Tag Archives: genealogy

John Chipman Jr. (Hon.) and Mary Skiff

(The Pilgrims & Skiff branch)

John CHIPMAN  Hon. was born on 3 Mar 1670 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; died on 4 Jan 1756 in New Port, New Port, RI; buried in New Port, New Port, RI. [John Chipman Jr. was son of Hope Howland and grandson of Pilgrim John Howland]

John CHIPMAN married Mary SKIFF in 1691 in MA. They had the following children: James CHIPMAN (b. 18 Dec 1694), John CHIPMAN (b. 18 Sep 1697), Mary (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), Bethia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 11 Dec 1699), ♥ Perez CHIPMAN (b. 28 Sep 1702), Deborah CHIPMAN (b. 6 Dec 1704), Stephen (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Lydia (twin) CHIPMAN (b. 9 Jun 1708), Ebenezer CHIPMAN (b. 13 Nov 1709).

He also married Elizabeth (Russel) (Pope) HANDLEY in 1716 at Capt. Popes home, Dartmouth, MA. They had the following children: Handley CHIPMAN* (b.31 Aug 1717), Rebecca CHIPMAN (b.10 Nov 1719). *See {D4} below.

He also married Hannah (Huxley) (Griffin) CASE in 1725 inNewport,RI.

BIRTH:  17 May 1708 John Chipman is listed in his father’s Will to receive real-estate in Barnstable, MA.{D1}

PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: John’s son, Handley, by second wife, Elizabeth describes his father, saying, “My dear Father was a tall Person…my dear fathers hair reddish and he of Light complection..”{D4} [See below Handley’s brief biography of his family includinhg elder John Chipman.

MARRIAGE:
1. John 1st married, Mary Skiff, about 1691: to their union were born nine children including, James, John, Mary, Bethia, Perez, Deborah, Stephen, Lydia, and Ebenezer. Mary and Bethia, also Stephen and Lydia were twins. Mary died on 12 March 1711.{D2} The family lived in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA.

2. In 1716, John married the widowed Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell: their union produced two children, Handley and Rebecca. After continuing to live several more years at Sandwich, John moved the family to Martha’s Vineyard, where they lived for seven years before Elizabeth Handley died.  Elizabeth became very ill while visiting her ex father-in-law Captain Pope in Dartmouth and died 4-5 months later, at his residence, after a long bout with Consumption. John and Elizabeth’s son, Handley, writes, “My Dear Father used to go back and forward to Visit her until about the 30 day of Jany A.D. 1725 when she departed this Life…”{D4}

The Will of Seth Pope of Dartmouthdated 1 April 1720, names “my former daughter in law now wife of Lewt John Chipman of Sandwich” and her son Handy Chipman.{D2}

3. On his last trip to visit Elizabeth before she died, John met the widow Hannah Case. Mrs. Case had just buried her husband on Martha’s Vineyard and returning to the mainland. The two took the ferry and traveled together on one horse, both going in the same direction to Dartsmouth.{D4}

About a year later, in 1725, at 55 of years of age, John married the widow Hannah Huxley Griffin Case.{D2} Soon after remarrying, John sold his property on Martha’s Vineyard and moved to Rhode Island “and Let his money to interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.” {D4}

LIVELIHOOD:
While living in Sandwich John had been a coroner, Lieutenant, Captain, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston.

While he lived on Martha’s Vineyard he was a Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court.{D4}

“In MA he was a magistrate, a member of the general court, a justice of the Court of Common Pleas, 1772. In RI, where he lived after 1727, he was first of six Associates of that colony who with the other Associates, the Governor and Philip Cortland and Daniel Horsemanden of the NY council, was a member of the Commissioners of Review appointed by royal authority, who met at Norwich, CT and decided Connecticut’s course toward the Indians.”{D3}

“About age 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying  (Hannah Case) he left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own sister (Rebecca) who had married a worthy person, a Capy Moore…”{D4}
When daughter, Rebecca, died a few years later, John went to live with his son Handley. He was given a room and kept company. “Loosing his Last wife, and Living very retire in a room much by himself, as was his own Choice, keeping his Books of Divinity by him, and pipe and Tobacco, he soon grew rater dull, and rather Melancholy, inclined to have but Little Company or Conversation, nor could he be persuaded but Seldom, to Eat any of his Meals out of his own room, where he always had a fire to himself and one or other of the family that attended upon him…”{D4}

WILL:  In his Will dated 17 Oct 1749, John Chipman mentions his sons Perces (Perez) and Handley and others in the family.{D2}

John Chipman Jr. died leaving 70 children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren behind him.

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p. 181. Recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. “Mayflower Families In Progress – Richard Warren…”, published by General Society of Mayflower
Descendants, 1987, p. 84.
3. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
4.  A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”,
1937 Vol. XCI, Publ by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Mary  SKIFF was born on 13 Nov 1671 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; died on 12 Mar 1711 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA. Parents, Stephen Skeffe and Lydia Snow, descendant from 1620 Mayflower ancestor Richard Warren..

When Marcy died in 1711, she left her husband to care for nine children between the ages of 2 and 17 years of age.

* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America
1631-1920
 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.
* Individual source: Mayflower Families In Progress: Richard Warren of the Mayflower and His Descendants for Four Generations, compiled by Robert S. Wakefield and others, Published by
General Society of Mayflower Descendants, 1987.

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A brief history of the Chipman family written by Handley Chipman, son of  John Chipman (Jr) Hon., and his 2nd wife Elizabeth Handley Pope Russell

“[The Mayflower pilgrims] … saw them the vessel after the boat’s return came up to the place of their intended settlement and they all landed and prepared huts for to live in, but poor distressed souls they being disappointed of other vessels coming over to them for a great while to supply them with provisions and other necessities as expected

“Sundry of these poor distressed people died and all was in imanent danger of perishing, if it had not been for the Clams they found on the shores and dugg up at low tide, but it was especially from the Supp & turkeys obtained in quantities [from] the native Indians … which corn they ate and paid the Indians for the spring after as soon as they had gained acquaintance with them who had been very shy of them.

“My said Grandfather (elder) John Chipman  born 1615 Married a Daughter of the aforesaid Mr. Howland and settled at Barnstable, the next Town but one which is Sandwich, to their Said Plimouth further on the Said Cape Cod, Plimouth being being at the head of the Bay.  he my Said Grandfather was an Elder in Minister Russels Congregational Church, in said Barnstable, and if I am not mistaken removed and lived in Said Sandwich the Latter part of his Day.  He died aged 88.  He had or left 10 children of which my honored father was the Youngest.  his children generally lived to grow up and Marry and from whom proceeded a very Numerous offspring.  As my Grandfather was the only one of the name of Chipman and my Grandmother Daughter of the only one of the name of Howland in New England or any of the now States of America, so the Chipmans are all on this Continent Related as well as the Howlands, and are all of them by reason of my Grandfather and grandmothers Marriage together Related to one another, and so near that Long Since my Remembrance my dear father and the Howlands used to call Cuzzens and the Howlands was often conversant at my house and my fathers house &c.

“My Dear and Honored Deceased father John Chipman, married one Capt. Skiffs daughter of said Sandwich, by whom he had 9 children that all Lived to grow up to the years of Men and Women, from whom has sprang a very large offspring.  Their names were Sons, James, Perez, John, Ebenezer and Stephen.  The Daughters names were Bethia and Mary, twins, as was also the Son Said Stephen with the next daughter Lidia, the others name was Deborah.  They had all entered into the Marriage State and had generally Large families of Children, Except said Stephen, who had no Children by his wife, Dying Master of a Vessel young in Nevis in the West Indies.  They were mostly of more than middling size.  James was a clothier by Trade, Perez was a Blacksmith as was also Ebenezer, John was a farmer and Stephen a cooper by trade.  They scattered much in their Settling in families.

“My dear fathers first wife dying at said Sandwich, Leaving said nine children, He some time after, it may be two years, married her that was my dear Mother, at Capt. Popes at Dartmouth, her first husband was his oldest Son, her second husband was one Capt. Russel, with whom I have been told She lived about 17 months, at Rhode Island or near there about….  She had no Child or Children that Lived by Either of these husbands.  by my dear father She had my Self, her son Handley, and my dear sister Rebecca.  Soon after her birth my dear Father removed from Sandwich to Martha Vineyard, where he lived it may be 7 years.

“Just about a year after my dear Mothers Death, my dear Father married the Said widow Case at Newport on Said Rhode Island.  She had had two husbands, one a Griffin, the other said Capt. Case.  by said Griffin She had a daughter who lived to grow up and Married my Said dear father Son Stephen, who died in Said West Indies Leaving no Child.  My Mother in Law’s maiden name was Mary Hoockey, and after my dear father had Lived with her 19 years She died also with the Consumption.  She was a Baptist.  My dear father soon after he thus Married at Rhode Island, sold his farm at the Vineyard, to one Mr. Norton for L1200, money then at s5/pr. ounce.  he removed then to Rhode Island and Let his money to Interest, but it depreciating fast, he called it in and went to shopkeeping.

“He was when he lived at Sandwich, Crowner or Coroner, a Capt. Lieutenant, and a Representative to the General Assembly at Boston, as I find, by his Commission Left.  While he lived on the Vineyard he was Justice of the Peace and one of the Judges of the Inferior Court, &c.

“After he removed to Rhode Island Government, he was for some time the first of the Governors Council, and was also Chief Judge of the Superior Court or court of Equity, as it was then called, and continued in said office until he was about 70 years old when he of choice flung up all offices by reason of his old age, and soon after my Mother in Law dying he Left off his Shopkeeping, broke up housekeeping, and went to live with my own Sister who had married a worthy person, a Capt. Moore.

“My dear and Honoured Father was born March 3d day, A.D. 1670.  He departed this Life at Newport on Rhode Island, January 4 th day, 1756, in my house, where he had lived some years, after he broke up housekeeping, he went and Lived at Capt. David Moors as aforesaid who married my own only Sister, but she dying in a few years after, he then came to Live with me.

“I would before I conclude the Pedigree of my dear fathers family just mention that I have divers times inquired after the family of the Chipmans coat of arms but never could get Intelligence of it.  And am lately informed that Ward Chipman, Esq. Solisiter General in our Neighboring Province of Brunswick Government, when he was in England a few years past, made very thorough Search after our family coat of arms, and finds we have none at all, &c.

“But the Chipmans in America are very Numerous indeed.  they are, we are, Sure all related, for they are all of them descended from my said Grandfather.  we find they are Spread even from Canso * Eastward to Virginia Westward, if not farther both ways.”

* A fishing village on the eastern tip of mainland Nova Scotia.

[“A Chipman Family History,” by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, R.I., and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, composed ca. 1790, in:

Roberts, Gary Boyd; ed.  (1985).  Genealogies of Mayflower Families From The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Volume I Adams-Fuller.  Baltimore:  Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

Handley Chipman’s statement validates the Chipmans of Virginia as authentic descendants of John and Hope (Howland) Chipman, but supporting documentation still needs to be assembled.]

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John Chipman (elder) and Hope Howland

(Pilgrims families & Chipman branch)

John CHIPMAN, elder, was born in 1614 in Bryan’s-Piddle, near Dorchester, England; died on 7 Apr 1708 in Sandwich, Barnstable, MA; buried in Sandwich, Barnstable,MA.

John CHIPMAN married Hope HOWLAND in 1646. They had the following children: Samuel CHIPMAN  Deacon (b. 15 Apr 1661), ♥ John CHIPMAN  Hon. (b. 3 Mar 1670), Elizabeth CHIPMAN (b.24 Jun 1647), Hope CHIPMAN (b. 31 Aug 1652), Lydia CHIPMAN (b. 25 Dec 1654), Hannah CHIPMAN (b. 14 Jan 1658), Ruth CHIPMAN (b. 31 Dec 1663), Bethia CHIPMAN (b. 1 Jul 1666), Mercy CHIPMAN (b. 6 Feb 1668), Desire CHIPMAN (b. 26 Feb 1673).

He also married Ruth SARGENT in 1684.

TRAVEL: Brotherless and early left fatherless, John sailed from Barnstable, Devon Co., England, in May 1631, on the Friendship, arriving in Boston, 14 July 1631.
John was the first and only one of the name, Chipman, in this country, and until 1850 there was no Chipman in this country who was not descended from him.{D2}

MARRIAGE: He first married Hope Howland, when she died, he secondly married Ruth Sargent. John Chipman lists his living children in his Will, dated 12 Nov 1702. {D1}{D2}

LIVELIHOOD: John was a carpenter and deputy.{D5} Also, “John Chipman was for successive years a selectman, then in Plymouth Colony invested with the authority of a magistrate, and was often a deputy of the court; and he with three assistants was designated to frequent the early Quaker meetings and ‘endeavor to reduce them from the errors of their wayes’.”

HOME: Plymouth in 1637, Yarmouth in 1647, and Barnstable in 1649.{D5} The elder John Chipman family homestead was located near the Barnstable Custom House. His son, Samuel, built the “Chipman Tavern” on the homestead, which then continued in the line of his prosperity until 1830.{D2}

RELIGION: On 30 Jun 1653, John joined his wife (Hope Howland) in becoming a member of the church at Barnstable. He became an Elder in Minister Russel’s Congregational Church at Barnstable.{D4}

HISTORICAL NOTE: John Chipman, son-in-law of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley signed his name (at age 58) to a Bond of Administration on the John Howland estate, dated 5 March 1672, see also Elizabeth Tilley notes. {D3}

DEATH John died at 88 years of age.{D4}

WILL: The Will of John Chipman, dated 12 Nov 1702, proved 17 May 1708, mentions his second wife Ruth and the children listed herein. An excerpt from the Will states, “It I Will and Bequeath to my Two Sons Sam and John my Whole Estate in Barnstable to them and theirs for Ever: that is to Say: That my Son Samuell shall have Two parts Thereof & my Son Jno one part or third thereof. unless my son Sam see Cause to pay his brother John seventy pounds in Lew of Sd Third part. and Samuel So Doing shall Enjoy the whole he and his heirs for Ever…” An inventory of personal belonging follows in the
article.{D1}

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Mayflower Descendant, Vol. III, article Elder John Chipman’s Will and Inventory, p 181; recorded in the Barnstable County Probate Records, Vol. III, pages 228-231.
2. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem,NC.
3. John Chipman’s autograph shown in “The Mayflower Descendant”, Vol. XIII, April 1911, article An Autograph of Elizabeth (Tilley) Howland, p. 65.
4. A Chipman Family History by Handley Chipman (1717-1799) of Newport, RI and Cornwallis, Nova Scotia. Reproduced and printed by “The New England Historical and Genealogical Register”, 1937 Vol. XCI, Publ. by the Society at the Robert Henry Eddy Memorial Rooms,Boston.
5.  Founders of Early American Families: Emigrants from Europe 1607-1657, by Meredith B. Colket, Jr. and others, 1975, publ by the General Court of the Order of Founders and Patriots in America, located in LDS Genealogical Library, 500 S. Langley, Tuscon, AZ.
* Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem, NC.

Hope HOWLAND was born on 30 Aug 1629 in Plymouth, MA; died ABT 8 Jan 1683 in Barnstable, Barnstable, MA; buried in Lothrop Hill Burying Ground, Barnstable, MA.

MARRIAGE: Hope Howland, daughter of John Howland and Elizabeth Tilley married (the Elder) John Chipman.{D1}

HOME:  In 1637 Plymouth Colony authorized the creation of three new settlements on Cape Cod, including; Sandwich, Barnstable and Yarmouth. Because the population of Plymouth Colony was too small to occupy the new settlements, outsiders were allowed, if they met some prudent conditions: 1) There could be no absentee land ownership, 2) persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, 3) individuals who were acceptable had to be “of good note.” A group migrated from Scituate to Barnstable led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisting primarily of his church members. Among them, or following very soon afterwards, were some early Plymouth residents, including two daughters of Pilgrim John Howland: Hope Howland with her husband John Chipman and family; also sister Desire Howland with her husband John Gorman and family, moved from Yarmouth to Barnstable.{D2}

BURIAL:  Hope died at Barnstable, MA. Her gravestone, which states, “interred ye body of Mrs. Hope Chipman, wife of Elder John Chipman”, is still standing in the old Lothrop Hill cemetery. Directions to Lothrop Hill cemetery: Go a mile or so west of Barnstable Center, MA., on Main Street, also known as Cape Cod’s Route 6A.{D1}
Lothrop Hill Burying Ground is on shady, rolling terrain located one half mile from the harbor. It is good to be remembered with a monument, because, “who have no memorial; who are perished as though they had never been.”{Ecclesiastics 44,9}

DOCUMENTS:
1. The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, Bert L. Chipman, Publisher, Winston -Salem, NC.
2. The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb 1993, Vol. 59, “Pilgrim Suburbs On Cape Cod”, page 30-32.
Individual source: The Chipman Family: A Genealogy of the Chipmans In America 1631-1920 by Bert Lee Chipman, 1920, Winston -Salem,NC.

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Pilgrim Suburbs on Cape Cod
by Robert Thompson The Decision to  Expand to the Eastward 1637 – 1657.

Although Cape Cod was where Pilgrims first trod on American soil, the Cape remained virtually uninhabited, except by Indians, for the next seventeen years. The Pilgrims simply had not found the Cape sufficiently attractive for their settlement

But then about 1637, the Colony government suddenly reached back along the Cape, authorizing creation of three new settlements: Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth … This seemingly strange circumstance was the product of several factors: First, the Bay Colony on the Pilgrims’ northern exposure had grown tremendously – eclipsing the very modest growth of their own colony – thus
looming as a competitive threat to their own survival and potential prosperity.
Second, a “use it or lose it” perception emerged as a recognition of this situation; for Cape Cod was not only major coastal property but represented a significant portion of Colony land.
Third, since the population of Plymouth itself was deemed insufficient to render a viable migration and occupation of the entire Cape, it seemed necessary to allow outsiders to come in – subject, however to some prudent “conditions”.

Some of the “conditions” that were laid down: 1)  there could be no absentee land ownership, 2)  persons “unfitt for church societe” were excluded, and, 3) those individuals who were acceptable had to be persons “of good note”.

Some sixty families were involved with the migration from Saugus to Sandwich. The settlers were joined by some Plymouth and Duxbury residents, such as William Bassett Jr., James (Skiff) Skeffe … Names of Mayflower passengers are conspicuously absent. …
The early settlers of Sandwich roosted along the north shore facing Cape Cod Bay. They were allowed sections of upland to build on and sections of salt marsh for haying.

The group that migrated from Scituate to Barnstable was led by John Lothrop, minister, and consisted primarily of his church members. Among them, or very soon thereafter, were some early Plymouth residents, including the younger Samuel Fuller – Mayflower passenger -who married Lothrop’s daughter Jane. Other Barnstable residents with strong Pilgrim connection included Matthew Fuller, Samuel’s brother, and Thomas Hinkley, destined to become a colony governor: ♥ Hope Howland, daughter of Mayflower passenger John Howland and wife of John Chipman;  Desire Howland, Hope’s sister and wife of John Gorham: both families coming here from Yarmouth.

A few years after the initiation of settlements at Sandwich, Barnstable, and Yarmouth, many of the people back in Plymouth began to think about moving their town, en masse, to some other location –
having noted limitations of the land they occupied and the satisfaction of those who had moved already. Further, it became apparent that the continued migration trickle from Plymouth was eroding the Church. Many meetings were held and a committee finally appointed to study the feasibility of moving the town to a tract on the further reaches of the Cape known as Nauset. The committee reported back that a move was inadvisable because of the remoteness of the area and insufficient room for expansion. The idea of a move was then abandoned. But members of the committee went ahead and purchased land from the Nauset Indians anyway and most eventually moved there! The new town was named Eastham.

Among those who purchased land was Thomas Prence, … Nicholas Snow – family names which appear frequently in lines of descent from Mayflower passengers.

There remained a large tract between Yarmouth and Eastham which had been reserved for eventual division among the “old comers” – persons who had come from England on the first three ships.
In 1653 those who still retained rights picked up their options and a committee proceeded to lay out lots in a small portion of the area. The individuals included William Bradford, Thomas Prence,
John Howland, Nicholas Snow, William Collier, … Then for the next forty-one years there was both expansion and a great churning of properties as result of sale and resale, subdividing and re dividing, and endless land disputes. Finally, in 1694 the whole area was incorporated and given
the name Harwich. Taken from The Mayflower Quarterly, Feb. 1993, Vol.
59, No., page 30 -32.

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Old World: The Normans

(My Family in History > Old World: The Normans)

Living in Norway, Sweden and Denmark were people of two different cultures. To the west were the Getic pheasants who were enterprising, independent and diverse, living in timber houses on sheltered fjords. To the east and on the open coast lived the Scythian chieftains, in stone houses. Their cult of Odin believed that honor was awarded for bravery alone—the Scythians ruled the tenant and thrale of the Scandinavian population.
[Image at left, samples of the Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

At the time there was occurring an improvement in the northern climate.

The fusion of these divergent cultures under an improved climate were conditions for hybrid enterprise and rapid technical evolution. During the first eight centuries of the Christian era, Scandinavia began to receive immigrants; Roman iron workers came in, Roman ship builders and seamen arrived. Iron axes removed forests and agriculture spread deep inland. Fighting men went to serve in the Byzantine forces. Returning, they brought not only gold and silver, but other free and slave craftsmen, who made tools, weapons and jewelry. The Scandinavians planned their homes and camps with precision using Roman foot measure. They learned how to build ships for sail on the open sea. These ships, which reached up to fifty tons, were keeled, masted and carried square sails. The new ships opened up the unknown ocean for exploration, trade, piracy and colonization.

Without doctrinal guidance, the Vikings soon followed the same path on the watery fringes of the Roman Empire, which the Muslim Arabs were pursuing on the desert fringe. It was a path of enslavement, polygamy and hybridization. The Viking saga was to continue for four centuries, from around 700 to 1100 AD.

By 700 AD, the Vikings had set up settlements in Ireland. In the 800s they turned to attacking England, an equitable tradition which continued for two hundred years. By the 900s, they began to switch from attacking the poorer, more primitive northern areas of Europe to the richer lands of France.

In the Ninth Century, scarcely 150 years before the birth of William I (The Conqueror), the Vikings were over running England and France.

In France, 30,000 to 40,000 Norse soldiers, led by Rollo had taken over the Lower Seine and besieged Paris. A great battle ensued in which 7,000 of the invaders died at the hands of the  United Forces of France. However, not long after this, Rollo dictated the terms of peace to the weak Frankish king, Charles the Simple, and subsequently took possession of a great part of the province of Neustria—which became Normandy.

Rollo was recognized at the court of Rouen, a legitimacy that introduced him to the developing feudal system that was emerging from the decay of Charlemagne’s empire. His heirs expanded his holdings, won the title of Duke, they rebuilt abbeys destroyed by their ancestors. By taking French wives, the invaders learned to speak French, to write Latin and embrace the Carolinian concepts of law. Yet, they retained their Viking vigor and independence of spirit. By the time the Norman conquest of England, the Normans would number about one million, about half of England’s population, but they would be pent up on a strip of land one forth the size of England.

Without losing their knowledge of the sea, they acquired an understanding of the horse, with its harness and stirrups. It was this hybridization of a heavily armed man on horseback that would later win the Battle of Hastings for the Normans.

The uniting of the barbaric Scandinavia with the civilized Frank was to produce in the Norman nobility a notable capacity to govern. The Norman nobles weredistinguished by their graceful bearing and insinuating address, by their skill in negotiation and a neutral eloquence, but their chief fame was derived from their military exploits from the prodigies of their discipline and valor.

Being entirely new to the business of government, they were completely dedicated to exploiting the abilities of others; they were calculating, single minded, aggressive and ruthless. Without any ideas of their own they used, without prejudice, all races and classes of men to serve them; which countered the established civilized way and religious education of the time.

The greater Norman barons, including William I (the Conqueror) were of Norwegian blood, representatives of the dispossessed royal families of the twenty two ancient kingdoms of Norway, who had been deprive of their domains by the conquests of Harold Harfager. The descendants of the early kings of the North and the Merovian barons of France are found at present among the Norman people of England and North America.[1]
[Image below right, Lewis Chess pieces, carved of walrus tusk in Norway ca 12ooAD]

Here then are but a few hardy branches on a very large genealogical tree.

Line of Norman Descent [2]:

Hrolf, Duke of the Normans
William Longsword
Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy
Richand the Good, Duke of Normandy
Robert the Magnificent, 6th Duke of Normandy
William I, 7th Duke of Normandy

.
William I –The Conqueror

William I was born about 1027 AD in Normandy, France to Robert I and the “lovely Arlette”. His father, Robert I, surnamed, “The Devil” was 6th Duke of Normandy, died 1035. It was written of William that ”…he was begotten of Arlette, a Mediterranean furriers daughter, of Falise, to whom his father was attracted by her beauty as he observed her washing clothes in a stream” It was also written that Arlette was the daughter of Fulbert of Falise, a chamberlain in the Castle Falise, which was home of Robert I.

[Image, Left William I coin, Right William I portrait]

As the years passed, William was made a chamberlain in his fathers court. It was the hybridizing union between the Scandinavian noble and the working class French which developed in him a combination of military, literary and artistic talent. In time, William succeeded his father and became 7th Duke of Normandy.
Around 1051 and about 24 years old William married his fifth cousin, the 4 foot 2 inch tall, Matilda.
Matilda was daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, a descendant of Alfred the Great (849-901AD,England) and Charlemagne (747-814 AD). They produced four sons and six daughters, among which was Henry I.
[Photo at right, Falise castle, Normandy]

During these times, the Norman cities were flourishing in building, religion, philosophy and armaments. But in the countryside, there was unemployment, the people were reduced to subsistence, large families gathered around the hearth, for whose keep the father could not provide.
The land was cut up into small quillets or ‘feeding farms’ that were too small to feed a family…unease prevailed. The spirit of adventure was turning pilgrims into crusaders, while the Norman feat of arms made them conquerors of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily. During this period, the growing Duke William had influence from England to Anselm.
Meanwhile, England stagnated and her king, Edward the Confessor, died without heir on January 5, 1066.

[Image below left: Wood carving from the middle ages thought to be Mathilda, wife of William I.]

On April 24, 1066 a “star with hair” appeared in the skies and shown with exceeding brightness. To many of the time, this (Halley’s Comet) portended a great change in some kingdom.

The English crowned Harold Dgodwinson, their king, but William contested, claiming that King Edward had named him his successor. At age 39, William recruited his feudal levies; mercenaries from all parts of France,Flanders and the Norman territories in Italy. With his army, William sailed across the English Channel on September 27 to confront the English.

In the early morning hours on Saturday, 14 October 1066, William rode out to meet King Harold on the low rolling hills of Hastings. The English stood watching as there approached a great Norman van, with bowmen in front, followed by infantry in armor and finally the mounted knights, As the Normans looked, there across the field stood a wall of shields 600 yards long and 10-12 men deep. With the terrible sound of trumpets, the armies came together…by four o’clock in the afternoon the battle was over, Kind Harold was dead and the Normans had won.

William was crowned King of England on Christmas day 1066 at the Church of St. Peter-Westminister Abby.
Defeating various internal rebellions two years later earned William I the name—The Conqueror.

William introduced the feudal system of land tenure based on military service, so that every acre of land was registered and held by someone for some form of service. The country was divided into 700 Baronies or great Fiefs, which were controlled by the noblemen or barons. These baronies were further subdivided into  a total of 60,000 Knights Fees. Each Knights Fee consisted of three to five small farms. On the average then, each military commander of baron controlled about 86 Knights Fees or around 342 small farms. Each of the fighting men who provided all their own military equipment, the knights, were awarded three to five farms.

In his latter years, William’s success was disturbed. During 1079, at age 52, his eldest son Robert II wounded him during a quarrel. This prompted William to write in his Will: “I grant unto my son, Robert, for that  he is my first begotten and hath already received homage of all  the barons of his country, that honour given cannot be again undone, but yet without rule of his government, for he is a foolish proud knave and to be punished with cruel misfortune.” 

This proved prophetic, for in 1096, Robert II pawned Normandy for 10,000 marks to his brother Rufus, in order to raise money for the First Crusade. In 1106 when returning to England, Robert II was captured by his brother Henry I at Tinchebra. He was then imprisoned for the rest of his life at the castles Bristol and Cardif, where he died.

During 1987, at age 60 and heavy with fat, William attacked and burned Mantes, Francein a campaign against the French. As William rode down the steep streets of Mantes, his horse slipped, stumbled and fell among the debris. William was thrown against the saddle and suffered a fatal rupture. He died near Poen on September 9, 1087 an hour after sunrise and was buried at Caen.

An account of William I from William of Malmesbury, “Historian Anglorum”.
“He was of just stature. Ordinary corpulence, fierce countenance; his forhead was bare of hair; of such strength of arm, that it was often a matter of surprise, that no one was  able to draw his bow, which himself could bend when his horse was on a full gallop; he was majestic whether sitting or standing, although the protuberance of his belly deformed his royal person; of excellent health so that he was never confined with any dangerous disorders, except at last; so given to the pleasures of the chase, that as I have said before, ejecting the inhabitants when at liberty from other vocations, he might there pursue his pleasures.
Other written descriptions of his appearance which describe him as, burly and robust with a guttural voice.

His anxiety for money is the only thing of which he can deservedly be blamed. This he sought all opportunities of scraping together, he cared not how; he would say and do some things and indeed almost anything, unbecomming to such a great majesty, where the hope of money allured him. I have here no excuse to offer, unless it be, as one has said that ’of necessity he must fear money, whom many fear’.”
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Henry I
Genealogy:

Descended from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
Robert I    +    Arlette Baldwin, Earl ofFlanders
          William  I                               + Matilda of Flanders
                                                    Henry I

Henry was born in Selby,Yorkshirein 1068, two years after the Battle of Hastings to William I and Matilda.

During this time, Englandwas coming out of a period of stagnation. The literate and educated class was being rapidly expanded by immigration. These people were intellectually employed to restoring England with the Roman world, which resulted in rapid technological development. With a national premium on education, Henry was educated and earned the surname, “Beauclerk,” for his scholarship.

Henry’s eldest brother, Robert II, assumed the throne upon William’s death in France. As you may recall, Robert had wounded his father during a quarrel, and pawned Normandy to help finance the First Crusade. During Robert’s absence in the holy Land, Henry was crowned king at Westminster Abbey on 5 August 1106. When Robert II returned from the Crusade to redeemNormandy, he was defeated by Henry at the Battle of Tinchebrai and subsequently imprisoned.

[Image at right. Statues of Henry 1 and Matilda fo Scott from the fron of Rochester Cathedral]

Henry’s court became the center of law making as he created the beginnings of a civil administration. Chroniclers wrote of him, “Good man he was and there was a great awe of him. In his days no man dared harm another.”, to wit he further earned the title, “Lion of Justice”.

Henry consolidated his relations with the Saxons on 11 November 1100, by marrying Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III, King of Scotts.
Matilda of the Scotts, was born in 1082, married Henry at age 21 and died 1 May 1118 at age 39 years. Matilda was a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne.

You may recall that Henry’s mother, Matilda, daughter of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders was also a descendant of Alfred the Great and Charlemagne, so certain literary and other predisposition’s toward strategic planning were again bred back into the line, as had been the general social custom amongst Getic nobility since Classical times. These predisposition’s were to show up in their daughter Matilda (Maude) and later in their grandson, Henry II.
[Image at left, Matilda of the Scotts.]

Although his father’s martial fidelity was unique in Norman annals, Henry, by his marriage united the Norman, Saxon and Scottish royal houses. And by his liaisons, he attached himself to every race, Norman, Saxon and Welch and every social class in his kingdom.

His illegitimate children included nine sons and eleven daughters

On one hand the offspring spread through the Norman baronage, on the other they influenced the growth of learning of the Learned Class.

On 25 November 1120, calamity struck as William, Richard and Mary, three of his legitimate heirs drowned in the Whiteship.

Henry I was intelligent, educated and amorous, but he was also brutal and calculating. He is thought to have murdered one brother, blinded another and to have blinded two granddaughters.
Henry died 1 December 1135 at St. Denis,Normandy at age 67 years and was buried at Reading.

Account of Henry I from William of Malmesbury’s , Historia Anglorum
“He was of middle stature: His hair was black, but scanty near the forehead; his eyes mildly bright; his chest brawny; his body fleshy; he was facetious in proper season, nor did multiplicity of business cause him to be less pleasant when he mixed in society. Not prone to personal combat, he verified the saying of Scopio Africamus, ‘My mother bore me to a commander, not a soldier’., wherefore he was inferior to no king of modern time; and as I may almost say, he clearly surpassed all his predecessors in England and preferred contending by counsel, rather than by the sword. If he could, he conquered without bloodshed; if it was unavoidable, with as little as possible. He was free, during his whole life, from impure desires; for, as we have learned from those who were well informed, he was led by female blandishments, not for the gratification of incontinency, but for the sake of issue; nor condescended to casual intercourse, unless where it might produce that effect; in this respect the master of his natural inclinations, not the passive slave of lust. He was plain in his diet, rather satisfying the calls of hunger, than surfeiting himself by variety of delicacies. He never drank but to allay thirst; execrating the least departure from temperance, both in himself and in those about him. He was heavy to sleep, which was interrupted by frequent snoring; His eloquence was rather unpremeditated than labored; not rapid, but deliberate.”
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Matilda the Empress
Genealogy:

Descended   from Alfred the Great and Charlemagne
William I     +    Matilda ofFlanders Malcolm III
              Henry   I                                  + Matilda ofScotland
                                                      Matilda (the Empress)

Matilda was born to Henry I and Matilda of Scotland in the year 1102. On 3 April 1127, at age 25, she was given in marriage by her father to Jeffrey Plantagenet, who was Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy and son of Fulk V, the Crusade king of Jerusalem.
Geoffrey was born on 24 August 1113 and was fifteen years old at the time of his marriage, ten years younger than Matilda.

Geoffrey (the Fair) was reputed to be handsome, clever and eccentric. He had a tradition of wearing a sprig of broom (plana genista) in his cap. This plant was used on occasion as a badge and became the nickname for the family line—the Plantagenet’s.
[Image at right, Empress Matilda.]

Matilda was in Normandy with Geoffrey when her father, Henry I dies. His cousin Stephen, who was also in France, hurried back to England and claimed the throne. Matilda was ambitious and as unamiable as her father and was not going to give up the throne without a fight. In 1139, she and her half brother, Robert, Earl of Glouchester, raised an army and invaded England. Stephan was captured and was proclaimed “Lady of the English” on the battlefield. However, as she entered London, the prosperous citizens therein drove her out, subsequently her half brother was captured by Bishop Henry of Winchester. After exchanging prisoners, she returned to Normandy.

Several years later, another campaign was launched that ended in total disaster. Matilda retired to Normandy never to return.

During their twenty three years together, Matilda and Geoffrey produced three sons, of which we are descended from Henry II.

When their son, Henry II was seventeen years old, Geoffrey began transferring his power and influence to the boy. One responsibility was to pay homage to King Louis VII of France, so Geoffrey  and Henry rode to Paris. While in the royal French court, Henry met Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine (Louis VIII’s wife) who would later become his wife.

After paying homage to the king for the great fief of Normandy, Geoffrey and young Henry rode homeward in the scorching days of late summer. On the way, Geoffrey decided to take a swim in a cold river, that evening he was sweating and shivering. A few days later, on 7 September 1151, Geoffrey died at age 39 years.

[Image at left, Geoffey of Anjou, founder of the House of Plantagenet]

Matilda died sixteen years later on 10 September 1169 at age 65 years, during the thirteenth year of the reign of her son Henry II, king of England.

The Crusades
The intrusion of the Vikings and their descendants into all parts of Europe by the end of the 11th Century had done little to soften the war like temper of the military governing class. They were constantly employed in raids, wars and insurrection. Western Europe was beginning to bristle with fortifications and their territories were under attack by pagan and infidel armies.

Under Pope Urban II, a Council of the Church was convened on 27 November 1095. Pope Urban II exhorted his Christian brothers to give up fighting one another and take up arms against the Arabs and Turks.

Large bodies of warriors of all ranks from the feudal hierarchy set forth with the cross as their emblem, to set free the Holy Places for the worship of Christian pilgrims.

In 1128, Baldwin II, a veteran of the First Crusade and king of Jerusalem, sent his constable to Louis VI of Franceto choose a baron who could succeed him as king. Louis VI advised Baldwin to offer his daughter and crown to Fulk V.

Fulk V was great baron in France, being Count of Anjou and Maine, he was as powerful as the king himself. Fulk had recently married his son Geoffrey Plantagenet to Matilda the heiress of England. (Matilda was daughter of Henry I and Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III ofScotland). Fulk V had also been to the Holy Landto a pilgrimage in 1120.

Fulk V accepted the proposal and on 2 June 1129 the short coarse red haired man of forty married the young and lovely Melisende, daughter of Baldwin II. Fulk became King of Jerusalem and ruled from 1131 to 1142. He realized that he was king of a country which only existed by means of its army, an army numerically too weak even for a country which enjoyed peace on all its frontiers.

Peace is a temporal thing, the wars grew and the European invaders were slowly pushed back and out of theMideast. In the early 1300s, the Crusades were all but exhausted. The last remnant of this activity was terminated in 1348 when the Bubonic Plague, carries by Black Ship Rats were brought from China, taken from Mecca by pilgrims to Palestine and from there to the Italian trading fleet and on to Europe.
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Henry II
Genealogy:

Henry I     +     Matilda ofScotland Fulk V
      Matilda (the Empress)                 + Geoffrey of Anjou- Plantagenet
                                                    Henry   II

Henry II was born 5 March 1132 AD to Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet at LeMans, Normandy. It should be pointed out that as we refer to Henry as Henry II, that this was his official titled name, he was personally known as Kurt Mantel.

Henry II had bright reddish gold hair, gray eyes, freckles, a muscular build and a majesty of presence. He inherited his father’s violent temper and intellectual vivacity, but not his striking good looks; superficially, he was less attractive, but he could charm both men and women if he chose. His neck was somewhat thrust forward from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square. His frame was stocky with a pronounced tendency toward corpulence, due to nature rather than overindulgence. He taxed his body with excessive hardship, seldom at rest, always standing so he often wore out the whole court. He enjoyed hunting, horseback riding, traversing wastelands, penetrating forests and climbing mountains.

[At right: Tomb effigy of Henry II, Plantagenet]

During Medieval times, the marriage of great persons were arranged to provide political alliances and unite kingdoms of fiefs, indeed marrying for love was contrary to the customs of the age. With this in mind, recall that during late August, Henry and his father, Geoffrey Plantagenet had been to the French royal palace to pay homage for the great fief of Normandy. While staying at the royal court, Henry met Eleanor of Aquitaine, queen and wife to Louis VII, King of France. In early September, Geoffrey died, leaving Henry II a powerful baron in France and contender to the English throne. Eleanor did not like her husband, Louis VII and was granted a divorce by him.

On18 May 1153, Henry II married Eleanor.

Eleanor, born in 1123 was heiress of Aquitaine, Pointers and Toulouse. The consolidation of Henry’s domains in France-by marriage-was considered the boldest political stroke of the age.

Meanwhile, King Stephan’s son, Eustace was heir apparent, but soon after ravaging Archbishop Theobald’s estates, he suddenly fell sick and died.

Henry pressed King Stephan to be named his successor, Stephan accepted his nephew on the condition that he would be allowed to remain King of England for the rest of his life.

One year later, on25 October 1154, Stephan died.

[At left: Tomb effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine.]

Immediately, Henry, his wife Eleanor, Henry’s brothers and many Lords set sail across the storm tossed English Channel. On 19 December 1154, Archbishop Teobald placed the English crown on Henry II head in a ceremony at Westminster Abby.

During Henry’s reign, he ruled an empire that stretched from the Arcticto the Pyrenees, though he was a Frenchman, with foreign speech. He introduced a legal reform which replaced the old method of “Trial by ordeal”, by a “trial by jury”. He also forbade the issue of coinage by any other than the royal mints.

Henry and Eleanor produced eight children among whom were  the three sons: 1) Henry, who died rather young, 2) Richard, who became known as “Richard the Lionhearted” of the Third Crusade and 3) John, (our ancestor) against whom the fabled Robin Hood fought.

Henry’s personal life was full of tragedy.
1)  His sons were rebellious and waited for his death.
2)  When he was around forty years old, he had Eleanor imprisoned in Woodstock Castle (she was over fifty at the time), where upon he pursued his unquenchable lust for his inseparable concubine, the beauteous, Rosemund Cifford.
3)  Then too, there was a man, Thomas Becket, a clerk of humble birth who rose to be Henry’s great friend and minister. Desiring more control of the church, Henry appointed Thomas Becket to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury. Having been given this great position, Thomas regarded his first duty to the Church and resisted the Kings proposals. It is not known whether Becket’s subsequent assassination on 29 December 1170was planned or was the result of hasty words spoken by the Henry, while in anger.

After losing a battle against the King of France, who was allied with his sons, Richard and John, Henry was utterly numbed by his misfortune. His physical condition rapidly deteriorated. On 5 July, Henry was obviously dying when he received word that his son John had disappeared to join his fortunes with brother Richard and the French King. On 6 July, Henry died at Chinon, France. Some of his servants stripped his corpse after it had been ceremoniously laid in the Chapel of Chinon. One of Henry’s bastard sons covered the naked corpse with a riding cloak, found a crown, scepter and ring ( possibly from a religious stature) then carried the body to Fonteurault for burial.

Eleanor outlived Henry II by fifteen years, dying on3 March 1204; she was also buried at the Abby of Fonteurault.
An account of Henry II from Sir Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was somewhat red of face, and broad breasted; short of body and therewithal fat, which made him use much exercise, and with little meat. He was commonly called Henry Shortmantle, because he was the first that brought the use of short cloaks out of Anjou into England. Concerning endowments of mind, he was of a spirit in the highest degree generous; which made him often say, that all the world suffice not to a courageous heart. His custom was to be always in action; for which cause, if he had no real wars, he would have feigned; and would transform forces either into Normandy or Brittany, and go with them himself, where by he was always prepared of an army; and make it a schooling to his soldiers, and to himself an exercise. To his children he was both indulgent and hard; for out of indulgence he caused his son Henry to be crowned King in his own time; and out of hardness his younger sons to rebell against him. He was rather superstitious than not religious; while he showed more by his carriage toward Becket being dead than while he lived. His inconstancy was not so much that he used other women besides his wife, but that he used the affianced wife of his own son. He married Eleanor, daughter of William Duke ofGuienne, late wife of Lewis the  Seventh of France. Some say King Lewis carried her onto the Holy land, where  she carried herself not very holy, but led a licentious life; and; which is the worst kind of licentiousness, in carnal familiarity with a Turk.”
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John (Lackland)
Genealogy:

Matilda (The Empress) + Geoffrey Plantagenet William  Duke ofGuienne
                            Henry II                    + Eleanor of Aquitaine
                                                           John

John was born to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine on 24 December 1166 at Oxford, England.

He grew to a height of five foot five inches, which was not short by the standards of his century; he was a stout man and his stockiness increased with age. His effigy, thought to be a genuine likeness, shows a face in which cunning, humor and strength of will are forcefully represented. He possessed the same diabolical temper as other previous members of his family and was given to violent affections and violent hates. What John lacked in majesty, he put on good display, he spent vast sums on rich clothes and loaded himself with jewels. John replaced his brother, Richard (the Lionhearted) on the  throne, where he was crowned king on Assention Day, 27 May 1199 in Westminster Abby.
[Image at right: Tomb effigy of John Lackland]

In 1200 AD John had his childless marriage to Havisa of Gloucester annulled. He then married the young Isabelle of Angouleme on 30 August 1200. This marriage broke a political alliance that was forming between the powerful house of Angouleme and Lusignan.
Isabelle was born in 1188 making her 12-13 years old at the time of her marriage. Henry III was their first of six children.

In 1207 AD, Pop Innocent III intervened in the election of a new Archbishop of Canterbury. John refused to recognize the Papal appointment, because he objected to the Popes interference. The Pope then placed England under an Interdict in which; 1) the dying were refused Last Rights, 2) the dead had to be buried in unhallowed ground, 3) church marriages ceased, and 4) sermons were preached outdoors. This state of affairs continued for six years. Then John confiscated the property of the clergy who refused to celebrate the Mass.In 1209, the Pope excommunicated King John. The  king held out for two more years, but fearing a Pope backed French invasion,  he surrendered his kingdom in 1213.

A few days later, he received the kingdom back on the condition that he and his successors hold England and Ireland as a “feudatory” of the See of Rome for 1000 marks of silver.

[Image at left: Tomb effigy of Isabelle of Angouleme]

It was not unusual for kings to issue written declarations that they intended to keep the customs and laws as handed down by their ancestors. The Magna Charta was in such a tradition, it defined a number of feudal liberties and set limits to the use of royal power. It was not a document forced upon a reluctant monarch, by aunited kingdom. It was only after ages, when liberty had a fuller meaning, that the  Magna Charta came to symbolize, as an acceptable precedent, the spirit of the  United States Constitution.

John had a weakness for pretty women, which he treated with generosity and kindness. In his dealings with people he could be genial and generous, or he could be suspicious and sadistic. He had a knack of endowing the most solemn occasions with an element of farce.

John died at Newark-on-Trenton 19 October 1216, at the age of 49. He had been traveling up to 50 miles a day in a campaign against rebel nobles, and then attending to government business at night. After a meal of peaches and new cider, he came down with dysentery. His fever was aggravated by the loss of his personal belongings. The men in charge of transporting his belongings had taken a short cut over the sands of the Wash and were subsequently overwhelmed by the tide.

After John’s death, Isabelle remarried. Later still, she took vows in the monastery at Fontervault, where she died in 1246 at age 58 years.

An account of John, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
He was of stature indifferent, and something fat, of a sour and angry continence, and concerning his conditions, it may be said, that his nature and fortune did not well agree; for naturally he loved his ease, yet his fortune was to ever be in action. He won more of his enemies by surprise than by battle, which shows he had more of lightning in him than thunder. He was never so true of his word as when he threatened, because he meant always as cruelly as he spoke, not always as graciously; and he that would have known whet it was he never meant to perform, must have looked upon his promises. He was neither fit for prosperity nor adversity; for prosperity made him insolent, and adversity dejected; a mean fortune would have suited best with him. He was all that he was by fits; sometimes doing nothing without deliberation, and sometimes doing all upon a sudden; sometimes very religious, and sometimes scare a Christian.
His insatiableness of money was not so much that no man knew what he did with it, gotten with much noise, but spent in silence. He was but intemperate in his best temper, but when distempered with sickness, most of all, as appeared at his last when being in fever he would needs be eating of raw peaches, and drinking of sweet ale. If we look upon his words we must needs think him a worthy prince, but if  upon his actions, nothing less; for his words of piety were very many, as hath been shown before, but as for his actions, he neither came to the crown by justice, nor held it with honor, nor left it in peace. Yet having many good parts in him, and especially having his royal posterity continued to this day, we can do no less than honor his memory.”
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Henry III
Genealogy:

Henry   II     +     Eleanor ofAquitaine
                 John                         + Isabelle of Angouleme
                                             Henry   III

Henry III was born to John and Isabelle on 10 October 1207 at Winchester.
He succeeded to the throne at age 9 years, when his father John, died. He was crowned King of England on 28 October 1216.

With the death of John, those barons who had rallied to Louis of France instantly returned their allegiance to the English crown. A sense of nationality was becoming strong; remember, the English nobility were of Norman and French extraction and they had strong ties with their families on the continent.

Henry III was precociously clever and handsome, apart from a drooping eyelid (which his son Edward I inherited). He never lost a simple boyish delight in friendship, in beautiful things and grand occasions. He was also unable to keep his word, would not take advice and would to concentrate on one subject at a time. After 1232, Henry acted as his own chief secretary, chief justice and treasurer, as a result the  business of government became hopelessly disorganized.

[Image at right: Tomb effigy of Henry III]

On 14 January 1236at age 28 years, Henry married Eleanor of Provence. Eleanor was born in 1217 and was 20 at the time of their marriage. They produced ten children, amongst which was Edward I.

Provence was historically a region in S.E. France bordering the Mediterranean Sea. After the marriage, Henry further upset the barons by surrounding himself with Eleanor’s uncles and employing these foreigners as counselors and ministers. He was a spendthrift, especially where his wife’s many relations were concerned.

Henry stood for absolutism in a time when the essential forces in the country were trying to impose checks in royal power. In 1265, all the elements of future Parliament were brought together: Lords, county members (2 knights from each county) and borough members (2 citizens from each city). And so the first Parliament was summoned.

[Image at left: Sculpture of Eleanor of Provence]

Henry III confirmed the Greater Charter which heralded the transformation of feudal usage into national law respected by the king.

During his reign, Henry III rebuilt Westminster Abby with soaring arches and graceful windows, all in honor of Edward the Confessor.
Henry died 16 November 1272 and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Eleanor died nineteen years later on 24 January 1291.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was of stature but mean, yet of a well compacted body, and very strong; one of his eyelids hanging down and almost covering the blacks of his eye. For his inward endowments, it may be said, he was wiser for a man, than for a prince; for he knew better how to govern his life than his subjects. He was rather pious than devout, as taking more pleasure in hearing masses than sermons, as he said to the King of France, he had rather see his friend once than hear from him often. His mind seemed not to stand firm upon its basis, for every sudden accident put him into passion. He was neither constant in his love, not in his hate; for he never had so great a favorite whom he cast not into disgrace, nor so great and enemy whom he received not into favor. An example of both which qualities was seen in his carriage toward Hubert de Burgh, who was for a time his great favorite, yet cast out afterward in miserable disgrace, and though no man held in greater hatred, yet received afterward into grace again.
He was more desirous of money than honor, for else he never would have sold his right to the two great dukedoms of Normandy and Anjou to the king of Francefor a sum of money. Yet he was more desirous of honor than quietness, for else he would never have contended so long with his barons about their charter of  liberty, which was upon the matter, but a point of honor. His most eminent virtue, and that which made him more eminent, as being rare for princes, was his continency.”
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Edward I
Genealogy:

John     +      Isabelle ofAngouleme
     Henry   III                         + Eleanor of Provence
                                      Edward   I

Edward I was born to Henry III and Eleanor of Provence on 17 June 1239 AD atWestminster.
Edward I had reddish hair, a long hooked nose, flashing eyes and muscular limbs, because of his tall, 6 foot 2 inch height, he was nicknamed “Long shanks”. His personality stands out by the variety of his achievements, his wise choice of counsels, his mastery of law, his skills in war and his passionate interest in castle building and town planning. He had a supple, but conservative mind. He also inherited the choleric temper and vindictive cruelty so prevalent in his family.
During October 1254, at age 15, he married Eleanor of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand III, King of Castile and Leon. This marriage bore thirteen children; however, only five daughters and one son (Edward II) survived Eleanor.

[Image at left: Statues of Edward I and Eleanor of Castile]

When his father, Henry III died, Edward was away in the Holy lands on the Seventh Crusade. Returning toEngland, he was crowned King on 19 August 1272 at Westminster Abby. Coming to the throne at age 33 years., he brought a wide education in the art of ruling.

Edward I regulated the amount of land that could be held by the Church, for as landowners, clerics had not been paying their proportion of the kingdoms taxes. He further agreed that no tax should be raised without the consent of Parliament. Note, that the first Parliament was held in 1265 and only a generation later, this organization had the power of consent over taxation!

Edward was serious about the work of administration and believed that the king should live according to, and not above the law.

In 1275, the English Jews were forbidden by law to lend money at interest, by 1278 a number of these people we accused of debasing the currency and were hanged. In 1290, there was a total expulsion of the Jewish population—they did not return to England in any number until 1655.

In 1278, an ancestor from another line of our family, John DeWarrene, had dealings with Edward I. “John DeWarrene, Earl of Surrey stood before a panel of commissioners of Edward I, they asked, “By what right do you hold these lands?” and thrust forward a bundle of documents describing his vast estates. John glowered at the panel, and then, from behind his back produced a rusty old sword and threw it on the table. “Here are my title deeds!”, he cried, ”My ancestors came over with the Conqueror and won their land with this, and with it will keep them from anyone who tries to take them from me”. He turned and stalked out of the room.”
In 1290 AD, after the age of forty, Eleanor of Castile died.
During 1296, King Edward sent John DeWarrene to Scotland as his governor.

In 1299, Edward remarried and was wed to Margaret, sister to King Philip IV of France. At the same time, Edward I son, Edward II, married King Philips daughter, Isabella.

Edward led four military expeditions against the Scots, which earned him the nickname, “Hammer of the Scots”. While on yet another expedition to Scotland, Edward as an old man was being carried on a litter when he died. Edward died on 7 July 1307 at Burgh-on-the Sands near Carlisle. He was buried in Westminster Abby with others in the family line.

An account of Henry III, from Sir Richard Baker’s, A Chronicle of the Kings of England.
“He was tall of stature, higher than ordinary men by head and shoulders, and there of  called Longshanks; of a swarthy complexion, strong of body but lean; of a comely favor; his eyes in his anger, sparkling like fire; the hair of his head black and curled. Concerning his conditions, as he was in war peaceful; so in peace he was warlike, delighting especially in that kind of hunting, which is to kill stags or other wild beasts with spears. In continency of life, he was equal to his father; in acts of valor,  far beyond him. He had in himself two wisdoms, not often found in any single; both together, seldom or never: an ability of judgment in himself, and a readiness to hear judgment of others. He was not easily provoked into passion, but once in passion, not easily appeased, as was seen by his dealing with the Scotts, toward whom he showed at first patience, and at last severity. If he be censured for his many taxations, he may be justified by his well bestowing them: for never a prince laid out his money to more honor of himself, or good of his kingdom. His great unfortunateness was in his greatest blessing; for of four sons which he had by his wife Queen Eleanor, three of them died in his own lifetime, who were worthy to have out lived him; and the fourth outlived him, who was worthy never to have been born.
.

Edward II
Genealogy:

Henry III    +    Eleanor ofProvence Ferdinand  III
           Edward I                       + Isabel of Castile
                                         Edward II

Edward II was born to Edward I (Longshanks) and Queen Eleanor of Castile on 25 April 1284 AD at Caernarvon,Wales.

Edward grew to be a strange man, a mixture of vigor and effeminacy. He took no interest in the affairs of the kingdom and surrounded himself with unworthy friends. His character was in complete contrast to that of his father, he was feckless, lazy, and extravagant; passionately interested in the breeding of horses and dogs and happy in the company of grooms. He loved music and stage plays, but was quite unfit to be a monarch.

In 1299, at the age of 15, Edward II married Isabel, daughter of Louis IV, King of France. Their union produced two sons and two daughters. One son became Edward III.
[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward II.]

The twenty three year old Edward II was with his father on a military campaign against Scotland when the elder Edward died. As Edward lay dying, he asked the younger Edward to continue on with the army and defeat the Scots, before they became stronger. Young Edward II promised to see the battle through, but after his father died he returned to London and disbanded the army.

Edward II was crowned King of England in 1307 at Westminster Abby.

Years later, after the Scots had retaken nearly every English castle in their country, Edward gathered an army of 100,000 men.
Even though the English outnumbered the Scots 2 to 1, the English were slaughtered. You see, Edward spent his heavily armored troops in an attack across a bog. Just beyond the bog, the Scots had dug trenches and covered these with brush so as to stop cavalry. His heavily armored men were then caught in a bog and in the trenches as a hail of Scottish arrows and spears cut them down. Then a wave of Scots descended from their hill position with swords and battle axes to decimate their tattered ranks. So terrible was the defeat that Edward II panicked, broke his camp and fled from the field, leaving the army to its fate.

In 1324 Edward failed to pay homage for his territories in France where upon they were declared forfeit and subject to French rule.

During these times: The population of the English kingdom had risen from about 2 million in 1066 to around 4 million. The population was scattered in villages across a wild and wooded land. Among these villages were the stone manor houses of the well to do, which were some 200 years old and of course the castles of the very rich. Salt was precious and its possession marked the line between persons of high and low degree. In the early 1300s the invention of gunpowder reached England from China. By 1326, the earliest recorded gun, a  vase shaped metal mortar was drawn in a manuscript.
[Image at right, statue of Isabella of France, wife of Edward II]

By 1327, Queen Isabel was openly living with Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and Edward II chief enemy. Together, Isabel and Mortimer overwhelmed Edward’s forces and persuaded Parliament to depose Edward II in favor of his young son, Edward III. Parliament approved and Edward II was imprisoned at Berkley Castle, where he was half starved and horribly murdered on 22 September 1327 at age 43. Edward II was buried at Gloucester Cathedral.
For the next three years, Roger Mortimer and Queen Isabela were political “guardians” of England, ruling through Edward III.

An account of Edward II, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“Thus was King Edward murdered, in the year 1327, on 22 of September. He was known to be of good and courteous nature, though not of the most pregnant wit. And albeit in his youth he fell into certain light crimes, and after by the company and counsel of evil men, was induced into more heinous vices, yet it was thought that he purged the same by repentance. He had surely good cause to repent his former trade of living, for by his indiscreet and wanton misgovernance, there were headed and put to death during his reign (by judgment of law) to the number of 28 barons and knights.

All these mischief’s and many more happened not only to him, but also to the whole state of the realm, in that he wanted judgment and prudent discretion to make choice and sage and discreet counselors, receiving those in favor, that abused the same to their private gain and advantage, for which they only sought, in so much that by their covetous rapine, spoil, and immoderate ambition, the hearts of the common people and nobility were quite estranged from the dutiful love and obedience which they ought to have showed to their sovereign.

But now to make an end of the life as well as the reign of King Edward the Second, I find that after he was deposed his kingly honor and title, at length the brought him back again in a secret manner unto the castle of Berkeley, where whilst he remained the Queen would send unto him courteous and loving letters with apparel and other such things, but she would not once come near to visit him, bearing him in hand that she durst not, for fear of the people’s displeasure, who hated him so extremely. How beit, she with the rest of her confederates had laid a plot of their device for his dispatch, though by painted words she pretended a kind remorse to him in his distress.

Where upon when they saw that such practices would not serve their turn, they came suddenly one night into the chamber where he lay in bed fast asleep. And with heavy featherbeds or a table being cast upon him, they kept him down and withal out into his fundament an horn, and through the same they thrust up into his body a hot spit through the pipe of a trumpet a plumber’s instrument of iron made very hot, the which passing up into his entrails, and being rolled to and fro, burnt the same, but so as no appearance of any wound or hurt outwardly might be once perceived. His cry did move many within the castle and town of Berkeley to compassion, plainly hearing him utter a wailful noise, as the tormentors were about to murder him, so that diverse being awakened there with prayed heartedly to God to receive his soul, when they understood by his cry what the matter meant.”
.

Edward III
Genealogy:

Edward I     +     Isabel ofCastile Louis IV King ofFrance
              Edward II                         + Isabel, French Princess
                                              Edward III

Edward III was born to Isabel, the French princess and Edward II in 1312 at Windsor Castle.

In 1327, when Edward III was 15, his father was forced to abdicate the throne by  Queen Isabel, her lover Roger Mortimer, Earl of March and a consenting Parliament. Later that year, Edward II was murdered and the young Edward III crowned King of England at Westminster Abbey.

For the nest three years Edward III was a figurehead, while the power of the throne was wielded by Mortimer and Isabel. The young Edward had a very different nature than his father; he rebelled against the tyranny of Mortimer. In 1330 while staying at Nottingham Castle, the 18 year old King gathered his trusted followers. They crept up to the room of his mother and her lover, Mortimer, entered and arrested them at sword point.

[Image at left, tomb effigy of Edward III]

Roger Mortimer was tried, found guilty of organizing the murder of Edward II and was immediately hanged. Isabel was honorably confined at Rising Castle for the rest of her life, where she died.

Edward was tall and handsome, with bright golden red hair and penetrating eyes. He had charming manners, a ready wit, extraordinary energy and determination.

Edward married his second cousin, Philippa of Hainault, on 24 January 1328 at York.
Philippa was described as, “tall and upright, wise, gay, humble and pious, liberal and courteous, adorned in her time with all noble virtues, beloved of God and mankind.” Their marriage produced twelve children, consisting of seven sons and five daughters. We are descended from their seventh son, Thomas Plantagenet,  who was also known as, Thomas of Woodstock.

Edward III set about reviving the glories of his grandfather Edward I (Longshanks). He renewed the rift with Scotland and defeated the Scots in 1333.
He was a realist sovereign and a good administrator; taxes came in freely, especially when waging popular war.
He made the  use of the longbow compulsory on all small landowners, at the same time making it illegal to play tennis, bowl, skittles and other games. Learning archery became the only national pastime. In 1346, with prosperity at home, Edward III landed in France with 1000 ships, 4000 knights and 10,000 English and Welsh bowmen. And thus began “The Hundred Years War”.

[Image at right, tomb effigy of Philippa of Hainault.]

At the onset of the war, the English and French viewed each other differently. The English hated the French, due to ancestral memories which dated back to the “Conquest”; however, the French did not hate the English. Because of the attitude of his countrymen, the French king could not muster taxes from his indifferent villagers.

The English won battle after battle with their well trained archers which used the long bow. The long bow, a relatively new weapon, stood over seven feet tall and had a range over 300 yards. It’s arrows could penetrate chain mail or sheet armor and the archers could shoot six arrows per minute, making it more efficient than the crossbow. And so by using his men, “encased in steel” as shock troops and a large compliment of long bow archers, Edward beat the French.

In one of the earliest battles, at Ciecy, the French outnumbered the English 3 to 1. When the French knights and infantry assaulted the English archers, they were simply slaughtered.

In 1346, Edward’s eldest son, The Black Prince, stood with eight thousand troops against a French army of eighty thousand soldiers. At the end of the battle, eight thousand French troops were killed and Poitiers had fallen to the English—such was the power of the long bow.
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[Drawing at left, Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III and  Philippa of Hainault, from which my family line descends]

Later, in 1358 the English captured the important coastal city of Calais, which remained under English control for 200 years.

Before long, the French army refused to fight the superior English longbow in the open and so retired to their strongholds. Since the English were not equipped for siege warfare, they wandered around the countryside and campaigns became long drawn out affairs.

In 1347, Bubonic Plague broke out inEurope. During 1349, plague reduced the English population from 4 million to 2.6 million. Labor became scare, workers demanded higher wages, prices went up…
During 1348, Edward founded “The Order of the Garter”, which consisted of two groups of twelve knights. This was the most famous order of Chivalry.
On 15 August 1369, Philippa died of dropsy. After her death, a terrible decline took place in the character of the king.

In his old age, Edward III became senile. He died 21 June 1377, at age 65 in Richmond. He died deserted by his friends and despised by his people, who had forgotten his former greatness. Edward III was buried at Westminster Abbey.

An account of Edward III, from Sir Rafael Holingshed, Chronicles of England.
“This king, besides his other gifts of nature, was aided greatly by his seemly personage. He had  a provident wit, sharp to conceive and understand: he was courteous and gentle, a man of great temperance and sobriety, of body well made, of a convenient stature, as neither of the height nor lowest sort: of face fair and manlike, eyes bright and shinning and in age bald, but so it was rather a seemingliness to those his ancient years than and disfiguring to his visage; in knowledge of martial affairs very skillful, as the enterprise and worthy acts by him achieved do sufficiently witness.

Examples of bounteous liberality, and great clemency he shewed many; so that in manner he alone amongst all other kings was found to be one, subject to none, or at least to very light and small faults. But yet he was not void of evil haps: for whereas, during the term of forty years space he reigned in high felicity, and as one happy in all doings; so in the rest of his time that followed, he felt a wonderful change in fortune. For such is the state of this world, seldom doth prosperity continue, and guide the stern of our worldly doings. For in the first years of his reign, after he once began to govern of himself, he recovered that which had been lost in Scotland, buy great victories obtained against his adversaries, subduing the country on each hand, so that he placed governors, bestowed offices, lands and livings in that realm at his pleasure.

But finally the thing that most grieved him, was the loss of that most noble gentleman, his dear son Prince Edward (The Black Prince),in whom was found all parts that might be wished in a worthy governor.  By this and other mishaps that caused to him now, in his old years, might seem to come to pass for a revenge of his disobedience showed to his father in usurping against him, although it might be said, that he did it by constraint, and through the advice of others. But whether remorse here of, or of his other offenses moved him, it may seem that the consideration of this world’s mutability, which he tried in full, caused him to have in mind the life in the world to come, and therefore of a  pure devotion founded in the church and college of Saint Stephan at Westminster, and another at Cambridge called ‘King’s Hall’.”

An account of Philippa of Hainault: report made by Bishop Stapleton on the prospective bride of Edward III, 1319. From the book, Every One A Witness-The Plantagenet Age.
“Inspection and Description of the Daughter of the Count of Hainault, Philippa by name.
The Lady whom we saw has not uncomely hair, bewix blue-black and brown. Her head is clean shaped; her forehead high and broad, and standing somewhat forward. Her face narrows between the eyes, and the lower part of her face is still more narrow and slender than the forehead. Her eyes are blackish brown and deep. Her nose is fairly smooth and even, save that it is somewhat broad at the tip and also flattened, and yet it is no snub nose. Her nostrils are also broad, her mouth fairly wide. Her lips somewhat full, and especially the lower lip. Her teeth which have fallen and grown again are white enough, but the rest are not so white. Her lower teeth project a little beyond the upper; yet this is but little seen. Her ears and chin are comely enough. Her neck, shoulder, and all her body are well set and unmaimed; and nought is amiss so far as a man may see. Moreover, she is brown of skin all over, and much like her father; and in all things she is pleasant enough, as it seems to us. And the damsel will be of age nine years [3] on St. Johns day next to come, as her mother saith. She is neither too tall nor too short for such an age; she is of fair carriage, and well taught in all that becometh her rank, and highly esteemed and well beloved of her father and mother and all her meinie, in so far as we could inquire and learn the truth.”


[1] The Norman People, Originally published 1874, London, England, reprinted by The Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, MD 1975.
[2]  Reference sources for the generations William I, “The Conqueror”, through Thomas Plantagenet, son of Edward III.
•   The Royal Heraldry of England by J.H. and R. V. Pinches, © 1974, Charles E. Tuttle Co., Rutland, VT.
•   The Age of Chivalry, by The National Geographic Society, © 1969
•   The Crowned Lions-The Early Plantagenet Kings by Caroline Bingham, © 1978, David and Charles London,England
•   The Crusades by Zoe Oldenborg, © 1966, Random House Inc.
•   The Hollow Crown by John Barton and Joy Law, © 1971, Hamish Hamilton, Ltd.,England.
•   Americans of Royal Descent by Charles H. Browning, J. B, Lippincott Co.,Philadelphia,PA.
[3] Philippa of Hainault married Edward III nine years after the ‘Inspection and Description’ was made, when she reached approximately 18 years of age.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Normans

Old World: The Saxons

(My family in history/Old world: The Saxons)

More than a thousand years before the birth of Christ, Phoenician seamen were enduring a four month, coast hugging voyage, in return to their lands with valued tin ingots, from the remote Cassiteridees Islands—islands which were located somewhere near Spain.
Over the centuries, commerce continued and increased between southern Europe and these islands, as navigators returned with tin, lead, slaves, skins, a superior bred of hunting dog, some gold and silver and an inferior grade of pearls.
To the Greeks, this distant land and its metals became an object of scientific inquiry. Aristotle, the first Greek historian to mention the British Isle by name, said they consisted of Albion and Ierne (Ireland).

The people of the ancient British Isle belonged to the same great national family as those found in Gaul and Belgium, all were Celts. The Franks and Britons were tied together intellectually by the common religion of Druidism.

On 26 August 55 BC, as part of an expansion of the Roman Empire, Caius Julius Caesar landed in Britain with infantry of the 7th and 10th Legions. After several close battles and the subsequent submission of the British tribes, the Roman Legions withdrew.
A hundred years passed during which time British imports and exports passing through Gaul, had a small tax levied on them by Rome; however, the islands were not occupied by the Roman military.
In 43 AD, the Roman Emperor, Claudia sent four legions to Britain which thoroughly subdued the tribes and began a military occupation that was to last nearly four centuries.
Just prior to 406 AD, the Roman legions withdrew from Britain to reinforce garrisons in Gaul. With the occupying force gone, Britain suffered increased invasions from Picts (Scotland) and (Scots) Ireland.
[At left: Concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 400AD]

The beleaguered Britons appealed to the Consul commanding the Roman forces in Gaul, for protection, but none was forthcoming; whereupon, the Britons defended themselves and drove the invaders from their territory. After their victory, the Britons fell upon one another in a civil war.

The civil war was followed by a pestilence and yet another series of barbarian raids. Pict and German raiding was occurring all along the east coast and Saxon piracy was spreading into the English Channel.
Before the end of the 4th Century, irregular units of German soldiers and probably their communities were being given licensed settlements along the east coast as protection against northern invaders.
[At left: Archaeological concept drawing of a Saxon village ca 4th-5th Century AD]
Between 446 and 454, a British tyrant extended an invitation to the Saxons to settle in the south of the country and form a coastal defense of the land. Three ships companies of Saxons came and were soon followed by a larger force. Eventually a dispute over their relations developed and the Saxons revolted, their militia ravaged the island to the western sea. Towns of the provinces they raided, were destroyed, and life in southern Britain became utterly unbearable, finally the mercenaries returned to their own country.
East of Britain, across the North Sea was Jutland (now known as Denmark). The northern portion of Jutland was occupied by a people known as the Jutes, while in the southern portion of the peninsula lived the Angles.

Below the Angles, along the neck of the peninsula lived the Saxons. By the 3rd Century AD the expanding Saxon territory in Europe extended southwest to the Weser River. Further south, extending from the Ems River to as far down the coast as the Rhine, were a people known as the Frisians.
The Frisians and Saxons shared a common form of language, so that when either appeared in Britain, they were commonly described under the wider and vaguer name—Saxon.
The Saxon, Angles and Jutes were a confederation of people collectively caller Suevi. The Suevi were associated with six other small nations in a cult that worshipped the Mother Earth Goddess Nerthus, whose sanctuary was on an island neighboring Jutland.
During the early part of the 6th Century, the Suevi began a migration to Britain where they encountered other people from their confederation and religion, people who had previously been invited to settle in Britain to form a coastal defense. Among those who came was a Saxon earldorman (Chieftain) named Serdic. Cerdic is an ancestor on the Saxon line of this family tree and a key figure in bringing Anglo-Saxon rule to the British Isle.
What follows then is part of our family heritage. [1]

Traditional forefathers of the Gewissae Race  And Saxon Ancestry of the Kings of Wessex, England
Woden Whose son was
Baeldaeg  “
Braud
Freothogar
Wig
Gewis
Esla
Elesa Whose son was
Cerdic, The Saxon

Cerdic, The Saxon
In the year 495 AD, the Saxon ealdorman Cerdic and his son Cynric, landed with five ships on the southern coast of Hampshire, England. Reaching land, Cerdic posted his Saxons in a close order of battle before the ships, where they maintained their ground against repeated attacks by the islanders, until the approach of night. Having secured a position on land, Cerdic founded a settlement and went on to fight the Britons at Sharford.
It is most probable that through war or negotiation, Cerdic made himself Lord of the West Saxon settlements and distributed his followers among the existing settlers.
In 508 Cerdic and Cynric killed the British King Natauleod along with 5000 of his soldiers.
In 519 Cerdic became the first recorded King of the West Saxons and ancestor to the royal English line. Cerdic ruled for fifteen years until his death in 534 AD.

Cynric
Cynric, son of Cerdic ascended to the throne upon his father’s death in 534. During the year 552 AD, Cynric fought the Britons at Old Sarum and put them to flight. Thus began the westward expansion of the kingdom of Wessex.
Cynric had four known children, of which this branch of the family tree descended from Ceawlin.
Having ruled for twenty six years, Cynric died in the year 560 AD – sixty five years after landing in Britain with his father.

Ceawlin
Ceawlin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 560. Ceawlin had one known son, Cuthwine.
In 577, Ceawlin and son Cuthwine captured the cities of Gloucester, Cireucester and Bath which brought West Saxon rule to the western sea.
The center of the powerful West Saxon kingdom of the late 6th Century laid in a region immediately south and west of the Middle Thames River.
In his day, the Holy Pope Gregory sent them baptism and Columba the Mass Priest came to them”.
In 591 the Saxons slaughtered a great number of Britons at Wanborough. Soon afterwards, Ceawlin was driven from his kingdom where he died in 593 AD.

Continued pedigree by generation:

Cuthwine Father of Cutha. “AD 577. This year Cuthwine and Ceawlin fought with the Britons, and slew three kings…and took from them three cities, Gloucester,   Cireucester, and Bath.”  Cuthwine did not rule and was killed in battle during the year 584.
Cutha Cutha did not rule,he was the father of Ceowald.
Ceowald Father of Cenred. His brother King Cynegis was baptized in 635 by Bishop Birinus at Dorchester. Ceowald visited Romein 688. He did not rule.
Cenred Father of King Ina and Ingild. Was Under King of Sussexin 692.
Ingild Father of Eoppa and brother of King Ina of the West Saxons. Ingild died during the year 718AD.
Eoppa Eoppa   did not rule, he was father of Eafa.
Eafa Eafa   did not rule, he was father of Eahlmund.
Eahlmund “AD 784. At this time reigned Elmund,   King of Kent,   the father of Egbert…” Eahlmund   granted land inKent   to the Abbot of Reculver.
Egbert Egbert   was the representative of an ancient dynasty whose line had passed through a couple centuries of relative obscurity. The story of Egbert and his   descendants follow, below.

Egbert
Egbert was born in the year 775AD.
King Offa of Mercia, with the approval of Charlemagne, exiled Egbert for three years (beginning in 789) in Frankish territory.
Egbert married Lady Raedburga. Their union produced two children. Of which we are descended from Aethelwulf. The male line of kings, from Egbert to Edward the Confessor and the female line has persisted to present time.
Egbert united the Seven English kingdoms by annexing Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Essex and Merciato the already expanded Wessex. He also formed the basis of English resistance to further Danish invasion. Egbert was king of Wessex from 802-827 and the first king of all ofEngland from 827-836. He died after19 November 839.
[Image at left. King Egert grandfather of Alfred the great.]

.
Aethelwulf

Genealogy:

                                          Eahlmund Oslac,  Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf
                                                Egbert           + Lady Raedburga
                                                       Aethelwulf

Aethelwulf [2]  married Lady Osburh, their son and heir was Alfred (The Great). Lady Osburh was described as a “most pious woman, noble in mind and noble in race”. She was daughter of Oslac, a great nobleman of Jute descent, and Royal Cup Bearer to Aethelwulf. Lady Osburh’s line of descent reached back to Cerdic The Saxon’s nephews.
Aethelwulf reigned as Under King of Kent for several years prior to his father’s death in 839, then ascended to the kingship of the chief kingdom. He seemed to have been a religious and unambitious man for whom politics were an unwelcome consequence of his rank. In 855, after reigning for 16 years, he undertook a pilgrimage to Rome where he spent 12 months. On the return trip to England, he stayed at the court of Charles the Bald, King of the West Franks, from early summer to autumn 856. Aethelwulf died 13 January 858. [Image standing at right, Aethelwulf)

Alfred The Great
Genealogy:

Egbert   +    Lady Raedburh Oslac,   Royal Cup Bearer
Aethelwulf                                 + Lady Osburh
                                      Alfred The Great

Alfred was born at Wantage, Berkshirein 849 AD.
He had a natural intellectual curiosity stimulated by the experience of two journeys to Rome before he was seven years old. He was surrounded in his youth by the influences of a cultivated home where he learnt to know and value the national treasure of folk song. This developed in him the appreciation, love and taste for beauty, but he was never satisfied with the life of a  young West Saxon noble.
In 868 at age 19, he married Lady Ealhswith (Alswitha), daughter of Earl Aethelred. Their marriage produced five children, of which my family descended from both Edward and daughter Aelfthryth. Son, Edward, became the next King of England in this line.
Daughter, Aelfthryth, married Baldwin II, Count of Flanders. Aelfthryth and Baldwin were ancestors of Matilda of Flanders, wife of William The Conqueror.
Alfred’s son-in-law, Baldwin II, was a descendant of Charles, Duke of Ingelheim, a son of Charlemagne and his wife, Lady Juliana. Alfred ascended to the throne ”after Easter in 871” and was crowned in Winchesterat age 23 years.
Much of Alfred’s reign was spent fighting the invading Norsemen or Danes. Out of necessity, he built a small number of large, 60 oar ships with high sides. There vessels, which were twice the size as the enemies, were used to engage and defeat the Danes while they were still at sea.
He was a scholar- and kept a notebook “in his bosom” in which he jotted down prayers, genealogy and other information ‘he may need for future use’. He invented the lantern for his personal use to offset the problem of candles blowing out while he was trying to read.

Alfred wrote or compiled the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, which was the first written history in any modern language. During his reign, he founded the British navy, organized the militia, compiled a code of laws, built schools and monasteries and invited scholars to live at his court. He was a good scholar and translated many books.

No other king of the Dark Ages explored the literature of Christian antiquity to explain;
•  The problem of fate and free will.
•  The ordering of the world.
•  The ways in which a man comes to knowledge
He was an ambitious man and for all his idealism he was determined to leave some material traces of his passage through the world. Alfred wrote, “It has ever been my will to live worthily while I lived, and after my death to leave them that should come after me my memory in good works.”
His mind seems to have been more constructive than creative. His scientific spirit and intense desire for knowledge, combined with the instinct, for applying knowledge to practical ends.

Alfred wrote, “No man can prove his full powers, his ‘craft’, nor ‘direct and steer’ authority without tools and materials…These are a king’s materials and the tool with which he governs: he must have a well peopled land; he must have men of prayer, “bedesmen” and men of war and men of work…without these tools no king can prove his full powers (craft). For his materials also, he must have sustenance for the three orders, his tools…land to dwell in, and gifts, and weapons, and meat, and ale, and clothes and what ever else the three orders need. Without these he cannot keep the tools, and without these tools he cannot do any of those things which he has been bidden to do.”

All to him was symbolical—the sea and the shipping, the starry sky at night. The common incidents of rural life and the routine at court. His imagination was quick and vivid, but his intellectual powers were, probably richer and fuller than his emotional capacity. He speaks much of friendship, but little of earthly love. He touches highly on passion only when he faced and contemplated the mysteries of the spiritual world.

He believed that a life without knowledge and reflection was unworthy of respect.
After thirty years of rule, Alfred died on 28 October 901, his wife Ealhswith died about 905AD.

Edward The Elder
Genealogy:

Aethelwulf   +   Lady Osburh Earl   Aethelred
                         Alfred   (The Great)       + Lady   Ealhswith
                                                Edward   (The Elder)

Edward was born in 875 [3]. He was married three times producing fifteen children. In 919, he was married to (3) Lady Eadyifu (Elgiva), daughter of Sigehelm, Earl of Kent. We are descended from their son, Edmund I and their daughter, Egiva, who married Charles III of France.

Edward conquered and annexed Danish colonies on the island, thereby enlarging the English kingdom to twice the size it had been under his father, Alfred.
He died at Fardon on Dee,17 July 924, after putting down an uprising of Meracins and Welsh. Lady Eadgifu died many years later in 961. [Image at right Edward the 1st, The Elder]

Edmund The Magnificent
Genealogy:

Alfred   + Lady Ealhswith Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                                 Edward   (The Elder)      + Lady   Eadgifu
                                                     Edmund (The Magnificent)

Edmund was born during the year 920 AD. He married Lady St. Alfgifu, a union which produced two children of which we are descended from their son Edgar.
Edmund succeeded his brother to the throne in the autumn of 939, at age 18. During his short reign he proved to be both warlike and politically effective.
Edmund was killed in May 946 at age 26, having been on the throne only seven years. His death occurred while he was defending his steward against a criminal who had returned from banishment. [Black and white image at right, Edmund the Magnificent]

Edgar  The Peaceful
Genealogy:

Edward   +   Lady Eadgifu Sigehelm,   Earl ofKent
                       Edmund (The Magnificent)      + Lady   St. Alfgifu
                                                   Edgar (The Peaceful)

Edgar was born in the year 943. He was married three times and produced four children. His second marriage in 965 was to Lady Ealfthyth (Elfrida) who was born in 945, daughter of Ordgar, Earl of Devon. Their union produced a son named Aethelred, whom we are descended from.
Edgar did not rule until 959. During his reign he maintained a state of peace which had been established in England by earlier kings.
He ruled that the kingdoms coinage bear the name of the moneyer responsible for its quality and the name of the place it was struck.
Edgar gave unreserved support to the men that were creating the environment of a new English culture, by transformation of English monastic life.
He deferred coronation until 873, when he was thirty years old in order to reach the full maturity of mind and conduct. He used prominent churchmen in the Coronation ceremony and for the solemn anointing, thus began the continuous history of the English Coronation. The coronation and anointing by religious leaders created in the kingship a corporate body with certain rights and privileges, which were to have continuity throughout the monarchy.
After Coronation, Edgar sailed to Chester where six kings promised to serve him by sea and land. As a symbol of their fealty, the six kings and five princes rowed him on the DeeRiver from his palace to the Church of St. Johns and back again while he held the rudder.
Edgar-The Peaceful died two years later on 8 July 975, His second wife Ealfthryth survived him and died in 1000 AD.

Aethelred II – The Redeless
Genealogy:

Edmund   I   +   Lady St. Alfgifu Ordgar, Earl ofDevon
                            Edgar   (The Peaceful     + Lady   Ealfthryth
                                            Aethelred II-The Redeless

Beginning with Aethelred’s generation, this old West Saxon royal line was to experience problems, which would continue until the male line expired.
King Edgar had two sons. His eldest son and heir to the throne, Edward was born to his first wife, Aethelflaed, in 962. His next surviving son, Aethelred II, my ancient ancestor, was born to his second wife Ealfthryth in 968. When King Edgar died on 8 July 975, his eldest son Edward, then thirteen years old, ascended to the throne.
Almost three years later, on 16 march 978, at age 16, the young King Edward rode to his younger brother’s home for a visit. The household servants came into the courtyard to greet him, but as he dismounted they fell upon him and stabbed him to death. Aethelred II was only ten years old at the time of his brothers murder and it is not believed that he had any knowledge of, or a hand in the conspiracy.
Aethelred II ascended to the throne, was crowned a month later and began his reign in an atmosphere of suspicion which destroyed the prestige of the crown for his entire life.
In 985 he married Lady Alflaed, daughter of Thored. We are descended from their son Edmund Ironside  as well as from Aethelred’s daughter Elgiva.
Aethelred II behaved like a man who was never quite sure of himself, he was ineffective in war, his acts of spasmodic violence and air of mistrust from his nobles suggest a weak king.

On one St. Brice Day (November 13), he ordered all the Danish men in England to be killed. This was clearly an impossible order to carry out because in over a third of England, most of the towns were primarily peopled by Danes, there were also many Danes living throughout the rest of the country. However, in some towns the slaughter was carried out, this fratricide was not to be soon forgotten by the English Danes. During the purge, Gunwhild, the sister of King Swein of Denmark, and a hostage in England, was put to death.
King Swein launched an attack against England to revenge his sister’s death. The English Danes backed King Swein and the English nobles would not rally to Aethelred II because of mistrust.
In 992, the English land and sea forces were assembled in hopes of engaging the Danish invasion. However, the English earldorman to whom the militia was entrusted, sent word to the Danes then absconded from the army the night before the battle should have been fought.
King Swein kept attacking without pause.
By 1010AD, there was not an English leader who was willing to assemble an army, but each fled as best he could.
The rein of Aethelred II—The Redeless (Redelss meaning, the Unwisely Counseled) was an age of degeneracy marked by feebleness and treachery among its leaders.
Aethelred II died 23 April 1016 in London as the Danish army and navy closed in on the city.

Edmund Ironside
Genealogy:

Edgar   +    Lady Ealfthryth Thored
                        Aethelred   II                 + Lady   Alfflaed
                                                Edmund Ironside

Edmund was born during the year 989.
He married Ealdyth, widow of Sigeferth of Denmark. They produced two sons, we are descended from their son Edward.
Edmund was in London with his father when the harried King died. Edmund succeeded to the English throne at age 27, on 23 April 1016. As the Danish army and navy put London to siege. After a time, the Danes began to run out of the necessary supplies required for a siege, where with they began to withdraw from London. With the Danes ranks broken, Edmund swept out of the city and defeated the siege army.
A short while later, in another battle, not far from London his army was defeated and Edmund became a fugitive. Unlike his father, Edmund was a popular person, the people backed him and he was able to put together another army.
After a successful campaign against nobles who were giving allegiance to the Danes, he was given the subkingdom of Wessex, while the rest of the country was to be under Danish control.
On St. Andrews Day (30 November), Edmund was murdered by an assassin.

Edward – the Exile
Genealogy:

Aethelred   II    +    Lady Alfflaed Thored
                     Edmund Ironside             + Lady Sigeferth
                                              Edward the Exile

Edward was born during the year 1016, the same year that his grandfather died and his father was assassinated. Upon Edmund’s death, Cnut the Dane began eliminating the royal family. Baby Edward and his brother were whisked away to hide in Hungary where Cnut’s agents could not reach them.

Edward-The Exile, Prince of England lived essentially his entire life in favor at the Royal Court of Hungary, where he married Agatha daughter of Henry II, King of Hungary. They produced three children, 1) Edgar the Aetheling, 2) Margaret (my ancestor) and 3) Christia, who became a nun.

In 1054 King Edward the Confessor sat on the throne of England, he was old and his life of asceticism had left him no children as heirs to the throne. During this same year Edward the Exile was cleared for his return to England to assume the throne. Prince Edward remained in Hungary for two more years with his life long friends and relatives before returning in 1056. Soon after returning, in 1057, but before he had come to the royal court, Edward the Exile died. His son Edgar- The Aetheling, was too young to be considered as a possible successor to King Edward the Confessor.
Meanwhile, when King Edward the Confessors health failed, Harold Hardrada, who conceived himself heir to Cnut’s Kingdom became governor of England.
On 5 January 1066, Edward the Confessor died. The next day, Harold was crowned King of England. Harold ruled England from 6 January until his death at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066, when the English army was defeated by the Norman’s—led by William I – The Conqueror.

Margaret
Genealogy:

Edgar, King of England  ↓ Richard I- Duke of Normandy, whose children were Emma and Richard II ↓
1) Lady Afflead + Aethelred II-The Redeless +↙                               ↘ 2)   Emma Richard II, Duke of Normandy  ↓
Edmund Ironside Edward the Confessor Robert I- The Magnificent ↓
Edward the Exile (no heirs) William I- The Conqueror   ↓ + Matilda of Flanders
        Margaret   + ↓   Malcolm III-King of Scotts ↙          Henry   I-King of England  (age 32)
          Matilda of Scotland (age 21) +  Henry I

* Matilda of Scotland married Henry I- King of England–this pedigree descends through the Norman line as follows below.

Margaret was born in 1045 AD.
In 1068-69, at about age 23, Margaret married Malcolm III Canmore, King of Scotts. Malcolm was born in 1031 and was King for 35 years, from 1058 to 1093. Their union produced a daughter, Matilda of Scotland .
Malcolm III was killed 13 November 1093. His wife Margaret, a very religious woman dies three days later on 16 November 1093.
[Color image at right, St. Margaret, daughter of Edward the Exile and wife of Malcom III King of Scotts.

Matilda of Scotland
Matilda of Scotland, grew and married Henry I- Beauclerk, King of England and son of William I-The Conqueror. Their marriage tied the Norman and English lines together and from this we are descended.
[At left, Matilda daughter of Margaret and Malcolm III, wife of Henry I.] This genealogy is continued in (My family in history/Old World: The Normans)


[1] References:
•  A History of England Under the Anglo Saxon Kings, first pub. 1845 by J. M. Lappenburg, Kennikat Press, NY. In two volumes.
•  Anglo-Saxon England by F. M. Stenton, 3rd Edition, © 1971, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
•  An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England by Peter Hunt Blair © 1959, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
•  Alfred the Great: Maker of England by B. A. Lees © 1915, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, NY
[2] Ancient English names prefixed with “Ethel”, signified the honorary title of “noble.”
[3] The fashion of keeping birthdays does not appear to have been observed in the 9th Century. It mattered little when or where a ruler was born, on the other hand it mattered a great deal who his father was and if he came from royal stock.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: The Saxons

Old World: Irish & Scottish

(My family in history/Old world: Irish & Scottish)

During the Old Stone age, a land bridge extended between Denmark and Britain, and between Britain and Ireland. Many Pleistocene animals passed over this terrain bridge from the continent to Ireland, among which were the mammoth, hippopotamus, grizzly bear, brown bear, reindeer, the great Irish deer, red deer, wild boar, horse, fox and badger; not found in this ancient landscape were hyena, saber tooth tiger or Man.

Over the eons, the land bridge sank…

During the late Neolithic period, two peoples came by boat to settle inErin, these were;

•  The long headed, light eyed and fair skinned, Northern Europeans, and
•  The long headed, dark eyed and dark skinned, Southern Europeans.

From these two races was derived the bulk of the population of Erin, prior to the coming of the Gael.

The Gael or Milesians were a tall people, with long skulls and red, yellow gold or flaxen colored hair, straight noses and rosy white skin. They originally came from theNetherlands, the Elbeand Holstein and from recesses in the Baltic coast.

But the direct ancestors of the Gael, who first fought to settle in Erin, migrated from northwestern Europe to Spain, where they flourished—until the latter years in the life of a chieftain named, Breogan. And it is through Breogan that we follow the Irish and Scottish pedigree to Matilda of Scotland, wife of Henry I, King of England and toward the present [2].

[The interlacing lines of the Celtic Knot stands for “no beginning, no ending, the continuity of everlasting love and binding together or intertwining of two souls or spirits.”  The Celts did not record the meanings behind the designs they recreated  but scholarly speculation is that the symbols represented basic tenants of life, mankind and spirituality. The continual looping of the designs suggests themes of eternity and interconnectedness. Interwoven figures of people and animals may have represented the interdependent nature of life.  Two of more knots laced together symbolized lovers, God and man, and so on. Some ancient Celtic symbols have changed in meaning over time, having been influenced by the introduction of Christianity and the influence of other cultures. Circle knot represent eternity or the eternal cycle of life, death and rebirth. Triangles represent the threefold dominion of earth, sea, and sky or God, Son, and Holy Spirit. Square knots are shield knots, symbols of protection. Interlaced animals and men represent relationship, or emphasize the interdependence of mankind and nature. <http://www.celticcolours.com/celtic-symbols-and-meanings.aspx>]

In ancient times Ireland was known to her residents as Erin.[1]

Breogan
Of Spain, had two sons, Bile and Ith.

Bile
Of Spain, had a son, named,

Golamh
Golamh-The Soldier, was later in life known as Milesius.

When Golamh had grown, he wandered to Scythia and married Sreng, daughter of the king. Later he went toEgypt where he married Scota, daughter of Pharaoh (Necro II ?). Princess Scota returned to Spain with Milesius and brought with her the Stone of Scone, the pillow rock used by Jacob when he had his famous dream. This rock still remains with her descendants-the kings of Great Britain and Ireland.

The descendants of Breogan had prospered in Spain, but hard times came with a drought and famine which lasted 25 years. During this time, the families strength was being wasted against other tribes over sovereignty of Spain. The clan held council and decided to invade Erin. Golamh’s uncle, Ith, was sent to reconnoiter the island. While in Erin, the local kings became suspicious and men were sent to intercept and kill Ith before he returned to his clan inSpain.

Ith was mortally wounded just before his boat sailed, where upon he died at sea.

To avenge his death, the sons of Golamh mustered 30 ships and 900 men and sailed for Erin. Among the crew were Golamh’s Egyptian wife, Scota and their sons Eber and Heremon.

Eber landed with his ships in Kerry, in southwest Erin, fought a battle near Tralee and routed the enemy. During this battle, Scota was slain.

Genealogical Relationship of Erin’s  Early Gaelic Settlers

Breogan of Spain
S: Ith             ↲(murdered in Erin) ↳   S: Bile ofSpain Necro II, Pharaoh ofEgypt  610-595 BC
↳ S: Golamh (Milesius)  + D: Princess Scota v  ↲ Zedekiah,  King of Judah 619-587  BC
S: Eber  ↲  (slain in battle) ↳ S:   Heremon Eochaid  + D: Tea Tephi  ↲
                        ↳  S: Irial Faidh, King ofErin
                ↳  Eithriall

[S: =son, D: =daughter]

Heremon Eochaid
After several more battles, Heremon and his brother assumed a joint sovereignty over the island; Heremon taking the northern half and Eber taking the southern half. A year later, the brothers quarreled and fought a battle, during which Eber was defeated and slain.

From this time on the House of Eber and the House of Heremon have been warring over kingship of the island.[3]

Heremon became the sole king and reigned for 15 years.

Heremon Eochaid, grandson of the Egyptian Pharoah, married Tea Tepi, who is recorded as being alive in 580 BC. Tea Tepi was daughter of Zedekiah (619-587), King of Judah.

The Gael, like the Germans of the time, did not apply themselves to agriculture. Their principle wealth consisted of flocks and herds of cows, pigs, sheep and horses.

The various grades of society were bound together by ‘stock taking.’ At each level, the inferior social class paid food rents from their livestock to the higher.

And so the with the passing generations, the people known as the Gael became part of the island population of Erin.

Irial Faidh Of Munster, King of Erin, reigned 11 years, his son,
Eithriall King of Erin, reigned 20 years and was slain at the Battle of Raeire.
Prince Follam Whose son was,
Tighernmas Was a very active monarch and continually at war. During his 50 year reign, he   began smelting gold and Irish clothing was first dyed purple, blue and green.  He died on Hallows Eve.
Prince Eanbotha Did not rule, his son was,
Prince Smiorguil Did not rule, his son was,
Fiachafn Labhruine King of Erin, reigned 24 years and was slain in battle.
Aongus Oilbhuagach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain in the Battle of Bealgadan by   Eochaidh Mumho of Munster.[4]
Prince Maoin Did not rule, his son was,
Rotheachta King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain at Cruachain.
Prince Dein Did not rule, his son was,
Siorna Saoghalach King of Erin, reigned 21 years and was slain at Aillinn.
Prince Oliolla Olchaoin Did not rule, his son was,
Giallchadh King of Erin, reigned 9 years and was slain by Art Imleach.
Nuada Fionn Fail King of Erin, reigned 28 years and was slain by Breas, a son of Art Imleach.
Simon Breac King of Erin, reigned 6 years and was slain by Sedna Innaraigh.
Muriadhach Bolgrach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and was slain   by Enda Dearg.
Fiachadh Tolgrach King of Ewrin, reigned 7 years and was felled by Oilioll.
Duach Laighrack King  of Erin, reigned 10 years and was slain by Lughaidh.
Prince   Eochaidh Buillaig  Known as Echu the Victorious and father of Ugaine. He was said to have resided atTara; however, this is uncertain, because his name does not appear in any known series of the kings ofTara.
Ugaine   More King of Erin. Married Ceasir Chruthan, daughterof the King of the French. He reigned 30 years and was slain by his brother.
Cobhthach   Caolbreag King of Ewrin, reigned 4 years and was slain at Dinnrih.
Prince   Meilage Was  felled at the Battle of Claire.
Jaram   Gleofath King of Erin, reigned 7 years and was slain.
Conla   Cruaich Cealgach King of Erin, reigned 4 years and died atTara.
Oiloilla   Caisfhaichlach King of Erin, reigned 25 years and was slain.
Eochaidh   Foltleatham King of Erin, reigned 11 years and was slain. He had two sons (at least), one was Aongus Tuirimbeach, who became king of Erin, reigned 30 years and died at Tara during the year 324 BC. The other son, our ancestor was           ♥ Prince Labchore. (See below)

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Tara—The Royal Home
Tara was the fortified royal home of the Ard Ri (High King) of Erin, the ceremonial and administrative seat of ancient Gaelic royal power. The remains of Tara stand on the summit and down the sides of a gently sloping, round, grassy hill, 500 feet above sea level and 200 feet from the surrounding plains. The ruins are located 26 miles northwest of Dublin and 5-1/2 miles southeast of Navah, in Meath County, Ireland.

Tara is perhaps the most famous of Irish sites, with a history going back to the Second Millennium BC to the Bronze age, then forward to its abandonment in the 6th Century AD.

Under the Gael,Tara essentially the first national Irish capital. It was here that during the inauguration of the Ard Ri that a great feast was held, through the symbolism of the feast, the king was united with his land in a ritual marriage.

The structures which can still be seen are the ramparts or defenses that surrounded and protected the royal homes and civic structures; the wooden houses have long since disappeared.

Description of Tara
The principle fortification was Rath Righ, the oval shaped structure occupying the top of the hill. Being some 853 feet in diameter on the longest axis, it consisted of two walls, one of stone and one of earth, with a ditch in between.

Inside Rath Righ, are two side by side mounds, which were the Forrad and Tech Cormac. The Forrad having two ramparts and two ditches was a place of public meeting and a judgment seat.

A visitor to the Forrad during the time of Tara’s occupation wrote, “And in what was considered the highest point of the city the king had a fair and well built castle, and in that castle he had a hall, fair and spacious, and in that hall he was wont to sit in judgment”.

Also within the ramparts of Rath Righ, is Tech Cormac (Cormac’s house), home of the king that reigned 254-277 AD; this circular rath has an extreme diameter of 244 feet.

Near the northern periphery of Rath Righ is the 66 foot in diameter and 13 foot high “Mound of the Hostages”. In ancient times there was a timber house on the 25 foot diameter flat top of this mound, in which the hostages lived. In very early times, before it took the name Mound of Hostages, it had been a prehistoric “passage grave”.

Also on the periphery of Rath Righ is a worn down 40 foot in diameter and 6 foot high “mound of the cow”, which history tells us was the grave of a celebrated, legendary cow.

To the north of Rath Righ as the Rath of Synods. Three great Christian synods are recorded as having occurred here; 1) When St. Patrick preached at this location in 433 AD, 2) When St. Ruadan pronounced the curse which caused Tara to be abandoned and 3) in 697 when Adamnan procured acceptance for the law exempting women from taking part in battles.

Outside of Rath Righ, on the north slope of the hill are the remains of the Banqueting Hall. This consists of two parallel mounds, the remnants of the side walls of the old hall, which was over 759 feet long and 46 feet wide. This banquet and convention hall was a great timber building standing 45 or more feet high and having 12 doors, it was ornamented, had carvings and was painted in a variety of colors. The interior was subdivided, with compartments partitioned off to accommodate guests according to rank and dignity. At banquets, the great company of guests were seated in exact order of dignity and priority.

The great conventions at Tarawere intended to be held every third year, but are thought to have been held less frequently. When a convention was held, provincial kings, minor kings and chiefs and the most distinguished representatives of the learned professions of law, history, poetry, medicine, etc. attended. The conventions, which also included feasts and games started about October 28 and lasted for two to four weeks and occasionally as long as six weeks. During the convention, the Provincial kings had separate houses for themselves and their retinue; there was one house with separate compartments for queens and attendant ladies. There was another house for the poets and professionals, in which they held their “sittings”.

Every day the Ard Ri feasted with his company in the great banqueting hall. The hall was also used for transactions of important business, such as making new regulations for the whole country and examining and checking the kingdoms historical records. These functions were performed by experts.

West of the Banqueting Hall is Rath Caelchon, named after a chief ofMunster, a contemporary of Corme MacArt. Caelchon died at Tara and the rath was built in commemoration of him.

The 258 foot in diameter, Rath Graine received it’s name from Princess Grainne who, according to legend, eloped with a lieutenant in her fathers army. In the location where Rat Grainne was built, there was a marsh whose water derived from Tober Well. The marsh was drained and dried prior to construction of Rath Grainne and the Fothad of Rath Grainne. South of Rath Righ is Rath Laegaire (Rath Laery), being some 300 feet in diameter, it is surrounded by two great ramparts.

West of Rath Righ is Laegh well, which signifies “calf” (calf well) the well is now dried up.

The houses of the general body of the people who lived near Tara were scattered on the slope and over the plains east of the hill.

Tara was home to many of our Gaelic ancestors. Now, over 2,000 years later, we view this home and ancient town site through photographs taken several thousand feet above where they once walked loved, slept and transacted the important business of the day. They could not have conceived of a technology which produced the cameras and aircraft that made the photographs possible. Did Conla Cruaich Cealgach ever look up through the space that would one day be the flight path of an aircraft taking photographs of his Tara? Did he feel a nebulous swirl of his descendants as they began to dimly see back through time, into his world?

Continuing the Genealogical Line of Descent
The following list compares the names of our ancestors between Ugaine More and Eochaidh Foltleatham (from the above pedigree) both in their Ango-Gaelic and Latinized versions.[5]

Anglo-Gaelic Version Latinized Version
Ugaine More Ugaine Mor
Cobhthach Caolbreag Cobthaig Coelbreg
Milage Moalgi
Jaram  Gleofath Erero
Conla Cruaich Cealgach Conlaich
Oiloilla Caisfhaichlach Elela Casiaclaig
Eochaidh Foltleatham (name version in preceeding list) Echachaltlechin (name version found in the following list)

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This genealogical table continues the pedigree with Latinized spellings from a 14th Century Codex known as, The Poppleton Manuscript.[6]

Echachaltlechin Father   of Rothir Father   of Luigdig Father   of
Labchore Their Mogalanda
Firaibrig Rosiu Conore
Firanroid Siu Echdachrida
Ferroid Dedaid Fiacracheathmail
Fircechairroid Iair Achachantoit
Oengusaturuug Elela Achircir
Firmara Eogami Find Fece
Fiachra Etersceuil Cruithinde
Elela Armi Conarremoir Senchormaic
Feradaig Admoir Uamnaich
Forgo Eorbre Fedilinther
Manine Dare Dornmoir Dengusabuiding
Arandil Corpe Crumpchimi Fedilinthe Aislingig
Rom Ellatig Oengusaphir
Echach Muinremuir (see   below)

In the Third Century AD, a great famine developed in the province of Munster, Erin. During this time, a man named Cairbre Riada, son of Conaire, son of Mogh Lamha, led a party of is tribe to the north of Antrim (located in NE Erin) and another across the sea to Alba (Scotland).

The party landing in Alba used force of arms to obtain a settlement amongst the Pics. The people of this new settlement retained the name of their founding father and were called the Dal Riata of Alban, those which remained in North Antrim were known as the Dal Riata of Erin.

The Dal Riata of Erin lived in a territory roughly 15 miles by 30 miles in size. This territory was located on the NE seaboard of Erin, bordered by the sea on the north and east, by the Bush River on the west and the territory of Lathatna on the south.

And the decades passed…

Pedigree continued from previous list

Eochaid Munremor Son of Oengusahir of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, Erin. His son was Erc.
Erc Of the Dal Riata of North Antrim, had three sons: Fergus, Loarn and Oengus. These sons and their extended families sailed  across theNorth Channel to Alban and reinforced the settlement of the Dal Riata in a territory which had become known as Argyll.
Fergus Mar Tradition says that Fergus and his 11 brothers were visited in their Irish home and blessed by St. Patrick. Fergus is the first of the royal line of Dal Riata to settle in Alban (Scotland) and is thought to be the first to adopt the Christian faith. He became chieftain of Argyll. His son was Domngart, see below.
.
The territory of the Dal Riata in Alban seems to have lain in Kintyre and the southern part of Argyll, and in Cowal on the other side of Lock Fyne. This area is about 50 to 75 miles NNE of the northeast coast ofErin. The “chief place” of the Dal Riata in Alban was the fortress of Dunadd, which was located on a rocky height in marshy ground and which commanded the narrow neck of land that is (in 1985) approximately the location of the Crinan Canal.
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Domngart Sonof Fergus Mar. Was known to have flourished in the year 506 AD. Was chieftain of the Dal Riata in Argyll. Later in life he withdrew from the chieftainship and died in religion.
Gabran Is remembered for his military expedition far to the east of Argyll, deep into   Pict territory. He died about 558 AD, during the same year that his army   withdrew from the land of the Picts. Having secured a position in Alban, the   descendants of the Gael then reinforced and strengthened this position and   finally began to expand. This was a similar multi generation, unplanned  ‘strategy’ followed by the Saxons entering Briton (500AD+), the Vikings  (700AD +) gaining Normandy from France, the English colonists (more Norman descendants) on the North American seaboard (1600AD +).
Aedan Aedan was the first ruler of Argyll who manifested real ability and character. In 575 AD, he and St. Columba attended a convention in Drumnceat, during which the King of Erin agreed to recognize the independence of the Scottish Dal Riata and its princes. This friendly settlement and the peace which it   secured resulted in an annual celebration and public procession of   thanksgiving which was held every year at Drumncest down to 1646 [7]. Aedan was ordained king by St. Columba, where upon the family line rose to become independent sovereigns. He reigned 31 years, withdrew from office about 607 and retired to religion. He died at the monastery in Kintyre during the year 608.
Eochaid Bunde (Eugene III) Although he was one of Aedans younger sons, he succeeded his father to the throne. He reigned as king of Argyll for 21 years, from 607-628 AD.
Domnall Brecc (Donald) Was king of Argyll from 636-642. He was apparently trying to attack a British hill site at Strathc, south of the Forth, when he was defeated and killed in   battle during or about 642AD.
Domangart (Dongard) Was the sole King of Argyll from 659-672. He was killed in 672, possibly in an incident during the long drawn out warfare between Aedans descendants and the family of Gartnait of Skye Isl. During the later part of the 7th   Century, a military census was taken in Argyll which showed the expansion of  the descendants of Erin (of those who hadmigrated to the Alban settlement of the Dal Riata inScotland. See   below.)

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Military Census of Erc’s descendants in Alban during the late 7th Century

Family   of: Houses Men
Oengus 430 645
Fergus -> Gabran 560 1490
Loarn 420 1120
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Pedigree continued from above
Eochaid (Eugene IV) Domangart’s son, Eochaid seems to have become king in about 695, but lost his life a year later.
Eochaid (Eugene V) Upon death of Eugene IV, a man named Ferchar Foda ascended to the throne and ruled a few months. He was followed by Selbah, who ruled until 723 AD. Selback’s son Dungal became king and ruled  3 years before being outsted. In about 726, Eugene V, who was over 30 years old began to rule. With his   ascension to the kingship, the Dal Riata returned to rule by the old family   line. In 727, the ex king, Selback came out of retirement and fought Eugene V in an inconclusive battle. Eugene V died in the year 733 AD.
Aed Find (Ethafind) Is thought to have been very young when his father died, since he is not heard of until 768. He died in 778 AD and was credited with a reign of 33 years, which means if true, that he ascended to the throne in 748. Aed Find was  famous for the Dal Riata assemblies held during his reign, which possibly instituted legal reforms.
Prince Eochaid Son of Aed Find and father of Alpin.
Alpin -The Scott Was involved in aggressive warfare inGalloway where he died fighting the Picts. His son was, Kenneth Macalpin.

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Kenneth Macalpin
Kenneth was regarded as having been a brave and able prince. His pedigree derived him from the Dal Riata of NE Ireland, through a line of kings in the west of Scotland for more than 300 years. He succeeded his father to the throne in 839 and was king of Argyll for two years. Also in 839, the Norsemen invaded and defeated the Picts. This afforded Kenneth the opportunity to obtain the Pictish throne, which he held in conjunction with the  crown of Argyll for another  14 years. His kingdom then included the districts of Argyll and counties of Perth, Fife, parts of Forgar, Dumbaryon and Stirling, with Sconeas the chief seat of royalty.

Before about 1100 AD, the kingship was referred to as “King of the Albans”, after about 1100 AD the kingdom began to be referred to as Scotland.

Kenneth had two sons and three daughters; we are descended from his son, Constantin.

Kenneth is remembered as the destroyer of the Picts and founder of the Scottish dynasty. He died in his dun at Fortevoit on the Earn River in he year 860 AD.

Constantin
Constantin ascended to the throne upon the death of his father in 860. He soon found himself face to face with the Norsemen. The Norse invasion of northern Alban had increased in intensity. The invaders were entering the inland areas by the multitude of coastal inlets, as they moved they ransacked everything looking for treasure, they killed the inhabitants and carried off others as slaves. Their invasions, which inflicted much suffering and confusion on the Picts, now fell on the Dal Riata.

In 877 the Norsemen invaded the country in force, entered Fife. Defeated the Dal Riata and pursued them through the country. At Inverdovet, in parish Forgan, the Dal Riata made a stand, but were completely defeated. Constatnin along with many of his followers were slain.

Donald II
Donald ascend to the kingship in 889 AD. He too was forced to contend with the invasions and brigandry of the Norse, who had by this time gained possession ofCaithness, Sutherland and Ross. Donald was killed in battle in 900 AD while fighting the Norse at Dunnotter in Kincardineshire.

A few years later, in 904, King Constantin II (not our line) lead an army in an attack against the Norse at Strathern, where the Norse were defeated and their leader killed.

Malcolm I
Upon retirement of Constantin II in 943 AD, Malcolm I, the 43+ year old son of Donald II ascended to the throne. He was a bold man and attempted to extend his power beyond the SpeyRiver, but failed. He gained territory in the region south of the Forth River, which was at the time in a state approaching disintegration. Malcolm I reigned 11 years before being slain at Fetteresso, in Kincardeshire about 954.

Kenneth II
After Malcolm I death, a man named Indulf, son of Constantin II (not in our line) ascended to the throne where he reigned for 8 years before dying. After the death of Indulf, a contest for the crown broke out. On one side was Duff, son of Malcolm I, on the other side was Colin, son of Indulf. In a battle for the throne, Duff defeated Colin, but two years later Colin expelled Duff. Duff died shortly thereafter and Colin ended up being slain by the Britons in 971.

During the same year (971), Kenneth II, another son of Malcolm I (from which this pedigree continues) ascended to the throne.

Kenneth II immediately proceeded to throw up entrenchment’s at fordable points along the Forth River to defend against invasions from the south. He attacked the Britons at Strathclyde, then turned and launched two invasions into Northumberland.

Under his monarchy, the kingdom was slowly extended south in every direction. Meanwhile under the influence of the Church and due to other attracting affinities, the northern tribes were silently becoming a nation.

After reigning 24 years, Kenneth II was slain at Fettercairn in Kincardinshire in 995 AD.

Malcolm II
Malcolm II, son of Kenneth II ascended to the Kingship in 1005. He began his reign by invading Northumberland but was defeated and many of his followers were slain.

Years later, in 1018, he again attacked Northumberland, and defeated their army at Tweed. Through this victory he gained Lothian and all of the territory north of Tweed River for the kingdom. Also during his reign and without serious conflict, he incorporated the kingdom of Strathclyde into the realm.

In 1031 the great Dane, Cnut, having conquered England[8], turned northward and met Malcolm on the boarder of their domains. Malcolm submitted to Cnut, but after Cnut’s army withdrew, Malcolms oath of allegiance dissolved. Malcolm II reigned 29 years before being assassinated on25 November 1034.

Princess Bethoc
Bethoc, also known as Beatrix, was the daughter of Malcolm II and his third wife Aelguifu. Bethoc marries Crinan the Thane, Lay Abbot of Dunkeld and Lord of the Isle. Their children were Maldred and Duncan I. Son Maldred married Edith, daughter of Ughtred, Earl of Northumberland and his wife Elgiva, daughter of Aethelred II, King of England.  Bethoc’s husband Crinan was slain in battle with King Macbeth in 1045, a tale which will come to light in the preceding life story of Duncan I.

Duncan I
Duncan ascended to the throne of Alban in 1034. He married Maud, daughter of Siward, Earl of Northunberland, who was in turn related  across the generations to the Saxon line to Alfred the Great..

Duncan and Maud had four children, of whom we are descended from Malcolm III Canmore. Duncanwas a very able man, but when he ventured beyond the Spey River, his cousins, the Earl of Thorfinn and Macbeth, joined forces against him. (Macbeth was descended from Ferchar Foda), an earlier king of the Dal Riata, and thus related to the royal line. The combined forces of Duncan’s cousins were too great for his army and after a severe struggle, Duncan was slain by Macbeth near Elginin 1040 AD.

With the death of Duncan I, Macbeth claimed the throne. In 1045, Crinan, father of the late Duncan, mustered all of his followers and the opponents of Macbeth and attempted to drive him from the throne. A great battle ensued during which time Crinan was killed. To Macbeth, the crown must have  now seemed more secure. However, the late King Duncan had left a wife and two sons. Duncan’s wife Maud, had the support of her father, Siward, Earl of Northumberland. Siward, in an attempt to put his grandsons on the throne, mustered a large army and naval force. King Macbeth was driven north to the hill fort Dunsinnane where there occurred a severe, but inconclusive battle. Earl Siward returned home with his army.

Malcolm III
Malcolm III Canmore (Ceann Mor=Big Head) was heir apparent and son of Duncan I.

Because of his grandfathers (Siward) campaign against King Macbeth, Prince Malcolm III gained possession of the territory between the Forth and Tweed Rivers. After gaining the support of his people, Malcolm rallied an army and met Macbeth beyond the River Dee on 15 August 1057, where Macbeth was defeated and slain.

The apparently very capable Macbeth was weakened by the effects of time and the single-minded attacks made against him. Although he was victorious in battles #1 and #2 against Duncan and Crinan, in preparing for battle #3, he was forced to flee to a fortified position and fight a defensive, inconclusive battle. With the forces that provided his continued strength weakened over time, he was then defeated and slain in the forth battle. Check…check…check…checkmate.

In 1058, Malcolm III ascended to the kinship of the Scots. At this time, Malcolm ruled bands of marauding warriors and a brutish peasantry. The people lived by barter and booty; their homes were of earth and timber behind defensive palisades.

Earlier in his life, during Macbeth’s rule, Malcolm III lived in the Anglo-Saxon royal court in Britain. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066, he returned the hospitality by giving sanctuary to the previously exiled royal family of the late Prince Edward the Exile, whose children were Edgar the Aetheling, Margaret and Christine.

In 1069, Malcolm married the exiled, Princess Margaret.

Malcolm was a brutal opportunist, ruthless, powerful and an intelligent warrior. He established a dynasty that forged a feudal state along the western European lines out of a northern Celtic tribal kingdom. He introduced the Motte-and-Baily Castle into Scotland from the Anglo- Saxon lands and adopted the efficient Norman military tactics.

Margaret was an excellent wife and had a large family by the King. Her influence over her husband and the people of Scotlandwere great. She softened and polished Malcolm’’ manners and taught him many important things. She was an accomplished Princess and a very religious woman. Dunfermline was her favorite place of residence and it was here that she had a hand in establishing a Benedictine monastery. She was devoted to St. Andrews, patron saint of Scotland and, established the Queensferry for pilgrims to cross the ForthRiver. She and Malcolm built St. Columbas monastery and church on the Isle of Iona.

In November 1093, Malcolm died while fighting at Alnwich Castle in Northumberland.

Margaret is reported to have died three days later, after hearing of the death of her husband and eldest son, on 16 November 1093. In her last words, she was thanking God for sending such tragedies to strengthen her soul.

Margaret’s saintliness was recognized and she was canonized in 1251 AD, she is now remembered as St. Margaret of Scotland.

With the children of Malcolm III and Margaret, the pedigree splits taking different family names only to rejoin generations later.
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Matilda:
Matilda was born to Malcolm Canmore and Margaret in the year 1082. After the death of her parents, she  and her young brothers and sisters fled Scotland to the English court. Meanwhile, back in Scotland, Matilda’s Uncle Donald and her half brother Duncan struggled for control of the   kingdom. On 11 November 1100, at about age 18, Matilda, Princess of Scotland married Henry I, King of England, son of William I-The   Conqueror. Matilda second married William de Albini, Earl of Arundell and  Buckingham, which led to her becoming an ancestor to the Fitz-Alans, Earls of   Arundell.

St. David:
David was born to Malcolm III and Margaret in the year 1080. He, like his younger sister, Matilda, fled to the English court upon the death of their parents. His elder brother became  King of Scots and thereupon made David the Earl of Strathclyde- a holding in southernScotland.  David greatly added to his properties by narrying Matilda de Huntington,   daughter of Waltheof, Earl of Northumberland. She was also grandniece of William the Conqueror and the wealthiest woman in England. Their son was Henry, Prince of Scotland. David inherited the Scottish crown in 1124 and continued to develop an Anglo-Norman feudal system. He granted small estates to his knights and large tracts of land (fiefs) to his powerful friends who swore allegiance to him. He established the See of Glasgow and revived eight Bishoprics. Continuing his patronage of the Church   of Rome, he founded monasteries and abbots.His wife Matilda de Huntington died in 1131 and David died inCarlisle in 1153.

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Henry, Prince of  Scotland
In 1139 Prince Henry married Ada de Warenne, daughter of William de Warenne, who was a grandson of William the Conqueror, and Elizabeth de Vermandois, who was granddaughter of Henry I, King of France and his wife, Anne of Russia. Their daughter was Margaret.

Margaret
Daughter of Prince Henry and Ada de Warenne, married 1) Conan IV, Duke of Britany and 2) Humphrey de Bohun IV,  Earl of Hereford. Margaret and Hunphrey’’ son was Henry de Bohun, a Surety for the Magna Charta of King John. Several generations later this line produced Humphrey de Bohun VIII, who married Princess Isabella Plantagenet, daughter of Edward I, King of England. Humphrey VIII and Isabella’ great-grand daughter was Alinore de Bohun, who married Thomas of Woodstock, 7th son of Edward III, king of England.
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Richard the Fearless, Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm   I   ↓ Alfred the Great      +
Lady   Ealhswith
Richard   the Good II ↓ Kenneth  II   ↓ Edward the    Elder  +   ↓ (3) Lady Eadgifu
Robert  I, 6th Duke of
Normandy  ↓
Malcolm II +
Aelgifu (generations  later)
 (also, gens later)
William the Conqueror ↓ Henry   I, King of France  + Anne   ofRussia Bethoc    ↲   + Crinan the Thane Siward      ↲
(to   grandson) ↓ (to granddaughter)       ↓ ↳ Duncan I + Maude ↳ Edward the Exile   ↓
William de  Warenne  +   ↓ Elizabeth   de Vermandois ↳   Malcolm III + (2) Margaret
Matilda      De   Huntington + St. David  ↙ (son of Malcolm III & Margaret) (2) William de Albini    ↓ +  Matilda        ↓ +of  Scotland (1) Henry I    King ofEngland
(generations   ↓ later) ↳  Ada de   Warenne + Prince   Henry↲ of  Scotland Descendants   ↓ became   Fitz-Albans Matilda   the   ↓ + Empress Geoffrey   Plantagenet
(This line      ↓ descends to Richard Warren, one of my 1620 AD Mayflower ancestors. Margaret    ↲   + (2)   Humphrey de Bohun IV      ↓ Henry II      King of England +
Eleanor of Aquitaine
John             ↓ +King   ofEngland Isabelle   ofAngouleme
↳   Henry de  Bohun (Magna Charte Surety)          Henry III        ↲         King of England + Eleanor   of Provence
(generations   later) ↓ Edward I ↲    King of England + Isabel of Castile
Humphrey de Bohun VIII     + Isabella        ↲
(generations   later) ↓
From this   –> generation on, see post: Royal Grace to frontier colonist
               
Alinore  De   Bohun + Thomas of Woodstock (son of Edward III, King of England) ↓
(generations   later) ↓
Richard Sears, 1630AD  immigrant to


Plimoth,MA

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[1] The name, Erin, comes from the root which signifies fat, fruitful and perhaps with a special reference to the fertility of Irish pastures.
[2] Reference sources for the Irish and Scottish pedigree and historical accounts.

  • The History of Ireland to the Coming of Henry II, by Authur Ua Clerigh, first publ. 1910, reissued 1970, Kennikat Press, Port Washington, NY.
  • A Social History of Ancient Ireland, Vol II, by P.W. Joyce, first publ. 1913 and reissued in 1968 by Benjamin Blom, NY.
  • The Hisory of Civilizatioin in Scotland, Vol I, © 1892 by John MacKintosh, Publ. by Alexander Gardner,London,Eng.
  • Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
  • The Scottish World © 1981 by Harry N. Abrams, Inc, NY.

[3] In my time, of the late 20th. Century, there are no Kings in Ireland, but northern and southern Ireland are in a state of guerilla warfare, ostensibly with religious and political differences. England has been trying to suppress the fighting, assassinations and terrorism.
[4] It was the duty of the High Kings of the Gael not only to command their armies in person, but to fight in the forefront of the battle, which explains why so many kings perished by the sword.
[5] Kings and Kingship in Early Scotland © by Marjorie O. Anderson, publ. by Rowan & Littlefield,Totowa,NJ,USA page 257.
[6] Ibid.  Ms. Anderson’s source for the list was the 14th Century Codex known as The Poppleton Manuscript. [Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Ms Latin 4126]
[7]  1646 AD was the date given by the historian, Colgan, who lived in the 1600s.
[8] For further information regarding the Dane invasion and conquest ofEngland, and it’s effect on our family line, see the Saxon Line, in particular Aethelred II, Edmund Ironside and Edward the Exile.

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Filed under My family in history, __Old World: Irish & Scottish

Personal hygiene after SHTF

(Survival Manual/Prepper articles/ Personal hygiene after SHTF)

A.  Personal Hygiene After SHTF
7 May 2013, SurvivalAndBeyond, by The Maj – Prepper Resources
Pasted from: http://www.survivalandbeyond.net/personal-hygiene-after-shtf/

Staying clean by today’s standards in a post SHTF world will be a task that is close to impossible.  The daily, sometimes twice daily, bath or shower will become a thing of the past and the old joke of  “bath  night Saturday” will no longer be a joke for most people.  The world will be vastly different but the same “bugs” we are so careful to cleanse ourselves of today will be even more relentless.  The only advantage you will have then, that most do not have today, is the fact that contact with other people will be limited to you and the people trying to survive along side of you.  Everyone within that group taking some basic steps in personal hygiene will be a huge benefit to everyone in the group and even the most basic steps by today’s standards will go a long way to making you feel better.

sanitation conditionsThe no brainer here is washing your hands and I am certain that most reading this have an ample supply of hand sanitizer in their stockpile right now.  Since the average person touches their face 2,000 plus times per day and the face (and head) is the most common place where someone will contract a “bug”, it only makes sense that keeping the hands clean will help.  This is especially important to consider when preparing food for yourself and other people.  Hand sanitizer, rubbing alcohol, vinegar, disinfectant wipes and bleach will all work to clean or sanitize your hands.  Soap and water is probably the easiest and most common mechanism for keeping the hands clean.  Even washing with clean water is better than not washing your hands at all, so do not let being out of a manufactured product keep you from washing your hands.

Let your body air out.  Whether it is the socks on your feet, your underwear, or the t-shirt you have not had a chance to wash in five days, your undergarments are going to be packing a pretty powerful punch even if you have been sedentary the entire time.  Wearing dirty, sweat soaked clothes constantly next to your skin gives bacteria a place to cling to and given enough time they will create a problem for you.  At every available opportunity, get as naked as possible and give your body a chance to air.  This may not be practical in many instances where mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects will have an open door to your body, but letting your body (especially “the dirty” parts) get some air will help to keep you healthy.  I keep a pair of loose fitting shorts and a loose fitting t-shirt in my bugout bag for this very purpose.  Also, while you are airing out, it is a good time for a “buddy check”.  Have someone else look at the areas that you can not readily see, especially your backside.  They will need to be looking for bites, boils, and insects which might have attached themselves to your nether region.  The time for modesty has long since past by this point, so put aside any apprehension you may have concerning having your buddy take a look at you.

When you are airing yourself out, take the time to take a splash bath.  Clean your feet, crotch, underarms, and face with soap and water or disinfectant/baby wipes.  Taking the time to do this will remove a lot of the bacteria that has built up in the area(s), it will help prevent chaffing, and  it will make you feel better than you did.  In a perfect world, I would try to do this before I went to bed but since the post SHTF world will be far from perfect just make the time for it.  If you have packed body powder or foot powder, dust the clean areas with powder to help keep them fresh longer.  Try to stay away from the scented powders for obvious reasons.

While we are on the subject of rank clothes, you will need to develop a plan to wash your clothes and more than likely this task will have to be done by hand.  If possible, you will want to have a “fresh” set of clothes on hand when you do finally find the chance to get a real bath or shower because I do not know of much worse than finally getting clean and then having to put back on some clothes that could stand up and walk by themselves.  You can easily go a week or longer without washing your outer garments but the undergarments and socks typically will not last as long.  Pack extra socks, underwear (or opt out of underwear), and t-shirts if possible.

As weird as it may sound, grooming will help with cleanliness as well.  Keeping finger nails and toe nails neat, clean and trimmed to proper lengths will keep germs from hiding under them.  If you happen to be a nail biter, you might want to consider breaking that habit now.  You will want to keep head and facial hair trimmed as short as possible and run a comb through it daily.  Believe it or not, your hair will get so dirty that it will actually hurt.  Avoid scratching your scalp and let the comb do the work when possible.  If you have not considered nail clippers/files, scissors, and a razor for your bugout bag, now would be the time to consider it.

Treat every scrape, bump, bite, boil, cut, burn, and hangnail as a life threatening condition.  Sanitize the area as soon as time allows with soap and water or other disinfectant, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover the area with a bandage.  If possible, avoid tasks which will unnecessarily introduce germs into the affected area, avoid food preparation for the group if the troublesome spot is on your hands, and allow the area to get air when you are resting.  If the affected area begins to swell, change color, or worsens, you will need to take additional first-aid or medical measures.

Brush and floss your teeth at least once daily, twice if your supplies allow it.  Use a good quality toothpaste or baking soda to brush your teeth and make certain to rinse your mouth thoroughly with clean water.  If you have an alcohol based mouthwash in your bugout bag or stockpile use it at least once daily.  Alcohol based breath strips help to “freshen” your mouth, but other than that they do not cleanse very well.  Sans mouth wash, you can rinse your mouth with clean water or a saltwater mix to help keep your mouth clean.  If you find yourself without toothpaste, you can still use your toothbrush to break the build up loose and rinse your mouth.  Some brushing is better than not brushing at all.

Shoot for taking a bath or shower once per week, if time and your water stockpiles allow it.  Over the course of a week you will build up a lot of grime all over your body, especially during the warmer months.  A bath will become a real treat and something that you will look forward to.  Wash with unscented soap from head to toe and make certain to scrub the dirty areas very well.  Of course, if it comes down to a choice between having clean drinking water and taking a bath, opt for the clean drinking water. An example of what I have in my bugout personal hygiene kit:

  • Unscented Soap (2bars)
  • Travel Shampoo
  • Travel Bottle of Listerine
  • Hand Sanitizer (small bottle)
  • Toothpaste (1 full size tube)
  • Dental Floss (2 packages)
  • Toothbrush (2 each)
  • Q-tips (2 travel packages)
  • Tweezers
  • Triple Antibiotic Ointment (2 tubes)
  • Baby Wipes (travel package)
  • Band-Aids (travel pack)
  • Safety Razor (with spare blades)
  • Small Scissors
  • Nail Clippers with File
  • Large MicroNet Pack Towel (2 each)
  • MicroNet Pack Wash Cloth (2 each)
  • Needles (one package)
  • Unscented Body/Foot Powder (small container)
  • Travel Washboard
  • Powder Laundry Detergent (small container)
  • Toilet Paper (1 roll)
  • Sunscreen
  • Bug Repellant
  • Absorbine Jr. (1 bottle)
  • Travel Mirror
  • Rubbing Alcohol (small bottle)

As with anything else, you can configure your personal hygiene supplies a thousand different ways and there is no absolute “right way” to do it.  I am not female, so I left the feminine hygiene products off of my list and they would have to be incorporated into the supplies for a female.  In a bug-in situation, you can expand this list to include more of the necessary supplies and add many nice to have items that are not very portable for personal hygiene uses.  The important thing is to have personal hygiene supplies on your list and at a minimum have a means of keeping yourself clean post SHTF

 

B.  When the SHTF, you will still have to poop
7 Oct 2012, Prepper-Resources.com, by PJ
Pasted from: http://www.prepper-resources.com/when-the-shtf-you-will-still-have-to-poop/

I have been very close to burning mixtures of fecal matter, urine, and diesel fuel and I can tell you the smell is pretty disgusting.  You never quite get used to it, nor does your appetite fully recover.  Quite often people forget that everybody poops, and should the power go out for an extended period of time in suburbia you will only have a couple options when it comes to dealing with human waste.  You can poop in buckets and bury the contents around your yard, poop buckets and attempt to burn your waste (not a good idea), or you can dig a sanitary pit away from any water supply and hopefully keep your family from getting sick.  Quite often people do not realize just how important it is to stay clean and germ free, especially in a survival environment.  No matter how hard you try to avoid it everyone has to poop.  It would be optimal to find a way to get around the hazards of exposed waste prior to some catastrophe occurring.  I have dug many pits in my day but never a full on functioning pit for an outhouse.  Since I am not the subject matter expert on this topic  I will post is an article from someone who is, take from it what you will and remember that E. Coli can kill you just as easily as a 55 grain FMJ bullet.

Here is the link to the article over on Rogue Turtle: http://www.rogueturtle.com/articles/outhouse.php.
What follows would be some practical potty advice offered up by the author.

sanitation outhousePractical potty advice
If you have small children, be sure you accompany them to the outhouse and help them use the facilities. Since the bottom opening in the potty is considerably larger than a home toilet, the urge to reach in and “play” may be too great for a toddler…with tragic results. Keeping a outside door latch mounted up high will prevent small children from straying inside while you’re not looking. Like a swimming pool, it can be considered an “attractive nuisance”.

In winter, run ropes to and from the shelter and the outhouse. That way, you won’t get lost in the blowing snow when going to the bathroom. Out west, people have died going to potty.

Until you get your first deep pit dug, temporary potties can be made from 5 gallon buckets. The walls can be simple blankets or other coverings to make tent-like walls. Unless you are digging in frozen ground, a hole large enough to use right away can be dug in less than one day. Most military units I have been around use digging latrine holes as a method of punishment. It’s considered a “crappy” job, if you get my drift. If you have an all male outfit, jut run a plank out, cut a few holes, and you are done. It’s not a pretty sight for visitors. Most people prefer walls.

A word about toilet paper: Like ammunition, you can never have too much. I do not recommend you give everyone their own roll of paper, only replace the one in the outhouse when it runs out. Too many people with toilet paper means some gets lost or “borrowed” and I have seen fights break out over this stupid subject. (Remember, I work in a jail in Florida.) One hole, one roll.

If your family is like mine, you need some sort of inside latch so accidental “embarrassing moments” are kept to a minimum. Screaming teenage girls hurt my ears. Make sure the latch can be used by the youngest person in the group who will be using the place without assistance. I’ve seen youngsters accidentally get locked into bathrooms when they don’t know how to unlock the door. It would be even more traumatic in a cold and drafty outhouse in the woods at night. Heck, that would scare me…I have a son named Jason, did you know that? He was born on Friday the 13th, no kidding. I think he owns an axe.

Lighting in an outhouse at night is on a “bring your own” basis. Don’t leave valuable lights laying around in the outhouse. First of all, they may fall into the hole never to be seen again. I’m sure not going after it. Second, someone will leave it on and it will be useless anyway. If I did mount one, the only light I would even consider is one of those “tap lights” advertised on TV. It seems to be about the easiest and cheapest to install. If you lose one of them, you haven’t lost much. Everyone in your shelter should have their own personal flashlight at night anyway.

There are many humorous stories associated with the outhouse. Many people name their outhouses: “Moldy Manor”, “Moon Room”, etc. Name it after someone you hate: “Hitler House” would have been appropriate years ago. How about “Saddam’s Palace”? “Thunder Dome”?

On a practical note, if you bag up all the dirt removed from the hole, you can berm-up the north side of the outhouse to keep the cold winter winds out. Then, when you are ready to cover the hole up, the dirt is right there ready for you. Just a thought. I don’t like doing work twice.

C.  The 4 Most Likely Ways You Can Die If the SHTF
June 2011, Ready Nutrition.com, by Tess Pennington
Pasted from: http://readynutrition.com/resources/the-4-most-likely-ways-you-can-die-if-the-shtf_29062011/

The subject of survival in a long term disaster goes beyond having stockpiles of beans, bullets and band-aids. Those that do survive during a long term emergency will no doubt be tried and tested with a great many things. One of those trying scenarios is dealing with death.

Zombie attacks seem to be a prevalent theme for preppers to prepare for. In fact, the CDC has even posted a preparedness article on how to ward off zombie attacks. See the zombie article at:
http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/05/preparedness-101-zombie-apocalypse/

While I believe these zombies will likely take the form of substance abusers, mental patients, chronically ill or diseased, and desperate individuals whose basic needs have not been met, they will die out in the first few months of an onset of a  major disaster, and there presence will rarely be an issue in a long term situation.

In reality, a majority of those that will die during a long-term disaster will be from illnesses brought on by acute respiratory infections due to cramped living conditions, poor water conditions (or lack of), or bacterial infections from wounds. If we survive a major disaster, America would become a third world country and the aftermath of such a scenario will be similar to those living in Africa, Ethiopia and India.

Illness Due to Poor Water Conditionssanitation germs
Typically, any diseases that are brought on by lack of sanitation and hygiene are controllable and preventable. In a disaster where water sources are compromised, people within a 50 mile radius could be adversely impacted by illness and disease if just one person incorrectly handles water or incorrectly disposes of waste.  Contaminated water, poor sanitation and/or lack of hygiene leads to diseases such as Hepatitis A, viral gastroenteritis, cholera, Shigellosis, typhoid, Diphtheria and polio. If these diseases affect enough people, an epidemic will ensue.

Dehydration and diarrhea are also water-related matters to contend with. Those without adequate water conditions and/or are suffering from disease brought on by poor water conditions could quickly dehydrate. These types of illnesses typically affect at-risk populations such as children, the sick and the elderly. Young children in particular are at high risk for diarrhea and other food- and waterborne illnesses because of limited pre-existing immunity and behavioral factors such as frequent hand-to-mouth contact. The greatest risk to an infant with diarrhea and vomiting is dehydration. In addition, fever or increased ambient temperature increases fluid losses and speeds dehydration. Having knowledge beforehand on how to properly clean drinking water and food, and the symptomatology and treatment of these types of diseases can prevent further outbreaks from occurring.

** Recommended preparedness items: water filtration systems, water purification tablets, chlorine granules, bleach, electrolyte or rehydration powders, anti-diarrhea medicines.

Malnutrition
Malnutrition from either improper water conditions or from lack of nutrients is also a large killer amongst those in impoverished communities.  Medical experts say there is a symbiotic relationship between malnutrition and diarrhea.  Malnutrition increases the severity of diarrhea while diarrhea can cause malnutrition. Either way, prevention for both of these health issues is key.

Those that are malnourished are more susceptible to illness and disease. Individuals who are malnourished will also be vitamin deficient and their health is likely to regress further. Those who survive from malnutrition are permanently affected by this disease and may suffer from recurring sickness, faltering growth, poor brain development, increased tooth decay, reduced strength and work capacity, and increased chance of chronic diseases in adulthood. Adult women with this condition will give birth to underweight babies.

** Recommended preparedness items: dietary supplements, vitamin powders, seeds for sprouting or  seeds for fresh vegetables and fruits, survival bars, knowledge of alternative means to attain vitamins

Acute Respiratory Infections
Upper respiratory infections (URI) will also be a leading cause of death in a long term disaster. Upper respiratory infections include: colds, flu, sore throat, coughs and bronchitis can usually be cured with additional liquids, rest and nourishment. Allowing the illness to exacerbate will lead to secondary infections such as bacterial pneumonia. The germs from pneumonia are easily spread from an infected person to others by coughing or sneezing or through close contact. A major concern about respiratory infections is that there are many drug resistant strands of viruses, bacteria and diseases (including tuberculosis), that regular medicine will not cure.  In a long term disaster situation, many could perish.

To properly prepare for this type of medical situation, learn about the more prevalent viruses and bacteria in your country and how to prevent them in order to provide a healthy living environment in a long term situation.

Not only are URI’s a concern but other air-borne diseases such as tuberculosis will likely fester during a long term scenario. In regular non-SHTF times, treatment for tuberculosis requires 6-12 months of medication.  In a long term emergency, chances of surviving tuberculosis are slim. The best way to prevent tuberculosis is adequate nutrition, vitamin D and living in a properly ventilated shelter.

Survival groups that have multiple people living under one roof will only increase the likelihood of passing air-borne infections and diseases to one another. In addition, those in an at-risk group (elderly, immuno-deficient, infants) are more likely to catch illnesses.  If a survival group is sharing a home, an infirmary or sick room should be prepared for those who have fallen ill.  Isolating the person who is ill will limit exposure to the other members of the group. Adequate nutrition, water, rest, good sanitary practices and ventilation of the home is essential in curbing this.

** Recommended preparedness items: decongestants, expectorants, upper respiratory medicines, antibiotics (for secondary and bacterial infections), knowledge on medicinal herbs, prepare a sick room at your survival homestead

Infections From Wounds
Open injuries have the potential for serious bacterial wound infections, including gas gangrene and tetanus, and these in turn may lead to long term disabilities, chronic wound or bone infection, and death.  Antibiotics will be few and far between and will be more precious than gold.  Without proper medicines, antiseptic and knowledge on proper medical procedures, many will die of bacterial infections.  Learning medical skills, gaining knowledge on natural medicines and alternative medical antiseptic (i.e., Dakin’s Solution) before a disaster occurs could help people survive from wound infections. Also, ensuring the area that you treat medical emergencies is clean and as sterile as possible may also prevent bacterial infections.

** Recommended preparedness items:  stock up on maxi pads for wound absorption, gauze, celox, antibiotics, suture needles and other basic first aid supplies.
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Additionally, consider developing the following skills: basic first aid class, sign up for EMT classes in your community, an off-grid medical care class such as those offered by onPoint Tactical. Also, consider investing in books such as When There is No Doctor and When There is No Dentist.

Also look into making your own antiseptics utilizing alcohol distillation, such as the custom made units from LNL Protekt.

These illnesses (provided above) have impacted countries all over the world. These illness and conditions, coupled with unsanitary living conditions such as substandard sanitation, inadequate food and water supplies and poor hygiene, make disaster-affected people especially vulnerable to disease. These illnesses will affect us no matter what part of the world we live in, what socio-economic status we currently hold, and no matter how prepared we think we are.

Understanding what can happen and being prepared when it does is absolutely essential. The last thing we want to do when a serious condition arises is to panic. Preparing your supplies, developing your skills and educating the rest of your family and preparedness group on how to prevent, identify and counteract these serious conditions will provide a significant boost to your ability to survive if the worst happens.

[For the maintenance of your health and well being during and in the aftermath of a prolonged period of emergency, consider the topics in each of the following images: sanitation, general medical, OTC drugs, vitamins and key supplements, the ability to attend to temporary fillings, an emergency suture, and eye glass repair. Mr. Larry]

sanitation tools

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Update: Volcanic activity and discoveries

(News & Editorial/Update: Volcanic activity and discoveries)

volcanic eruption

A.  Volcanoes
Wunderground, Excerpt pasted from: http://www.wunderground.com/climate/volcanoes.asp

“The sun was dark and its darkness lasted for eighteen months; each day it shone for about four hours; and still this light was only a feeble shadow; the fruits did not ripen and the wine tasted like sour grapes.” As this ‘Michael the Syrian’ quote regarding the weather of 536 A.D. demonstrates, a climate catastrophe that blots out the sun can really spoil your day.

‘Procopius of Caesarea’ remarked: “During this year [536 A.D.] a most dread portent took place. For the sun gave forth its light without brightness. and it seemed exceedingly like the sun in eclipse, for the beams it shed were not clear.”

Many documents from 535 – 536 A.D.–the time of King Arthur in Britain–speak of the terrible “dry fog” or cloud of dust that obscured the sun, causing widespread crop failures in Europe, and summer frosts, drought, and famine in China. Tree ring studies in Europe confirm several years of very poor growth around that time, and ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show highly elevated levels of atmospheric sulfuric acid dust existed.

Though some scientists believe the climate calamity of 535-536 A.D. was due to a comet or asteroid hitting the Earth, it is widely thought that the event was probably caused by the most massive volcanic eruption of the past 1500 years. This eruption threw so much sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas into the stratosphere that a “Volcanic Winter” resulted. Sulfur dioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid droplets (aerosol particles), which are highly reflective and reduce the amount of incoming sunlight. The potential eruption that led to the 535 – 536 A.D. climate calamity would have likely been a magnitude 7 event on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)–a “super colossal” eruption that one can expect to occur only once every 1000 years. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a logarithmic scale like the Richter scale used to rate earthquakes, so a magnitude 7 eruption would eject ten times more material than the two largest eruptions of the past century–the magnitude 6 eruptions of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991) and Novarupta in Alaska (1912).
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B.  Alaska Volcano Observatory is Having Busiest Volcano Year to Date
17 June 2014, KDLG.org, (Public radio for Alaska’s bristol Bay), By Luke Brummer
Pasted from: http://kdlg.org/post/alaska-volcano-observatory-having-busiest-volcano-year-date

Scientists at the Alaska Volcano Observatory are paying extra close attention lately due to high seismic activity at five volcanoes running all along the Aleutian Chain. Many of the volcanoes have recently sprung back to life, and others have just continued their normal eruptions. John Power is the Scientist-in-charge at AVO. He says a few recent explosions and heightened unrest have led to the busiest time since the inception of the state’s observatory.

It is the busiest time that we have had in terms of Alaska Volcanoes. As long has AVO has been around in 27 years. We do have five that are at alert levels or color codes.

Vol Aleutian chain

A screen capture of active Alaska Volcanoes as of June 17, 2014.

Power says the most active volcano recently has been Pavlof, which has erupted continuously since the May 31st. He says it has had some explosive activity and lava flows along the Northwest side. It currently has a “watch” Alert Level and an “orange” Aviation Color Code. The Shishaldin Vocano is the other volcano with a “watch” Alert Level, and “orange” Aviation Color Code. Power says the volcano has experienced continuing low level eruptive activity, and its conditions form its recognizable outward appearance.

Shishaldin is one of the ones that you would say looks like a volcano. There’s a big summit crater, and we’re having magma, low level magma, extrusions have been observed down inside the summit crater. It’s been a very effusive eruption, we would call it. It hasn’t put out big ash cloud or had explosions. It’s just been lava oozing out in the inside of this crater if you will.

Power says the Cleveland Volcano has clearly been the most active volcano over the last ten years. On June 5th, AVO picked up two explosions from seismic monitoring stations and infrasonic data. Power says the observatory primarily monitors the volcano via satellite data because of its remote location, but from what they can tell conditions have stayed the same. The Semisopochnoi Volcano is the most remote of the 5 active volcanos. It’s more than 1,000 miles west of the Pavlof Volcano near the island of Amchitka. Powers says the volcano has not had any eruptions or warm ground, but AVO raised its Aviation Color Code to “yellow” due to a sequence of elevated earthquake activity. The Veniaminof Volcano is also showing volcanic activity. It’s located in the Alaska Peninsula National Wildlife Refuge. Power says it had a sizeable eruption last summer and seismic activity has continued throughout the year causing AVO to continue monitoring conditions at the volcano.

Every time we look at it and we think it’s time to cancel these advisories it does a little bit more, and we’re continuing to watch it just as closely as we can.
You can follow the activity at all of Alaska’s active volcanos on the website of the Alaska Volcano Observatory.
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C. Risk of supervolcano eruption big enough to ‘affect the world’ far greater than thought, scientists say
27 June 2014, The Independent, by __
Pasted from: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/risk-of-supervolcano-eruption-big-enough-to-affect-the-world-far-greater-than-thought-say-scientists-9040073.html

The eruption of a “supervolcano” hundreds of times more powerful than conventional volcanoes – with the potential to wipe out civilisation as we know it – is more likely than previously thought, a study has found.

An analysis of the molten rock within the dormant supervolcano beneath Yellowstone National Park in the United States has revealed that an eruption is possible without any external trigger, scientists said.

Scientists previously believed many supervolcanic eruptions needed earthquakes to break open the Earth’s crust so magma could escape. But new research suggests that this can happen as a result of the build-up of pressure.

Supervolcanoes represent the second most globally cataclysmic event – next to an asteroid strike – and they have been responsible in the past for mass extinctions, long-term changes to the climate and shorter-term “volcanic winters” caused  by volcanic ash cutting out the sunlight.

The last known supervolcanic eruption was believed to have occurred about 70,000 years ago at the site today of Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia. It caused a volcanic winter that blocked out the sun for between six to eight years, and resulted in a period of global cooling lasting a thousand years.

A supervolcano under Yellowstone Park in Wyoming last erupted about 600,000 years ago, sending more than 1,000 cubic kilometres of ash and lava into the atmosphere – about 100 times more than the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1982, which caused a noticeable period of global cooling.

Following Pinatubo’s eruption, the global average temperature fell by about 0.4C for several months. Scientists predict that a supervolcanic eruption would cause average global temperatures to fall by about 10C for a decade – changing life on earth.

Scientists have analysed magma from the Yellowstone caldera, a 55-mile-wide underground cavern containing between 200 and 600 cubic kilometres of molten rock, to see how it responds to changes in pressure and temperature.

Using a powerful X-ray source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, the researchers found that the density of the magma decreased significantly at the high temperatures and pressures experienced underground.

Density variations between magma and the rock surrounding it means that the lava within the supervolcano’s caldera can produce big enough forces to break through the earth’s crust, allowing the molten rock and ash to erupt from the surface, the scientists said.

“The difference in density between the molten magma in the caldera and the surrounding rock is big enough to drive the magma from the chamber to the surface,” said Jean-Philippe Perrillat of the National Centre for Scientific Research in Grenoble.

“The effect is like the extra buoyancy of a football when it is filled with air underwater, which forces it to the surface because of the denser water around it,” Dr Perrillat said.

“If the volume of magma is big enough, it should come to the surface and explode like a champagne bottle being uncorked.”

The study, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, was possible because the X-ray machine at Grenoble was able to take accurate density measurements at temperatures of up to 1,700C and pressures 36,000 times greater than normal atmospheric pressure.

“The results reveal that if the magma chamber is big enough, the overpressure caused by differences in density alone are sufficient to penetrate the crust above and initiate an eruption,” said Professor Carmen Sanchez-Valle of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, who led the study.

Preventing a supervolcanic eruption is not possible, but scientists are currently trying to devise methods of monitoring the pressure of underground magma in order to predict whether one is imminent.

Dr Perrillat said there are no known supervolcanoes that are in danger of erupting in the foreseeable future, and it would take at least a decade or so for the magma pressure within a caldera to build up to a point where an eruption is likely.
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D.  Newly-discovered active volcano could erupt underneath ice in Antarctica and add to effects of global warming
12 May 2014, The Extinct Protocol, by  Lucy Crossley of DailMail-MailOnline, UK
Pasted from: http://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2014/05/12/newly-discovered-active-volcano-could-erupt-underneath-ice-in-antarctica-and-add-to-effects-of-global-warming/

Vol antarctica

May 2014ANTARCTICA – Antarctic ice sheet is being threatened by an undersea volcano. Antarctica’s ice sheets may face a far more imminent threat than climate change: scientists have found a new volcano forming a mile under the ice, which is threatening a full eruption. The volcano appears to be a part of much larger system that is generating earthquakes and releasing heat into the ice above. Volcanic activity was discovered around 30 miles from Antarctica’s highest volcano, Mount Sidley, and although an eruption would be unlikely to breach the ice – the accompanying heat could have an effect on the landscape. Even a sub-glacial eruption would still be able to melt ice, creating huge amounts of water which could flow beneath the ice and towards the sea – hastening the flow of the overlying ice and potentially speed up the rate of ice sheet loss. “Numerous volcanoes exist in Marie Byrd Land, a highland region of West Antarctica,” said Amanda Lough, of Washington University in St Louis in the team’s paper on the subject, published in the Nature Geoscience journal.

“High heat flow through the crust in this region may influence the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.” The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the Earth’s two polar ice caps and covers an area of 5.4 million square miles – around 98 percent of the continent, making it the largest single mass of ice on earth. Although scientists have suggested that sea ice around the continent is increasing, land ice appears to be decreasing and the area is very sensitive to global warming.  Seismologists had set up two crossing lines of seismographs across Marie Byrd Land in 2010 – the first time such instruments able to withstand the cold temperatures year-round had been used. –Daily Mail

vol ring of fire

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