forms in a hot climate have a large body surface area to body volume ratio. This says that ‘thin’ animals are best adapted to hot climates. In hot climates internal heat must be dissipated easily, thin bodies with a large surface area afford the means to do so.
In cold climates, many animals have developed a small surface area to body volume ratio. These bulky animals generate a lot of internal heat and lose it slowly to the cold environment through their bodies reduced surface area.
Table: Heat Storage & Dissipation, Based on Body Size
|Trunk height (inches)||18||18|
|Trunk diameter (inches)||12||18|
|Trunk radius (inches)||6||9|
|Volume (cubic inches)||2034||4578|
|Area (square inches)||678||1017|
In this table, which compares surface area and body volume ratios, note that the bulky cold environment alien has 2.2 times the body volume of his thinner hot environment counterpart, but only has 1.5 times the surface area to lose the heat from. In a cold, low energy environment, a relatively bulky body would provide an energy savings advantage over a thin body. In a hot environment, the bulky alien would be at an energy disadvantage. Trying to dissipate relatively large amounts of body heat into a hot environment through a comparatively small surface area, he would be faced with reduced activity or potential heat stroke.
Diagram: General Body Build of Intelligent Alien compared to APST & Planetary Mass
The diagram above, allows us to make some interesting speculations regarding the alien physique:
• The average intelligent Being from a 0.25 Earth mass planet with 60ºC APST might be very thin and stand around seven plus feet tall. His tall, thin stature would make him appear almost mantis like.
• A biped Being from a 0.25 Earth mass planet with a 0ºC APST would be tall to extremely tall by Earth standards, and his body build muscular and stocky.
• An intelligent life form from a 3.0 Earth mass planet with 60ºC APST, would be short and thin, perhaps not unlike a thin 4-6 year old Human child.
• Should this creature have developed on a 0ºC APST planet, he would still be short, but his large volume to surface area would make him bulky and muscular.
As you may recall, earlier we considered the possibility that an aliens vision might extend a bit further into the violet or red portions of the spectrum, if he developed on a planet orbiting an intrinsically hotter or cooler star. Stellar parameters can leave their trademark in the biotic community in other ways as well.
As one moves up the Main Sequence of stars, from spectral class K1 to F2, the bulk of the radiative energy emitted by each class of star tends to shift from the red-orange to blue-white end of the visible spectrum. As the shift occurs, there is an increase in the percentage of ultraviolet radiation as the temperature of the star increases.
The ultraviolet radiation found in sunlight is deadly, it kills cells, causes burns, can cause skin cancer, can incapacitate.
Skin pigmentation is a protective adaptation against ultraviolet radiation. On our own planet, over the last 12,000 plus years, Man has become variated into three broad skin color groupings: the heavily pigmented Negro from equatorial regions, the Asian-Indian- Mediterranean stocks from around 30º latitude, and the lightly pigmented almost albino stocks from 45º-50º latitude.
In equatorial regions, the ultraviolet radiation influx is so great that unprotected flesh can experience serious sunburns, here adaptively has favored a heavy dark skin pigmentation.
At about 30 latitude, the relative solar radiation level has decreased 14%; in this area of high pressure and fewer clouds, Man’s skin pigmentation ranges from dark brown to olive.
Around 60 latitude, the solar radiation influx has decreased to about 50% of that at the equator. In these latitudes, marked by low pressure and greater cloud cover, Man developed blonde hair and a rosy white skin color.
If we matched a drop of paint with skin color matching every person on Earth, then mixed all these variously tinted drops together, the average color, average skin color would resemble that of the Asian-Indian.
What would the average skin color be of an alien from one of our model worlds?
An intelligent aliens level of pigmentation and general skin color are derived from basically three factors.
1) The spectral class of the star his planet orbits.
2) The planet’s axial inclination, hence seasonal exposure to UV
3) The planet’s average percentage cloud cover
Diagram: Pigmentation in Exposed Flesh
Reading the Pigmentation diagram above, we see that very heavy, dark pigmentation would be found as an average condition on a small planet with 30% cloud cover which orbited a high UV producing F2 spectral class star. On the other hand, there would be little if any pressure to develop protective skin pigmentation on a large warm world with 80% cloud cover, orbiting a low UV K1 star.
Near the middle of this diagram, Earth’s average human pigmentation has fallen in the “medium” range (light brown, as seen in Indian and Asian populations) and is entered as a circle with a + inside, marking Earth’s 47% cloud cover, and the Sun – a G2 spectral class star.
Note: I’ve entered the typical racial pigmentations found on our own planet to serve as a guide\ for the am ount of relative need for protection. Alien bio-chemistry could as well produce gray, yellow orange or even chamelion like hues, or supplement skin color with thicker skin, extensive body hair, fur, micro hair-feathers, etc.
Computer Program: Generation of the Alien Physique (low resolution)
The following computer program produces an alien physique from the parameters discussed in this study. The basic morphological subprogram was extracted from the much longer and more complex program, AFARHOME, which I wrote around in North Star B.A.S.I.C. in 1980, for use on my Processor Technology, Sol computer.
|!CHR$(11)||tells the computer to “Clear the screen”|
|REM||this statement and all others on a given line are ignored by the computer.|
|T||alphabetic letters denote numerical data; i.e. “123”|
|T$||alphabetic letters with a dollar sign denote alphanumeric data; i.e., “stop, look and listen”|
|DIM||statement creates the space required for alphanumeric data|
|1000, 1010||line numbers which are the road map routing followed by the computers logic circuitry.|
I hope that in extracting this program from AFARHOME, that I didn’t introduce any ‘bugs’ to foul you up.
Alien Morphology subprogram
|500 DIM D$(30), D1$(30), D2$(30), D3$(30), D4$(40), D5$(30)|
|510 DIM D6$(30), D7$(30), D8$(30), D9$(30), E$(30), E1$(30)|
|520 DIM E2$(30), E3$(30), E4$(30), E5$(30), E6$(30), E7$(30)|
|530 DIM E8$(45), E9$(40), L$(30), L1$(30), L2$(30), L3$(30)|
|540 DIM L4$(30), L5$(30), L6$(30), L7$(30), L8$(30), L9$(30)|
|550 DIM M$(30), M1$(30), M2$(30)|
|1000 REM MORPHOLOGY PROGRAM|
|1010 !”What is the relative mass of your hypothetical planet?”|
|1020 !”Earth =1.0”|
|1040 !”1) 0.25 2) 0.50 3) 1.0 4) 1.5 5) 2.0 6) 3.0”|
|1060 INPUT “Choose mass by number”, H|
|1080 !”Choose an average planetary surface temperature.”|
|1090 !”Temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit.”|
|1110 !”1) 37 2) 59 3) 86 4) 113 5) 135|
|1130 INPUT” Choose temperature by number.”, T|
|2000 REM ALIEN COMPOSITE SUBPROGRAM|
|2010 D$=” 0.…0”|
|2020 D1$=” 0www0”|
|2030 D2$=” oWWWo”|
|2040 D3$=” o….o|
|2050 D4$=” ……”|
|2060 D5$=” wwww”|
|2070 D6$=” WWW”|
|2080 D7$=” (o^V^o)”|
|2090 D8$=” (ovo)”|
|2100 D9$=” o(ovo)o”|
|2110 E$=” o(oVo)o”|
|2120 E1$=” o(O..O)o”|
|2130 E2$=” (O..O)”|
|2140 E3$=” (OVO)”|
|2150 E4$=” ( – )”|
|2160 E5$=” \ – /”|
|2170 E6$=” (-)”|
|2180 E7$=” \-/”|
|2190 E8$=” =>====o====(..^..}====o====<=”|
|2200 E9$=” =>===o===(.^.)===o===<=”|
|2210 L$=” (==|==)”|
|2220 L1$=” (=|=)”|
|2230 L2$=” | |”|
|2240 L3$=” | |”|
|2250 L4$=” | |”|
|2260 L5$=” (/ \)”|
|2270 L6$=” ( / \ )”|
|2280 L7$=” ( / \ )”|
|2290 L8$=” || ||”|
|2300 L9$=” | | | |”|
|2310 M$=” | | | ||
|2320 M1$=” /ooO) (Ooo\”|
|2330 M2$=” /oO) (Oo\|
|REM HAIR, EYES, NOSE, ½ FACE|
|9380 IF H>3 THEN 9390 ELSE 9430|
|9390 ON T GOTO 9400, 9410, 9410, 9420, 9420|
|9400 !D2$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9410 !D1$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9420 !D$ \ D7$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9430 IF H<5 THEN 9440 ELSE 9490|
|9440 ON T GOTO 9450, 9460, 9460, 9470, 9480|
|9450 !D$ \ E$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9460 ! D5$ \ D9$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9470 !D4$ \ D9$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9480 !D4$ \ D8$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9490 ON T GOTO 9500, 9510, 9510, 9520|
|9500 !D6$ \ E3$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9510 !D5$ \ E2$ \ GOTO 9540|
|9520 !D4$ \ E2$ \ GOTO9540|
|9530 !D4$ \ E1$|
|9540 REM JAW STRUCTURE|
|9550 ON T GOTO 9560, 9570, 9580, 9590|
|9560 !E4$ \ GOTO 9600|
|9570 !E5$ \ GOTO 9600|
|9580 !E6$ \ GOTO 9600|
|9600 REM SHOULDERS AND ARMS|
|9605 IF H<4 THEN 9610 ELSE 9620|
|9610 !E8$ \ GOTO 9630|
|9630 REM LUNG CAPACITY|
|9640 IF H=1 THEN 9650 ELSE 9680|
|9650 IF T<3 THEN 9960 ELSE 9670|
|9660 ! L$ \ GOTO 9680|
|9680 REM TORSO SEGMENTS|
|9685 ON H GOTO9690, 9720, 9750, 9790, 9820|
|9690 ON T GOTO 9700, 9700, 9710, 9710, 9710|
|9700 !LZ$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9710 !L3$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9720 ON T GOTO 9730, 9730, 9740, 9740, 9740|
|9730 !L2$ \ L2$ \ L2$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9740 !L3$ \ L3$ \ L3$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9750 ON T GOTO 9760, 9770, 9770, 9780, 9780|
|9760 ! L2$ \ L2$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9770 ! L3$ \ L3$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9780 ! L4$ \ L4$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9790 ON T GOTO 9800, 9800, 9810, 9810, 9810|
|9800 ! L3$ \ GOTO 9820|
|9810 ! L4$|
|9820 REM HIPS|
|9830 IF H < 4 THEN 9840 ELSE 9850|
|9840 ON T GOTO 9860, 9870, 9870, 9870, 9880|
|9850 ON T GOTO 9870, 9870, 9880, 9880, 9880|
|9860 ! L7$ \ GOTO 9890|
|9870 ! L6$ \ GOTO 9890|
|9880 ! L5$|
|9890 REM LEGS|
|9900 IF H=1 THEN 9910 ELSE 9940|
|9910 IF T < 3 THEN 9920 ELSE 9930|
|9920 !L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150|
|9930 !L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|9940 IF H=2 THEN 9950 ELSE 9980|
|9950 IF T<3 THEN 9960 ELSE 9970|
|9960 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GPTP 10150|
|9970 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|9980 IF H=3 THEN 9990 ELSE 10030|
|9990 ON TGOTO 10000,10010, 10010,10020, 10020|
|10000 ! M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10010 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10020 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10030 IF H = 4 THEN 10040 ELSE 10080|
|10040 ON TGOTO 10050,10060, 10060,10070, 10070|
|10050 ! M$ \ M$ \ M$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10060 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ L9$\ GOTO 10150|
|10070 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10080 IF H=5 THEN 1090 ELSE 10120|
|10090 IF T<3 THEN 10100 ELSE 10110|
|10100 ! L9$ \ L9$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10110 ! L8$ \ L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10120 IF T<3 THEN 10130 ELSE 10140|
|10130 ! L9$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10140 ! L8$ \ GOTO 10150|
|10150 REM FEET|
|10160 IF H<5 10170 ELSE 10180|
|10170 ! M1$ \ GOTO 10200|
|10180 ! M2$|
|10190 INPUT “PRESS RETURN TO RERUN PROGRAM”|
|10200 ! CHR$(11)|
|10210 GOTO 1000|
Continued in Chapter 8: Into A New World